The Civil War: Union Dissolves

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This booklet provides a brief overview of the Civil War and its various aspects, describing its battles, victories, leadership, strategies, ranks, politics, emancipation.
The Union Dissolves
Chapter 11
Section 1
2. Crittenden Compromise
 As a last ditch
compromise Sen.
Crittenden proposed
drawing the Missouri
Compromise line to
the Pacific.
 Lincoln rejected this
since it would expand
3. Confederate States
 The South was
excited about
forming their
new country
 They held
rallies and
shot off
4. Southern Secession
 Lincoln believed that it
was illegal to secede from
the Union
 If a state had to apply for
admittance, he thought
states should also have to
ask for permission to
5. Fort Sumter
 Located at the
mouth of the
harbor, the
South wanted
this fort
 Lincoln would
not allow the
South to take
federal property
6. Fort Sumter
 When the fort ran
low of supplies,
Lincoln alerted
the SC governor
that unarmed
supply ships would
be entering the
 Confederate
soldiers fired upon
the fort for 34
7. Fort Sumter
 Union Major
surrendered on
April 14, 1861
 Lincoln asked
the Union states
to provide troops
 They were asked
to enlist for just
3 months
8. Fort Sumter Flag
 Anderson
brought the flag
to New York City
for an April 20,
1861 patriotic
rally, where it
was flown from
the statue of
9. Choosing Sides
 Southern states that
had not yet seceded
had to decide what
to do
 With Lincoln's help
Virginia split in two
(formed the state of
Kanawha, later
renamed West
Once war broke out, many men had
to decide for which cause to fight
10. Choosing Sides
11. Filling the Ranks
 At the beginning of the war in
1861, the Northern Army more
than twice as large as the
Southern Army
 Men had to pledge that they
were over the age of 18 to fight,
but boys as young as 9 acted as
drummer boys
 The South enacted laws to
prevent large landowners from
leaving their plantations (and
some slaves) to fight.
 This left most of the ranks filled
with poor farmers.
13. Robert E. Lee
 Perhaps the
biggest southern
advantage was
Gen. Robert E. Lee
 Asked by Lincoln
to lead the Union
Army, Lee refused
to “turn his back
on his home,
14. Strategies
defensive war,
wearing the North
down until they
gave up.
Get European Help
(France & England)
Fight like
15. Strategies
Anaconda Plan:
 Block southern
ports to all
 Control the
Mississippi River
splitting the
confederacy in 2
 Capture Richmond,
the confederate
16. a Plan
17. Union Leadership
 Lincoln chose Irwin
McDowell to lead
the Union’s Army of
the Potomac.
 He was replaced 3
days after his defeat
at Bull Run with
Gen. George
18. Union Leadership
 General McClellan was
the replacement
 His was nicknamed “the
Creeper” because he
was so hesitant to
attack, fearing he was
out-numbered and
seeing the death and
destruction the war was
19. Union Leadership
 After 5 months of fighting,
McClellan withdrew even though
he out-numbered and out-
powered the confederate army
 One of his men found Lee’s
plans wrapped around some
 He had the plans for the next
battle at Antietam Creek
20. 1st Battle of Bull
 Most Civil War battles are called
by 2 different names
 The North named the battle after
the nearest river
 The South named the battle after
the nearest town
 The first battle of the war was
near the town of Manassas and
Bull Run River
21. 1st Battle of Bull
 The North (in blue) and South
(in grey) met on a clearing in
northern Virginia
 Confederate General
Thomas “Stonewall”
Jackson routed the
Yankee army, causing
them to run in fear
 They trampled picnickers who
had gathered to watch the battle.
22. 1st Battle of Bull
 Northern troops, according to
legend, commented that Gen.
Jackson sat upon his horse like a
‘stone wall”
 The nickname stuck
 The southern victory assured
the South that this would be a
quick war fought against inferior
 They were wrong on both accounts
23. Antietam Creek
 Even with the plans,
McClellan’s hesitancy costs
him the battle
 He could never break through
Confederate lines even though
he knew where they were
 It was the bloodiest single day
of the Civil War with about
22,000 dead and wounded.
24. Victory in the West
 While the North was losing
badly in the east, Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant was winning
decisive victories along the
Mississippi River.
 After the battle at Ft. Henry he
earned the nickname of
Unconditional Surrender because
he refused to speak of terms of
surrender with the South
25. Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing
 The South surprised Union troops
at Shiloh on April 6, 1862
 Their rebel yell was eerie
 As they ran in retreat, they met
Union reinforcements
 Under Gen. Grant, they regrouped
 It ended in a draw with almost
25,000 casualties in the 2 day
26. Admiral Farragut
 As part of the
Anaconda Plan,
Gen. Farragut took
the navy up the
mouth of the
Mississippi River
 He took New
Orleans and Baton
Rouge the first
part of cutting the
Confederacy in
27. Filling the Ranks
 The North allowed
Blacks to enlist but did
not allow them to fight
 By 1863, after the
Proclamation pressure
was on to allow Black
units to train and
 They were killed in
greater numbers and
paid less for their
28. Filling the Ranks
 Wealthy people, in both
North and South, could pay a
substitute to take their place
in the Army.
 Conscription,
Conscription forced service,
was first used in the South.
 The North began conscription
in 1862
29. Filling the Ranks
 Slaves could not help the
southern army fight but
were used for manual labor.
 The Civil War was called, “a
rich man’s war but a poor
man’s fight.”
 Conscription was so resisted
in the North, riots broke out
 It became especially violent
after the
Emancipation Proclamation.
30. Filling the Ranks
 Desertion was a
common problem on
both sides, with over
300,000 soldiers
leaving their units
 Because states offered
a signing bonus, many
men enlisted,
deserted, enlisted
someplace else,
31. Filling the Ranks
 By the end of the war,
the South was so short of
men they openly enlisted
young boys.
 Women could not openly
enlist but some disguised
themselves as men and
fought the entire war.
 Others became spies,
nurses, and cooks
32. Filling the Ranks
 Elizabeth Blackwell,
America’s first
female physician,
helped run the US
Sanitary Commission
 Clara Barton tended
to the wounded and
founded the
American Red Cross.
33. Filling the Ranks
 Although hundreds of
men and women
tended to the sick and
injured, more soldiers
died from illness and
infection than of
battle wounds.
 More often, women
took over men’s
civilian jobs while
they were gone to
34. The Civil War
Politics of War
Chapter 11
Section 2
35. Britain’s Neutrality
 The South was depending on
Britain and/or France to come
to their aid & renew the
cotton trade
 Britain found other sources
for cotton and stockpiled
surpluses before the war
 Food crops, wheat and corn
from the North, had replaced
cotton as America’s most
important exports
36. Trent Affair
 Shortly after the
war began, the
(Rebels) sent 2
diplomats to
Britain to ask for
their support
 James Mason &
John Slidell
traveled on the
British ship, HMS
37. Trent Affair
 Mason and
Slidell were
 Britain took
this as an act
of war and
moved troops
to Canada for
a possible war
with the
Union (Executive Power)
38. Emancipation
 Lincoln’s original
strategy did not
involve freeing
 He used this to
change the
purpose of the
war from
preserving the
39. Emancipation
 Lincoln wrote the
Emancipation Proclamation,
freeing all slaves in the
seceded states (not occupied
or border states)
 It also prevented all
countries who
had abolished slavery
from aiding the South.
40. Emancipation
 Lincoln did not
want to issue the
publicly until the
North had a
successful battle
 He used the
Battle at
Antietam (the
bloodiest battle
of the war) as
41. Emancipation Reaction
 Not everyone was
happy with the
decision to free the
 Northern Democrats
thought it would
make the war longer
 Some soldiers
deserted, refusing to
fight for this cause
 The South renewed
their effort to save
their way of life
 The Emancipation
42. Lincoln Takes Charge
 Lincoln sent Union
troops and
occupied the
border states from
the beginning of
the war
 He also suspended
habeas corpus,
legal authority to
detain a person
 Confederate
sympathizers in
the North were
43. Lincoln Takes Charge
 Supreme Court
Chief Justice Roger
B. Taney said that
Lincoln had
overstepped his
authority, but he
continued to use his
presidential powers
to the fullest extent
 Setting a precedent,
all wartime
presidents have
taken Lincoln’s
44. Copperheads
 Anti-war
s were
ads – a
s snake
45. As 1862 Ends…
 The ironclads
 Both sides made
made of iron,
capable of
repelling cannon
balls and fire
 The Monitor ( N), a
new ship, fought
the Merrimack (S),
fought for 5 hours –
46. The Civil War
Chapter 11
Section 3
Life During Wartime
47. Black Troops
 African American soldiers never
fought for the South, but their
slave labor was used by southern
 The North also
used African
American labor
 That changed after
the Emancipation
48. Black Troops
 The Emancipation Proclamation
freed the slaves in the non-
occupied states, which mean it
freed none
 But it also meant that Blacks
joined the northern army and
fought against the South
 The South refused to
return any Black
prisoner - contraband
49. Black Troops
 Fought in segregated units led by white
 Paid less than white soldiers
 Died in greater numbers not because
assigned to a dangerous job but by working in
close proximity to one another, they caught
 More likely to be killed when captured rather
than taken as
50. Fort Pillow
 Over 200 African American and
some white soldiers were killed
after they surrendered
to Southern troops
 Nathan Bedford Forrest
led the slaughter
 After the war he and
others form the
Ku Klux Klan
51. Slave Resistance
 As northern troops neared
plantations, the slaves gained
strength and
 Broke tools
 Joined the
 Neglected the
52. War Affects the Economy
 The South began to run out of
men, food and supplies not soon
after the war began
 They printed so much currency
that it had little value
 The Northern blockade
effectively stopped Southern
trade with Europe
53. Northern Economy
 The North suffered but not nearly
as bad as the South
 Inflation was worse in the North
– 80% by the end of the war
 Industries that supplied the
military boomed
 Machinery took the place of
workers drafted into the GAR
54. Women in the Workplace
 Women took on many of the jobs
and duties of the men who left to
 They were paid less, one of many
ways business owners made
tremendous profits during the
 Northerners paid the first
income tax to pay for the war
55. Soldiers Suffer
 Soldiers’ rations included
hardtack, beans, bacon fat and, if
lucky, a few bones from which to
suck the marrow
 They had ticks, lice, dysentery,
and diarrhea on a regular basis
due to poor hygiene
56. Medical Care
 A doctor’s kit looked more like it would be more
useful in a episode of Home Make Over
 Body wounds were ignored and the person was
left to die
 “Good” surgeons could remove a limb in 1 minute
 They usually used ether to sedate the patient
57. Medical Care
 Once soldier’s received care, the
worst was to come
 Not knowing about germs and
bacteria, doctors and nurses
regularly examined wounds without
washing between patients
 Gangrene and other infections passed
from man to man
 Surgery was usually done outdoors
58. Medical Care
 For every soldier that
died on the battlefield,
2 died in the wartime
 Women served the military as
 Clara Barton, founder of the Red
Cross, and Sally Tompkins
helped improve medical care
59. Prisoners
 Until the Union began using
black soldiers, both sides
regularly exchanged soldiers
rather than keep them in camps
 When the Confederacy refused to
swap black soldiers, the North
stopped the exchange program
 Neither side was equipped to
keep thousands of prisoners
60. Prison Camps
 Both sides treated their captives
 Ft. Delaware and Elmira prisons
in the North and Libby and
Andersonville prisons in the
South saw mortality rates over
 Poor nutrition and poor hygiene
led to scurvy, dysentery and
other fatal diseases
61. Andersonville Prison, GA
 Henry Wirz was placed in charge of the
camp at Andersonville
 Built to handle 10,000, it eventually had
over 33,000 prisoners
 Their only water was a stream which ran
through where the horses grazed, filled
with manure
 There were no buildings to house
prisoners, only tents and lean-tos
 Guards, some as young as 12, surrounded
the camp on watchtowers
 Anyone who got near the fence, the dead
zone, was shot immediately
62. Andersonville Prison, GA
 Although he camp was operational for less
than a year, over 12,000 died
 Survivors were transferred from the camp
to other camps in the South
 The Commandant, Henry Wirz, was tried
for war crimes in 1865
 The North really wanted him to provide
information about Gen. Lee and Pres.
Davis but he did not
 Wirz was hung in Washington DC and after
his death was treated as a martyr (victim)
63. The Civil War
Chapter 11
Section 4
The North Takes Charge
64. 1863
 In 1863, the war shifted in favor
of the North
 Gen. Grant leads Army of the
 Important victories in the East
 Total war
 South will not receive help from
 War of attrition
65. Chancellorsville
 As Lee’s troops moved
to northern Virginia,
Stonewall Jackson
stopped for 9 days to
Statue of Jackson visit his wife and
at Bull Run infant daughter
 He would be dead in 3
weeks by his own men
Gravesite of Jackson
66. Chancellorsville
 Lee met Gen. Hooker at
Chancellorsville, VA
 The North was
outmaneuvered by Lee
 BTW – The term ‘hooker’ comes
from the large number of women
who followed Hooker from battle
to battle – Hooker’s girls
67. Gettysburg
 Gen. Lee and Gen.
A.P. Hill headed north
for 2 reasons
 They wanted to divert the
fighting from the Shenandoah
Valley and Hill’s troops needed
 They met Union troops, under
Gen. Meade, at Gettysburg, PA
68. Gettysburg
 The 3 day battle was
costly for both sides.
 Pickett’s Charge up Little Round
Top was little better than a
suicide mission
 After 3 days
 23,000 Union casualties
 28,000 Confederate casualties
69. Gettysburg
 Lee retreated, never to enter the
North again
 The Union victory at Gettysburg
was the turning point of the war
 They will continue to win
important victories until the
South surrenders
70. Gettysburg, July 1-3,
 Dead men and horses began to
rot in the summer heat, drawing
flies, rodents and vultures
 The smell carried
to the town of
 The towns’ women
took on the task of
burying the dead
71. Gettysburg, July 1-3,
 Southern soldiers were
separated and buried in shallow
graves away from town
 Union soldiers were divided by
state and buried
in a series of
72. Gettysburg Address, Nov
 Lincoln came to dedicate the
 He was the 2nd speaker that day,
speaking for only about
2 minutes
 He used the speech to re-focus
attention to the Declaration of
Independence – “all men are
created equal”
73. Siege of Vicksburg 1863
 The summer of 1863 saw another
important Union victory in the
west, Vicksburg MS
74. Siege of Vicksburg 1863
 Vicksburg is an overlook on the
Mississippi River
 It was one of the last areas that
prevented the Union from
controlling the entire river and
successfully dividing the South
 Grant laid siege to the town,
firing into it for hours each day
75. Siege of Vicksburg 1863
 The mostly women, elderly and
children in the town sought
refuge in the caves along the
 Their food supply gone, they ate
dogs, horses, mules and rats
before surrendering the day after
the victory at Gettysburg, July 4
76. Conditions in the South,
 The South was quickly running
out of men, arms, food, uniforms
and other necessary supplies
 They hoped that a long war
would cause the North to stop
 The Gettysburg Address made it
very clear that the North was not
giving up
77. Conditions in the South,
 Southerners were asked to grow
food crops rather than cash
crops (cotton and tobacco)
 Rebels deserted in greater
 Jefferson Davis and the
Confederate Constitution left
little room to lead effectively
78. Ulysses S. Grant
 Lincoln, having gone 5 generals
in 2 years, appointed Grant
 He fought a war of attrition –
killing Southern
soldiers that
could not be
 It meant that he
also suffered from heavy losses
79. Gen. Sherman
 Grant appointed William
Tecumseh Sherman to lead the
Union Army in the deep South
 He believed in total war –
attacking civilians
since they supplied
goods for the
southern war effort
80. Grant v. Lee
 Grant’s war of attrition was
devastating to the southern
 Grant knew that he could
replace each of his dead
soldiers, the South could not
81. Sherman’s March to the
 Gen. Sherman took his troops from
Tennessee, through Atlanta, to Savannah
 His men burned a path up to 60 miles
wide, burned crops, poisoned wells,
killed livestock and turned railroad
ties into “Sherman’s neckties”
 Sherman sent news to
Lincoln in December, 1864
that his Christmas gift to the
president was the city of
 Then he turned north to help
Grant defeat Lee
82. Election 1864
 Democrats – Gen. McClellan
 Republicans – Pres. Lincoln
 Democrats were tired of war,
the costs, and death
 Republicans looked for a
candidate who would appeal to
Democrats, Andrew Johnson
83. Election 1864
 Johnson was a Southerner who
never owned slaves
 He was raised extremely poor,
resenting the planter class
 He looked down upon the slave
84. Election 1864
 Lincoln needed a few victories
before the election or he felt he
would loose.
 Sherman’s sacking of Atlanta
and Farragut’s control of the
Mississippi River accomplished
 Absentee ballots from the Union
army put Lincoln over the top
85.  The war took its
toll on Lincoln
86. Appomattox Court House
 In April 1865, Lee knew he had
no choice but to surrender
 His men begged him not to do
this, but he replied that it would
only kill them all if he continued
to fight
 Jefferson Davis set fire to
Richmond to prevent Grant from
occupying it
87. Appomattox Court House
 Lee said, “There is nothing
left me to do but to go and
see General Grant, and I
would rather die a thousand
deaths.” April 9, 1865
 Grant was generous with his
terms of surrender, allowing
the rebels to take their
animals and personal items
with them
88. Appomattox Court House
 TheUnion band played
“Dixie” as the men marched
away McLean’s
home in
was signed
in his parlor
89. The Civil War
Chapter 11
Section 5
The Legacy of War
90. The War Ends
 With the end of the war changes
will affect
 The economy
 Social structure
 Labor market
 Politics
 Technology
91. Political Changes
 The federal government
assumed control over the
seceded states and no state has
seceded again
 The war increased the power of
the federal government and the
92. Economic Changes
 The federal gov’t took additional responsibility for
subsidizing (paying for) railroads
 National Bank Act, 1863, which chartered banks,
set requirements for loans & required banks to be
 Conscription caused a labor shortage in the North,
filled by women and automation
 Northern industries had to re-focus to compete in
a peacetime economy
 The South lost its labor force and trading partners
 Since most of the fighting took place in the South,
land was destroyed, livestock wiped-out, cities
burned and their railroads destroyed
93. Societal Changes
 Slavery is over
 Congress passed the 13th Amendment
outlawing slavery
 Matthew Brady chronicled the war with
hundreds of photos, beginning
photojournalism. The Civil War is the first
photographed war.
 Jefferson Davis was arrested, tried and
found not guilty
 He lived to be an old man
 General Lee lost his family home when it
was turned into Arlington National
94. Societal Changes
 Lee went on to become the
president of Washington
University, now Washington
and Lee University
 Clara Barton took her war
experience and founded the
Red Cross
 Grant (Northern Hero) was
elected president in 1868.
95. Lincoln Assassinated
 Lincoln and his wife,
Mary Todd, went to
Ford’s Theater to see
“My American Cousin”
 John Wilkes Booth
shot him in the
back of the head
 He died within
96. John
Booth and
captured, tried
and hung