This booklet depicts the history of the Civil rights movement, segregation and its impacts, the concept of Brown and board, NAACP challenges segregation.
1. Civil Rights 1950’s – 1970’s Mr. Wade
2. What was life like before the Civil Rights movement? ► Use the pictures in the following slides to make some statements describing life in the U.S. before the Civil Rights movement.
18. Segregation divides America • Jim Crow laws- enforced strict separation of the races in the South – Schools, hospitals, transportation, & restaurants • De jure segregation- imposed by law • 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson-”Separate but equal”
19. Segregation in the North ► De facto segregation: segregated by unwritten custom or tradition, face of life ► Blacks were denied housing in many neighborhoods and faced discrimination in employment (NORTH)
20. The Impact of Segregation ► African Americans received low-paying jobs ► Higher rates of poverty and illiteracy ► Lower rates of homeownership and life expectancy ► Couldn’t vote in the south
21. Plessy v Ferguson Is Separate Equal ? ► Facts: 1896 Homer Plessy took a seat in the “Whites Only” car of a train and refused to move. He was arrested, tried, and convicted in the District Court of New Orleans for breaking Louisiana’s segregation law. ► Question: Was the Louisiana law separating blacks and whites on railroad cars legal? ► Decision: Split decision that “separate but equal” law did not violate the 14th amendment
22. Brown vs. Board 1954 • NAACP challenged the “separate but equal” ruling • The Supreme Court agreed with NAACP argument that segregated public education violated the U.S. Constitution • Effects: – Great impact since it touched so many Americans – Opposition to the ruling declared that the South would not be integrated (White Citizens Council)
23. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka KS Is Separate Equal ? ► Facts: In 1954 Linda Brown’s parents wanted her to attend the school close to her home. Kansas law stated she had to attend a segregated school. NAACP and attorney Thurgood Marshall tested the law. ► Question: Can Linda Brown attend an “all white” school? ► Decision: “separate educational facilities inherently unequal” desegregation required across the nation
24. The Civil Rights Movement Grows • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): became convinced to use non-violent methods to gain civil rights – Organized Protests in northern cities • Jackie Robinson • President Truman used his executive power to order the desegregation of the military
25. NAACP Challenges Segregation ► NAACP became the largest and most powerful civil rights organization ► Thurgood Marshal-headed the team that challenged the legality of segregation
26. Post-WWII • African Americans grew dissatisfied with their second-class status after WWII – Risked their lives defending freedom abroad • Civil Rights Movement-a broad and diverse effort to attain racial equality
27. Notable leaders ► Thurgood Marshall, lawyer, cases involving school segregation (Brown v Board) 1st African American SC Justice ► Rosa Parks—refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white man and as a result the Montgomery Bus Boycott occurs. ► Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.—he gains national prominence as a leader during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Arrested in Birmingham Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
28. How did they do it? ► Civil rights leaders used non-violent protests, civil disobedience, and legal action to change the U.S.
29. Civil Disobedience = non- violent protest ► Boycotts Refusing to buy goods or services from a business in order to force it to change its policies ► Hunger strikes Refusing to eat anything in order to get attention for your cause ► Petitions Writing a letter to ask the government or a company to change its policy, and then getting as many people to sign it as possible. ► Marches and demonstrations Getting as many people as possible to gather in one place to get attention to your cause ► Strikes Refusing to work in order to force your managers or government to change their policies
30. Civil disobedience ► Breaking the law or causing a disturbance in order to get attention for your cause. ► Sit ins ►The protesters come into a place, sit down, and refuse to move.
31. Legal action ► Lawyers can challenge a law or policy in court. If they convince the judge that the law or policy is unconstitutional, then the judge will order them to change. ► People can speak at government hearings or meetings and try to convince legislators to make new laws or repeal unfair ones.
32. Rosa Parks ► In Alabama, the bus company had a rule that said all African-Americans had to sit in the back of the bus. ► In 1955, Rosa Parks, an African-American women, was coming home from work and was very tired. The seats in the back were full, but the front seats were empty. She sat down in the front. When the bus driver ordered her to move, she refused. He called the police and they arrested her.
33. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Rosa Parks actions transformed the movement • NAACP began preparing a legal challenge • Rise of MLK: urged non- violence • Boycott lasted a year • In 1956 the Supreme Court ruled the Montgomery bus segregation law was unconstitutional
34. Effects of the Boycott and the Supreme Court Victory ► Revealed the power African Americans could have if they joined together ► King established the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Advocated nonviolent resistance to fight injustice
35. College students in Greensboro ► These lunch counter protests spread throughout the U.S. Many white students came along to support the African-Americans.
36. Greensboro, North Carolina Lunch Counter Sit Ins
37. Sit-ins ► Four black students at North Carolina sat down in a white diner and were told that they would not be served (First) ► Sit ins became a new way to protest segregation of public facilities
39. Little Rock Nine • President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock to protect the African American students and to enforce Brown vs. Board • For the entire school year, federal troops stayed in Little Rock escorting the students to and from school
40. Effects of Little Rock Nine ► Itdemonstrated that the President would not tolerate open defiance of the law ► However, most southern states found ways to resist desegregation and it would take years before black and white children went to school together
41. 1962 “Ole Miss” James Meredith-1 black st student
42. University of Mississippi ► September 1962 ► Who: James Meredith and JFK ► Plan of Action: integrate UM ► Obstacles: Governor Ross Barnett, riots, and death ► Results: JFK ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith. James Meredith
43. Southern Manifesto ► Southern Manifesto was signed by ALL but three southern leaders Al Gore, Sr., Tennessee Lyndon Johnson, Texas Estes Kefauver, Tennessee ► Calledfor resistance –appealed to emotions of prejudices and paranoia that a united support of peaceful compliance might have diluted in the South
44. Focus on Birmingham • Letter from Birmingham jail by King • Freedom marches: schoolchildren joined the demonstrations • Many Americans were shocked by the news coverage of nonviolent protestors set upon by dogs and jets of water • Kennedy approves civil rights bill
45. March to Selma
46. March on Washington August 28, 1963
47. March on Washington • To put pressure on Congress to pass the new civil rights bill • Drew more than 200,000 • MLK-”I have a dream” • One of the largest political demonstrations • A model for peaceful protest
48. The Push for Voting Rights ► Literacy tests ► Poll taxes ► Intimidation ► All kept blacks from voting
49. Excerpt…”I Have a Dream”
50. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ► Because of the Civil Rights movement, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This law ended all racial discrimination in public facilities such as restrooms, restaurants, buses, movie theaters, and swimming pools.
51. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • The act banned segregation in public accommodations • Gave the federal government the ability to desegregate schools • Prosecute individuals who violated people’s civil rights • Outlawed discrimination in employment • Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
52. LBJ-”We Shall Overcome”
53. Indian Civil Rights
54. Conditions ► 1800s: U.S. gov’t broke treaties Black Hills Miners in Black Hills
55. Conditions ► 1880s:Reservations in place ► Dawes Act: more land lost
56. Conditions ► 1890-1950s: Indian Boarding Schools taught “assimilation” “ ache Indians upon arrival; Same group 4 months lat
57. Conditions ► 1960s: High poverty, unemployment, suicide and drop- out rates
58. 1961: National Congress of American Indians ► wanted control of federal programs and treaty rights
59. National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) 1970 NBC News Broadcasts ROTATION 1: Begin a poster in support of the occupation of Mt. Rushmore. ROTATION 2: Finish the poster and make it better. ROTATION 3: Give the final poster a grade and write the reason why.
60. 1968: American Indian Movement (AIM) ► Drew attention to Native American issues eplica Plymouth Rock which was ainted red during Thanksgiving protest in 1970 March on Columbus Day
61. 1969: Alcatraz Island Occupation ► Inspiredspread of ‘Red Power’ for Native Americans Offered $24 in beads 19 month siege and cloth Supported by media
62. 1972: “Trail of Broken Treaties” March ► Results in occupation of BIA in D.C. Occupiers on the steps of the BIA in D.C. Floyd Young, one of occupiers
63. Achievements ► 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act resulted in self-rule ► Gained control of own education ► 1970s: Successfully sued for land treaty rights Scenes of Black Hills - “Sioux” given $106 million in reparations for land
64. Achievements ► 1980s-on: gambling, hunting and fishing rights for some tribes “Fish-in” with American Indians and actor Marlon Brando
65. Malcolm X ► Influenced by race riots ► Difficult childhood ► While in jail, converted to the Nation of Islam Strict rules of behavior, no drugs or alcohol, and demanded a separation of the races
66. Malcolm X ► Hebecame the Nation of Islam’s most prominent minister However, he broke away and formed his own Three members were later convicted of assassinating Malcolm ► After his pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm was more willing to consider limited acceptance of whites
67. “Black Power” ► Move away from nonviolence ► Stokley Carmichael’s definition: it meant African Americans should collectively use their economic and political muscle to gain equality Institutional Racism
68. Black Panthers ► Symbol of young militant African Americans ► Protected urban neighborhoods from police abuse ► Created antipoverty programs ► Stokely was “honorary Prime Minister”
69. Voting Rights Act 1965 ► Prohibited discrimination at voting polls ► Established bilingual ballots in areas with large amount of non-English speaking minorities ► Outlawed literacy tests for voters ► Gave Federal Government power to oversee all elections
70. Civil Rights act of 1968 ► Written as a follow-up to the CRA of 1964 ► Createdto enforce equal housing opportunities for all races ► Basically you cannot refuse to rent or sell a house to anyone, anywhere, based upon their race
72. “Momentum” Timeline ► May1961, Freedom ► Aug 1963, March on Riders Washington ► Sep1962, integrating the University of ► Summerof ’64 Mississippi Freedom Summer ► Apr 1963, Birmingham ► June1963, integrating the University of Alabama
73. Freedom Riders ► Apr-Dec 1961 ► Who: CORE and SNCC (congress of racial equality and student nonviolent coordinating committee) ► Plan of Action: to test the SC decision banning segregation on interstate bus routes ► Obstacles: violence ► Results: Desegregated busses due to loss of profit
74. University of Alabama ► June 1963 ► Who: Gov. George Wallace ► Plan of Action: integrate the University of Alabama ► Obstacles: Governor George Wallace ► Results: JFK used federal troops to enforce the desegregation
75. MLK’s final days ► Understood the anger and frustration of many urban African Americans ► Disagreed with the call for “black power” ► King’s assassination triggered riots in more than 100 cities ► 2 months later Robert Kennedy was assasinated
76. Freedom Summer ► Summer of ’64 ► Who: SNCC and volunteers ► Where: Mississippi ► Plan of Action: register voters ► Obstacles: Obstacles: Local officers killed volunteers ► Results: Congress did not pass a Voters Rights act.
77. The Selma Campaign ► Early 1965 ► Who: SCLC and SNCC ► Plan of Action: Voter registration drive and march to Montgomery ► Obstacles: violent, local law officers ► Reaction: LBJ responded by asking Congress for the swift passage of a new voting rights act. It passed in 1965.
78. Cesar Chavez: Life and Backgound A. Early Years as Migrant Worker ► b. 1927; farm sold 1938 migrant ► 30+ schools, stopped at age 14, 8th grade
79. I. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Environmental Movement WWII Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ► DDT: dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane ► Dieldrin ► Heptachlor
80. ► Pounds of chemicals sold in US ► 1947: 124,259,000 ► 1960: 637,666,000 ► 2000: 1.1 Billion (1991: export 390 million)
85. III. Highly Mobile and Politically Vulnerable: Migrant Workers, Braceros, and Illegal Immigrants ► Difficulties: 1) Hard to organize: mobile + vulnerable, landowners powerful 2) Bracero Program: exploitative, encouraged illegals 3) Wagner Act exemption: S + W Dems, blacks and Mexicans
86. B. San Joaquin Valley: A Little Bit of Dixie in California ► “No Dogs or Mexicans Allowed” ► 1943: CC kicked from theater begins to protest ► Joins National Farm Labor Union
87. C. Community Services Organization ► CSO provided social services: ► Voter registration drives ► Immigration papers ► Police brutality ► Organize unions
88. ► CC works for 10 years in CSO in CA and AZ ► Growing uncomfortable: too moderate with influx urban liberals ► 1962: plan for massive union effort rejected
89. D. CC Leaves CSO NFWA ► $1200 founds National Farm Workers Association ► Credit unions ► Represent workers ► 1964-65: small wage gains ► Not yet ready for full assault
90. V. 1965: The Delano Strike and Grape Boycott ► Spring ’65: Filipino union outside LA negotiate increase to $1.40/hr ► Delano paid only $1.20 Filipinos demand same pay strike ► Would NFWA go on strike? Only $100 in strike fund If don’t join will shatter credibility
91. ► Unanimous vote ► Owners attempt to break strike: police ► Seem outmatched, but CC and CRM
92. ► Walter Reuther (UAW) brings $10,000 and promises $5,000 per month ► 1965 US Senate investigation ► 1966: Mexican and Filipino unions merge to form UFW (United Farm Workers)
93. ► CC bold strategy: appeal to American people: grape boycott ► Follow grapes to stores and distribution centers picket Local unions join and refuse to handle “hot grapes”
94. ► April 6, 1966: large Delano grape grower caves ► Summer ’69: holdouts cave from bankruptcy
95. ► CC made more demands as strike progressed: ► Regulation of pesticides ► Sept ’69: testifies to Senate that 80% US farm workers suffer health problems
96. VI. Today – Chavez’ Lasting Legacy ► UFW weaker ► Conditions nearly identical to pre-union ► Cancer zones, environmental discrimination ► Slavery in Florida Coyotes/polleros and pollos