Civil Rights Movement: Movement of War to South

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This booklet depicts the history of the Civil rights movement, segregation and its impacts, the concept of Brown and board, NAACP challenges segregation.
1. Civil Rights
1950’s – 1970’s
Mr. Wade
2. What was life like before the
Civil Rights movement?
► Use the pictures in the following slides
to make some statements describing
life in the U.S. before the Civil Rights
18. Segregation divides America
• Jim Crow laws-
enforced strict
separation of the
races in the South
– Schools, hospitals,
transportation, &
• De jure
imposed by law
• 1896 Plessy vs.
but equal”
19. Segregation in the North
► De facto segregation: segregated by
unwritten custom or tradition, face of
► Blacks were denied housing in many
neighborhoods and faced
discrimination in employment (NORTH)
20. The Impact of Segregation
► African Americans received low-paying
► Higher rates of poverty and illiteracy
► Lower rates of homeownership and life
► Couldn’t vote in the south
21. Plessy v Ferguson
Is Separate Equal ?
► Facts:
 1896 Homer Plessy took a seat in the “Whites
Only” car of a train and refused to move. He
was arrested, tried, and convicted in the
District Court of New Orleans for breaking
Louisiana’s segregation law.
► Question:
 Was the Louisiana law separating blacks and
whites on railroad cars legal?
► Decision:
 Split decision that “separate but equal” law did
not violate the 14th amendment
22. Brown vs. Board 1954
• NAACP challenged the
“separate but equal” ruling
• The Supreme Court agreed
with NAACP argument that
segregated public
education violated the U.S.
• Effects:
– Great impact since it touched
so many Americans
– Opposition to the ruling
declared that the South
would not be integrated
(White Citizens Council)
23. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka KS
Is Separate Equal ?
► Facts:
 In 1954 Linda Brown’s parents wanted her to
attend the school close to her home. Kansas
law stated she had to attend a segregated
school. NAACP and attorney Thurgood
Marshall tested the law.
► Question:
 Can Linda Brown attend an “all white” school?
► Decision:
 “separate educational facilities inherently
 desegregation required across the nation
24. The Civil Rights Movement
• Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE): became convinced
to use non-violent methods
to gain civil rights
– Organized Protests in
northern cities
• Jackie Robinson
• President Truman used his
executive power to order
the desegregation of the
25. NAACP Challenges
► NAACP became the largest and most
powerful civil rights organization
► Thurgood Marshal-headed the team
that challenged the legality of
26. Post-WWII
• African Americans grew
dissatisfied with their
second-class status after
– Risked their lives
defending freedom
• Civil Rights Movement-a
broad and diverse effort
to attain racial equality
27. Notable leaders
► Thurgood Marshall, lawyer, cases
involving school segregation
(Brown v Board)
 1st African American SC Justice
► Rosa Parks—refuses to give up her
seat on the bus to a white man and
as a result the Montgomery Bus
Boycott occurs.
► Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.—he gains
national prominence as a leader
during the Montgomery Bus
Boycott. Arrested in Birmingham
 Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
28. How did they do it?
► Civil
rights leaders used non-violent
protests, civil disobedience, and
legal action to change the U.S.
29. Civil Disobedience = non-
violent protest
► Boycotts
 Refusing to buy goods or services from a business in order to
force it to change its policies
► Hunger strikes
 Refusing to eat anything in order to get attention for your
► Petitions
 Writing a letter to ask the government or a company to change
its policy, and then getting as many people to sign it as
► Marches and demonstrations
 Getting as many people as possible to gather in one place to get
attention to your cause
► Strikes
 Refusing to work in order to force your managers or government
to change their policies
30. Civil disobedience
► Breaking the law or causing a
disturbance in order to get attention
for your cause.
► Sit ins
►The protesters come into a place, sit down,
and refuse to move.
31. Legal action
► Lawyers can challenge a law or policy
in court. If they convince the judge
that the law or policy is
unconstitutional, then the judge will
order them to change.
► People can speak at government
hearings or meetings and try to
convince legislators to make new laws
or repeal unfair ones.
32. Rosa Parks
► In Alabama, the bus company had a rule that
said all African-Americans had to sit in the back
of the bus.
► In 1955, Rosa Parks, an African-American
women, was coming home from work and was
very tired. The seats in the back were full, but
the front seats were empty. She sat down in the
front. When the bus driver ordered her to move,
she refused. He called the police and they
arrested her.
33. Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Rosa Parks actions
transformed the movement
• NAACP began preparing a
legal challenge
• Rise of MLK: urged non-
• Boycott lasted a year
• In 1956 the Supreme Court
ruled the Montgomery bus
segregation law was
34. Effects of the Boycott and the
Supreme Court Victory
► Revealed the power African Americans
could have if they joined together
► King established the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference
 Advocated nonviolent resistance to fight
35. College students in
► These lunch counter
protests spread
throughout the U.S.
Many white
students came
along to support the
36. Greensboro, North Carolina
Lunch Counter Sit Ins
37. Sit-ins
► Four black students at North Carolina
sat down in a white diner and were
told that they would not be served
► Sit ins became a new way to protest
segregation of public facilities
39. Little Rock Nine
• President Eisenhower
sent federal troops to
Little Rock to protect
the African American
students and to
enforce Brown vs.
• For the entire school
year, federal troops
stayed in Little Rock
escorting the students
to and from school
40. Effects of Little Rock Nine
► Itdemonstrated that the President
would not tolerate open defiance of
the law
► However, most southern states found
ways to resist desegregation and it
would take years before black and
white children went to school together
41. 1962 “Ole Miss”
James Meredith-1 black
42. University of Mississippi
► September 1962
► Who: James
Meredith and JFK
► Plan of Action:
integrate UM
► Obstacles: Governor
Ross Barnett, riots,
and death
► Results: JFK ordered
federal marshals to
escort Meredith. James
43. Southern Manifesto
► Southern Manifesto was signed by ALL
but three southern leaders
 Al Gore, Sr., Tennessee
 Lyndon Johnson, Texas
 Estes Kefauver, Tennessee
► Calledfor resistance –appealed to
emotions of prejudices and paranoia that
a united support of peaceful compliance
might have diluted in the South
44. Focus on Birmingham
• Letter from
Birmingham jail by
• Freedom marches:
schoolchildren joined
the demonstrations
• Many Americans were
shocked by the news
coverage of nonviolent
protestors set upon by
dogs and jets of water
• Kennedy approves civil
rights bill
45. March to Selma
46. March on Washington
August 28, 1963
47. March on Washington
• To put pressure on
Congress to pass the
new civil rights bill
• Drew more than
• MLK-”I have a dream”
• One of the largest
political demonstrations
• A model for peaceful
48. The Push for Voting Rights
► Literacy tests
► Poll taxes
► Intimidation
► All kept blacks from voting
49. Excerpt…”I Have a Dream”
50. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
► Because of the Civil Rights movement,
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of
1964. This law ended all racial
discrimination in public facilities such
as restrooms, restaurants, buses,
movie theaters, and swimming pools.
51. Civil Rights Act of 1964
• The act banned segregation in public
• Gave the federal government the ability
to desegregate schools
• Prosecute individuals who violated
people’s civil rights
• Outlawed discrimination in employment
• Established the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
52. LBJ-”We Shall Overcome”
53. Indian
Civil Rights
54. Conditions
► 1800s: U.S. gov’t broke treaties
Black Hills Miners in Black Hills
55. Conditions
► 1880s:Reservations in place
► Dawes Act: more land lost
56. Conditions
► 1890-1950s: Indian Boarding Schools taught

ache Indians upon arrival; Same group 4 months lat
57. Conditions
► 1960s: High poverty,
unemployment, suicide and drop-
out rates
58. 1961: National Congress
of American Indians
► wanted control of federal
programs and treaty rights
59. National Congress
of American Indians (NCAI)
1970 NBC News Broadcasts
ROTATION 1: Begin a poster in
of the occupation of Mt. Rushmore.
ROTATION 2: Finish the poster and
make it better.
ROTATION 3: Give the final poster a
grade and write the reason why.
60. 1968: American Indian
Movement (AIM)
► Drew attention to Native American
eplica Plymouth Rock which was
ainted red during Thanksgiving protest in 1970 March on Columbus Day
61. 1969: Alcatraz Island
► Inspiredspread of ‘Red Power’ for
Native Americans
Offered $24 in beads 19 month siege
and cloth Supported by media
62. 1972: “Trail of Broken
Treaties” March
► Results in occupation of BIA in D.C.
Occupiers on the steps of the BIA in D.C.
Floyd Young, one of occupiers
63. Achievements
► 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act resulted in
► Gained control of own education
► 1970s: Successfully sued for land treaty
Scenes of Black Hills - “Sioux” given $106 million in reparations for land
64. Achievements
► 1980s-on: gambling, hunting and
fishing rights for some tribes
“Fish-in” with American Indians and actor Marlon Brando
65. Malcolm X
► Influenced by race riots
► Difficult childhood
► While in jail, converted to the Nation
of Islam
 Strict rules of behavior, no drugs or
alcohol, and demanded a separation of
the races
66. Malcolm X
► Hebecame the Nation of Islam’s most
prominent minister
 However, he broke away and formed his
 Three members were later convicted of
assassinating Malcolm
► After
his pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm
was more willing to consider limited
acceptance of whites
67. “Black Power”
► Move away from nonviolence
► Stokley Carmichael’s definition: it
meant African Americans should
collectively use their economic and
political muscle to gain equality
 Institutional Racism
68. Black Panthers
► Symbol of young militant African
► Protected urban neighborhoods from
police abuse
► Created antipoverty programs
► Stokely was “honorary Prime
69. Voting Rights Act 1965
► Prohibited discrimination at voting polls
► Established
bilingual ballots in areas with large
amount of non-English speaking minorities
► Outlawed literacy tests for voters
► Gave Federal Government power to oversee all
70. Civil Rights act of 1968
► Written as a follow-up to the CRA of 1964
► Createdto enforce equal housing
opportunities for all races
► Basically
you cannot refuse to rent or sell
a house to anyone, anywhere, based
upon their race
72. “Momentum”
► May1961, Freedom ► Aug
1963, March on
Riders Washington
► Sep1962, integrating
the University of ► Summerof ’64
Mississippi Freedom Summer
► Apr 1963, Birmingham
► June1963, integrating
the University of
73. Freedom Riders
► Apr-Dec 1961
► Who: CORE and SNCC
(congress of racial equality and
student nonviolent coordinating
► Plan of Action: to test the SC
decision banning segregation on
interstate bus routes
► Obstacles: violence
► Results: Desegregated busses
due to loss of profit
74. University of Alabama
► June 1963
► Who: Gov. George
► Plan of Action: integrate
the University of
► Obstacles: Governor
George Wallace
► Results: JFK used
federal troops to enforce
the desegregation
75. MLK’s final days
► Understood the anger and frustration
of many urban African Americans
► Disagreed with the call for “black
► King’s assassination triggered riots in
more than 100 cities
► 2 months later Robert Kennedy was
76. Freedom Summer
► Summer of ’64
► Who: SNCC and
► Where: Mississippi
► Plan of Action: register
► Obstacles: Obstacles:
Local officers killed
► Results: Congress did not
pass a Voters Rights act.
77. The Selma Campaign
► Early 1965
► Who: SCLC and SNCC
► Plan of Action: Voter
registration drive and
march to Montgomery
► Obstacles: violent,
local law officers
► Reaction: LBJ
responded by asking
Congress for the swift
passage of a new
voting rights act. It
passed in 1965.
78. Cesar Chavez: Life and
A. Early Years as
Migrant Worker
► b. 1927; farm sold
1938 migrant
► 30+ schools,
stopped at age 14,
8th grade
79. I. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring,
and the Environmental
WWII Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
► DDT: dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane
► Dieldrin
► Heptachlor
80. ► Pounds of chemicals sold in US
► 1947: 124,259,000
► 1960: 637,666,000
► 2000: 1.1 Billion (1991: export 390
83. II. Delano, CA
84. ► Sharpdivision landowners (white) and
workers (Filipino, Chinese, Mexican,
85. III. Highly Mobile and Politically
Vulnerable: Migrant Workers,
Braceros, and Illegal
► Difficulties:
1) Hard to organize: mobile +
vulnerable, landowners powerful
2) Bracero Program: exploitative,
encouraged illegals
3) Wagner Act exemption: S + W
Dems, blacks and Mexicans
86. B. San Joaquin Valley: A Little
Bit of Dixie in California
► “No Dogs or
Mexicans Allowed”
► 1943: CC kicked
from theater
begins to protest
► Joins National Farm
Labor Union
87. C. Community Services
► CSO provided social services:
► Voter registration drives
► Immigration papers
► Police brutality
► Organize unions
88. ► CC works for 10
years in CSO in CA
and AZ
► Growing
uncomfortable: too
moderate with
influx urban liberals
► 1962: plan for
massive union
effort rejected
89. D. CC Leaves CSO NFWA
► $1200 founds National Farm Workers
► Credit unions
► Represent workers
► 1964-65: small wage gains
► Not yet ready for full assault
90. V. 1965: The Delano Strike and
Grape Boycott
► Spring ’65: Filipino union outside LA
negotiate increase to $1.40/hr
► Delano paid only $1.20 Filipinos
demand same pay strike
► Would NFWA go on strike?
 Only $100 in strike fund
 If don’t join will shatter credibility
91. ► Unanimous vote
► Owners attempt to
break strike: police
► Seem outmatched,
but CC and CRM
92. ► Walter Reuther
(UAW) brings
$10,000 and
promises $5,000 per
► 1965 US Senate
► 1966: Mexican and
Filipino unions merge
to form UFW (United
Farm Workers)
93. ► CC bold strategy:
appeal to American
people: grape
► Follow grapes to
stores and
centers picket
 Local unions join and
refuse to handle “hot
94. ► April
6, 1966: large Delano grape
grower caves
► Summer ’69: holdouts cave from
95. ► CC made more demands as strike
► Regulation of pesticides
► Sept ’69: testifies to Senate that 80%
US farm workers suffer health
96. VI. Today – Chavez’ Lasting
► UFW weaker
► Conditions nearly
identical to pre-union
► Cancer zones,
► Slavery in Florida
 Coyotes/polleros and