This booklet describes the middle colonies, how geography influenced people to change their livelihood, about New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania
1. The Middle Colonies Chapter 3, Lesson 3 EQ: How does geography influence the way
2. Middle 1 Colonies 3 2 in n 4 1. New York t a ia un l ac h s M o pa 2. New Jersey Ap 3. Pennsylvania 4. Delaware
3. The ” Colonies The Middle Colonies were located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies.
5. NEW YORK (1664) • The English created New York and New Jersey from a former Dutch territory • The area was first controlled by the Dutch and called New Netherland. • The most important settlement was New Amsterdam, a seaport at the mouth of the Hudson River. • The Dutch West India Company settled New Netherland by granting land to people who could bring at least 50 settlers to work the land. • Patroons: were the land owners who received these land grants. – Had their own courts and laws. – Settlers owed the patroons labor & share of their crops.
6. New Amsterdam in 1664
7. New Netherlands Becomes NEW YORK • The English wanted New Netherland because they claimed they had explored the land first, they sent a fleet to capture it. • Peter Stuyvesant (Dutch governor) was forced to surrender to the English.
8. The Duke of York • King Charles II (king of England) gave New Netherland to his brother the Duke of York. • New Netherland renamed New York. • N.Y. was a proprietary colony, a colony in which an owner, or proprietor, owned all the land and controlled the government. • The colony thrived under English control.
9. NEW JERSEY (1702) • The Duke of York (owner of New York) divided his colony. • He gave this land to Lord John Berkeley & Sir Carteret, they named the colony New Jersey. • To attract settlers, proprietors offered: – Large tracts of land, religious freedom, trial by jury, and a representative assembly.
10. (1681) • Society of Friends, or Quakers, was one of largest Protestant groups in England. • Quakers were pacifists— people who refused to fight in wars.
11. William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania • William Penn founded Pennsylvania, a larger colony for Quakers that provided a safe home. • Pennsylvania was founded to escape religious persecution in England. • Pennsylvania had religious freedom and toleration. • Philadelphia (“brotherly love”) is the main town.
12. “Holy Experiment” • Quakers believed everyone was equal. • William Penn promised fair treatment of Native Americans. • Believed that Native Americans owned the land and settlers should pay for it. • He negotiates several treaties with Native Americans. • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish).
13. Delaware (1682) • Delaware was formed from the southern part of Pennsylvania. • People from Sweden and the Netherlands settled there and then the English took over. • William Penn let these colonists have their own government. • Eventually this settlement became Delaware. • Like Pennsylvania, Delaware had religious toleration.