Life in the American Colonies

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In this booklet, you will read about life in the American colonies during the early 1700s. You will also use a journal to organize information about various aspects of colonial life.
Life in the Colonies
4.1 Introduction
n 1723, a tired teenager stepped off a boat onto Philadelphia’s Market
Street wharf. He was an odd-looking sight. Not having luggage, he had
stuffed his pockets with extra clothes. The young man followed a
group of “clean dressed people” into a Quaker meeting house, where he
soon fell asleep.
The sleeping teenager with the lumpy clothes was Benjamin Franklin.
Recently, he had run away from his brother James’s print shop in Boston.
When he was 12, Franklin had signed a contract to work for his brother
for nine years. But after enduring James’s nasty temper for five years,
Franklin packed his pockets and left.
In Philadelphia, Franklin quickly found work as a printer’s assistant.
Within a few years, he had saved enough money to open his own print
shop. His first success was a newspaper called the Pennsylvania Gazette.
In 1732, readers of the Gazette saw an advertisement for
Poor Richard’s Almanac. An almanac is a book, published
annually, that contains information about weather predictions,
the times of sunrises and sunsets, planting advice for farmers,
and other useful subjects. According to the advertisement,
Poor Richard’s Almanac was written by “Richard Saunders”
and printed by “B. Franklin.” Nobody knew then that the
author and printer were actually the same person.
In addition to the usual information contained in almanacs,
Franklin mixed in some proverbs, or wise sayings. Several of
them are still remembered today. Here are three of the best-
“A penny saved is a penny earned.”
“Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy,
and wise.”
“Fish and visitors smell in three days.”
Poor Richard’s Almanac sold so well that Franklin was
able to retire at age 42. A man of many talents, he spent the
rest of his long life as a scientist, inventor, political leader,
diplomat, and national postmaster.
Franklin’s rise from penniless runaway to wealthy printer Graphic Organizer: Journal
was one of many colonial success stories. In this chapter, you You will use a journal to organize informa-
will learn what life was like for people throughout the tion about various aspects of colonial life.
colonies in the early 1700s.
2. Although most farmers lived in one- 4.2 Life on a Farm
room farmhouses, they held out hope he colonists developed an economy based on farming, commerce
that they would achieve wealth like that (buying and selling goods), and handcrafts. Nine out of ten people
pictured above. lived on small family farms. Most farm families either raised or
made nearly everything they needed. One farmer wrote with pride about a
typical year: “Nothing to wear, eat, or drink was purchased, as my farm
provided all.”
The first and hardest task facing farm families was to clear the land of
economy the way a society trees. The colonists had only simple, basic tools. They cut down trees with
organizes the manufacture and axes and saws. Then they used the same tools to cut square timbers and flat
exchange of things of value, planks for building houses, barns, and fences.
such as money, food, products, Imagine living on a colonial farm. Your home is a single large room
and services with a chimney at one end. In this room, your family cooks, eats, and
sleeps. Your parents sleep in a large bed built into one corner. Your younger
brothers and sisters sleep in a smaller “trundle” bed, a bed that can slide
under the big bed during the day. At bedtime, you climb a ladder next to
the chimney to sleep in an attic or a loft. As your family grows, you help to
build another room on the other side of the chimney.
The fireplace is the only source of heat for warmth and cooking. So,
keeping a supply of firewood is important. The fire is kept burning all the
time because, without matches, it is very difficult to light a new one.
Cooking is one of the most dangerous jobs on your farm. Food is
cooked in heavy iron pots hung over an open fire. While lifting or stirring
these pots, your mother might burn her hands, scorch her clothes, or strain
her back.
Life on your farm starts before sunrise. Everyone wakes up early to
share the work. Chores include cutting wood, feeding animals, clearing #1
land, tending crops, building fences, making furniture and tools, gathering
eggs, spinning thread, weaving cloth, sewing clothes, making candles and
soap, cooking, cleaning, and caring for babies.
How does this compare with life in your home today?
50 Chapter 4
3. 4.3 Life in Cities
heart: most important
n 1750, one colonist out of 20 lived in a city. Compared to the quiet
farm life, cities were exciting places. part
The heart of the city was the waterfront. There, ships brought news
from England as well as eagerly awaited items such as paint, carpets, furni-
ture, and books.
Just beyond the docks, a marketplace bustled with fishermen selling #2
their catch and farmers selling fresh eggs, milk, and cheese. Close by were
taverns, where food and drink were served. People gathered there to
exchange gossip and news from other colonies.
The nearby streets were lined with shops. Sparks flew from the black-
smith’s block as he hammered iron into tools. Shoemakers, clockmakers,
silversmiths, tailors, and other craftspeople turned out goods based on the
latest designs from England. There were barbers to cut colonists’ hair and
wigmakers to make it look long again. Colonial cities were very small by
Cities were noisy, smelly places. Church bells rang out daily. Carts clat- today’s standards. Boston and
tered loudly over streets paved with round cobblestones. The air was filled Philadelphia, the two largest, had
with the stench of rotting garbage and open sewers, but the colonists were fewer than 20,000 people in 1700.
used to it. Animals ran loose in the
street. During hot weather, clouds of
flies and mosquitoes swarmed about.
City homes were close together
on winding streets. Most were built
of wood with thatched roofs, like the
houses the colonists had left behind
in Europe. Their windows were
small, because glass was costly.
For lighting, colonists used torch-
es made of pine that burned brightly
when they were wedged between
hearthstones in the fireplace.
Colonists also burned grease in
metal containers called “betty
lamps” and made candles scented
with bayberries.
With torches and candles lighting
homes, fire was a constant danger.
Colonists kept fire buckets hanging
by their front doors. When a fire
broke out, the whole town helped to
put it out. Grabbing their buckets,
colonists formed a double line from
the fire to a river, pond, or well.
They passed the buckets full of
water from hand to hand up one line
to the fire. Then the empty buckets
went hand over hand back down the
opposite line to be filled again.
Life in the Colonies 51
4. monarch: king or queen
4.4 Rights of Colonists
rights powers or privileges olonists in America saw themselves as English citizens. They
that belong to people as citizens expected the same rights that citizens enjoyed in England. The
and that cannot or should not be most important of these was the right to have a voice in their
taken away by the government government.
Parliament the lawmaking The Magna Carta The English people had won the right to participate
body of England, consisting of in their government only after a long struggle. A key victory in this strug-
representatives from throughout gle came in 1215, when King John agreed to sign the Magna Carta, or
the kingdom “Great Charter.” This agreement established the idea that the power of the
monarch (ruler) was limited. Not even the king was above the law.
petition (verb) to make a The next major victory was the founding of Parliament in 1265.
formal demand or request Parliament was made up of representatives from across England. Over
time, it became a lawmaking body with the power to approve laws and
The Granger Collection, New York taxes proposed by the king or queen.
In 1685, James, the Duke of
York, became King James II. As
you read in Chapter 3, King James
did not want to share power with
an elected assembly in New York.
Nor did he want to share power
with an elected Parliament in
England. When he tried to rule
without Parliament, James was
forced off his throne. This event,
which took place without blood-
shed, is known as the Glorious
The English Bill of Rights
In 1689, Parliament offered the
crown to Prince William of
Orange and his wife, Mary. In
exchange, they had to agree to an
act, or law, known as the English
Bill of Rights. This act said that
the power to make laws and
impose taxes belonged to the
people’s elected representatives
in Parliament and to no one else.
It also included a bill, or list, of
rights that belonged to the people.
Colonists established assemblies to Among these were the right to petition the king and the right to trial
promote citizen rights. The English tra- by jury.
dition of self-government thrived in all English colonists saw the Glorious Revolution as a victory not only
13 colonies. Here we see a depiction of for Parliament, but for their colonial assemblies as well. They wanted to
the first colonial assembly of Virginia choose the people who made their laws and set their taxes. After all, this
in 1619. was a cherished right of all English citizens.
52 Chapter 4
5. The Granger Collection, New York
4.5 Crime and Punishment Courts, like the one pictured above,
ach colonial assembly passed its own laws defining crimes and were important to social life in the
punishments. However, most crimes were treated similarly in all colonies. This painting depicts a
the colonies. woman being tried for witchcraft in
Certain very serious crimes could be punished by death. These included Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692.
murder, treason (acts of disloyalty toward the government), and piracy
(robbery at sea). Puritans in New England added other crimes to this list
based on their understanding of God’s law in the Bible. In New England, #4
colonists could be put to death for “denying the true God” or for striking
or cursing their parents.
Crimes such as theft, forgery, and highway robbery carried harsh
punishments in every colony. For these crimes, people might be jailed,
whipped, or branded with hot irons.
Lesser crimes, such as drunkenness and breaking the Sabbath (working humiliation: embarrassment
or traveling on Sunday), were punished with fines, short jail terms, or pub-
lic humiliation. A colonist caught breaking the Sabbath, for example, might
be locked in the town stocks. Stocks were a heavy wooden frame with
holes for a person’s neck, wrists, and ankles. Lawbreakers were locked for
hours in this device in a public place where others might make fun of them.
No group had firmer ideas about right and wrong than New England’s
Puritans. The Puritans required everyone to attend church on Sundays.
They also forbade anyone to work or play on that day. The Puritans wrote
their Sunday laws in books with blue paper bindings. For this reason, these
rules came to be known as blue laws. Some blue laws persist to this day. In
Massachusetts, for example, it is still illegal to sell liquor on Sundays.
The Puritans were constantly on the watch for signs of Satan (an evil
angel who rebelled against God). Satan was thought to work through
witches. In 1691, fear of witchcraft exploded in Salem, Massachusetts,
when several young girls were seen acting strangely in church. When they
were questioned, the girls accused their neighbors of being witches and
putting spells on them. Twenty accused witches were put to death in the
Salem Witch Trials before calm was restored and the townspeople realized
that the girls’ accusations were not true.
Life in the Colonies 53
6. 4.6 Class Differences
class A part of society defined ike many people today, those living in colonial times were eager to
by such qualities as wealth, “move up in the world.” In England, “moving up” was difficult. A
occupation, and inherited titles person’s class, or place in society, was determined largely by fam-
or honors. A society may have ily, inherited titles (such as “duke” or “baron”), and wealth.
an upper class, a middle class, In colonial America, however, titles and family background meant little.
and a lower class. Most colonists started out poor. Those with ambition could use their brains
and talents to climb the social ladder. A poor boy, for example, might turn
into an upper-class gentleman by becoming a successful planter, merchant,
or lawyer. A poor girl could move up by marrying a man of a higher social
wealthy class. In America, what set the classes apart was not family background,
but money.
farmers “Clothing makes the man!” This old saying aptly describes colonial
artisans society. In the colonies, people’s clothes showed their social position. Only
the gentry, or wealthy class, wore gold or silver, colored lace, buttons,
no voting rights
boots, and wigs. Some colonies forbade ordinary citizens from wearing
such “excess apparel” (clothing) and even fined those who disobeyed.
indentured servants/
The middle class was made up of farmers and artisans (skilled crafts-
people). These were people who owned their own land or businesses. Many #5
had enough property to qualify to vote. During the week, people of the
middle class wore plain but brightly colored clothes. On Sundays, they
wore dark, somber clothing.
The lower class was mostly made up of farmhands and other workers.
Members of this class depended on others for their wages. With little or no
property of their own, they were not allowed to vote. Some were able to #5
save enough money to buy land or start a business and rise to the middle
class. Others remained wage earners their entire lives.
Class divisions are apparent in this At the bottom of colonial society were indentured servants and slaves.
painting. The wealthy sit high on a Indentured servants made up a third of New England’s settlers, and almost
wagon, surrounded by stacks of trunks half of those who settled the Middle Colonies. Some eventually saved #5
carrying their many possessions. The enough money to buy land and rise to the middle class. Others became
children of the farmhands and servants wage earners. But even the poorest white laborers were better off than most
bid the travelers farewell. African Americans.
54 Chapter 4
7. The Granger Collection, New York
4.7 Life for African
ou read in Chapter 3 how
slavery first came to
Virginia. From there, it
spread both north and south. By
the early 1700s, enslaved Africans
were living in every colony. Even
Benjamin Franklin owned slaves for
a time. But like most people in the
New England and Middle Colonies,
Franklin found that hiring workers
when he needed them cost less than
owning slaves.
In the Southern Colonies, how-
ever, slavery expanded rapidly.
From Virginia to Georgia, slaves
helped raise tobacco, rice, indigo,
and other cash crops.
The Atlantic Slave Trade Most
of the slaves who were brought to
the colonies came from West Africa.
Year after year, slave ships filled
with cloth, guns, and rum sailed
from the colonies to the coast of West Africa. There, these goods were trad- The first slaves were brought to the
ed for Africans. The ships then returned to the Americas carrying their United States in 1619 to help produce
human cargoes. tobacco in the Virginia colony. Above,
For the Africans packed onto slave ships, the ocean crossing—known as we see slaves tending tobacco while
the Middle Passage—was a nightmare. Olaudah Equiano was just ten years their owner relaxes, feet up, smoking
old when he was put onto a slave ship. He never forgot “the closeness of his pipe.
the place…which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn him-
self.” Nor did he forget “the shrieks of the women, and groans of the
dying.” The terrified boy refused to eat, hoping “for the last friend, Death,
to relieve me.”
Although Equiano survived the voyage, many Africans died of sickness
or despair. Even so, the Atlantic slave trade was very profitable. Many colo- #6
nial merchants built fortunes trading in human beings.
Work Without Hope The slaves’ masters in America demanded hard
work. Most enslaved Africans were put to work in the fields raising crops.
Others worked as nurses, carpenters, blacksmiths, drivers, servants, garden- adapted: fit in or get
ers, and midwives (people who assist women giving birth). Unlike other used to
colonists, slaves had little hope of making a better life. Their position was
fixed at the bottom of colonial society.
Some slaves rebelled by refusing to work or running away. But most
adapted to their unhappy condition as best they could. Slowly and painful-
ly, they began to create a new African American way of life.
Life in the Colonies 55
8. 4.8 Religion
First Great Awakening a eligion was an important part of colonial life. Most colonists tried
revival of religious feeling and to lead good lives based on their faith. Children grew up reading
belief in the American colonies the Bible from cover to cover several times over.
that began in the 1730s
Puritan Church Services In New England, the sound of a drum or
horn called Puritans to worship on Sunday morning. “Captains of the
#7 Watch” made sure everyone was a “Sabbath-keeper.” Sometimes, houses
were searched to ensure that everyone was at church.
Church services were held in the town meetinghouse. This was the most
revive: bring back important building in the community and was used for all public meetings.
again Inside were rows of wooden benches called pews, and a pulpit (a platform
where the preacher stood). A “Seating Committee” carefully assigned seats,
with the best ones going to older, wealthy people.
Services could last as long as five hours. At midday, villagers would go
to “noon-houses” near the church to warm themselves by a fire, eat, and
socialize. Then they returned to church for the long afternoon sermon.
The First Great Awakening
Beginning in the 1730s, a religious
movement known as the First
Great Awakening swept through
the colonies. This movement was
spurred by a feeling that people had
lost their religious faith. “The forms
of religion were kept up,” a Puritan
observed, but the “power of
Godliness” was missing.
To revive people’s religious
spirit, preachers traveled from town
to town holding outdoor “revival”
meetings. There they delivered fiery
sermons to huge crowds. Their
words touched the hearts and souls
of many colonists. Benjamin
Franklin wrote about the change he
observed in Philadelphia: “It
seemed as if all the world were
growing religious, so that one could
not walk through the town in an
Colonial society had a strong religious evening without hearing psalms [Bible songs] sung in different families of
flavor. Above, we see colonial citizens every street.”
gathered around a church on Sunday. The Great Awakening had a powerful effect on the colonies. It helped
spread the idea that all people are equal in the eyes of God. Ordinary peo-
ple could understand God’s will if they had an open heart and a desire to
know God’s truth. By encouraging ideas of liberty, equality, and resistance
to authority, the Great Awakening helped pave the way for the American
56 Chapter 4
9. 4.9 Education
xcept in New England, most
children in the colonies
received little formal educa-
tion. Neither the Middle nor the
Southern Colonies had public
In the Southern Colonies, most
families were spread out along
rivers. A few neighbors might get
together to hire a teacher for their
children. Often, wealthy planters
hired tutors to educate younger chil-
dren at home. Older children were
sent to schools in distant cities, or
even England, to complete their
In the Middle Colonies, religious
differences among Quakers,
Catholics, Jews, Baptists, and other
religious groups slowed the growth
of public education. Each religious
group or family had to decide for
itself how to educate its children.
Some groups built church schools.
Others were content to have parents
The Granger Collection, New York
teach their children at home.
Only in New England were towns required to provide public schools. Children gather with their teacher in a
#8 The Puritans’ support for education was inspired by their faith. They want- colonial school. These children were
ed their children to be able to read God’s word in the Bible. among a minority of children who
To encourage education, Massachusetts passed a law in 1647 that received formal education. Most
required every town with 50 families or more to hire an instructor to teach children did not go to school beyond
their children to read and write. Towns with more than 100 families were the elementary level.
required to build a school. Similar laws were passed in other New England
Parents were asked to contribute whatever they could to the village inspired: caused it to
school. This might mean money, vegetables, firewood, or anything else the happen in a positive way
school needed. Often, land was set aside as “school-meadows” or “school-
fields.” This land was then rented out to raise money for teachers’ salaries.
Schools were one-room buildings with a chimney and fireplace in the
center. There were no maps, or boards to write on. Pencils and paper were
scarce. Students shouted out spelling words and wrote sums in ink on
pieces of bark. There was usually one book, the New England Primer,
which was used to teach the alphabet, syllables, and prayers.
Most colonists believed that boys needed more education than girls.
“Female education, in the best families,” wrote Abigail Adams, “went no
further than writing and arithmetic; in some few and rare instances, music,
and dancing.”
Life in the Colonies 57
10. 4.10 Colonial Families
he concept of family has
changed many times
throughout history. Today,
most people think of a family as
being made up of parents and their
children. In colonial times, how-
ever, families might include
grandparents, aunts and uncles,
cousins, and stepchildren.
Marriage Colonial men and
women generally married in their
early to mid-20s. Those who arrived
in America as indentured servants
were not allowed to marry until they
had gained their freedom.
Men outnumbered women
throughout the colonies. As a result,
almost every woman was assured
of receiving a marriage proposal.
“Maid servants of good honest
stock [family],” wrote a colonist,
could “choose their husbands out of
the better sort of people.” For a
Family life was at the center of colonial young woman, though, life as a wife and mother often proved to be even
society. Here, a family is gathered harder than life as an indentured servant.
around a fire on a cold, wintry evening.
A mother and grandmother work while Large Families Colonial families were generally large. Most families
the father relaxes and the children had between seven and ten children. (Benjamin Franklin had 17 brothers
play. and sisters!) Farm families, in particular, needed all the hands they could
get to help with the chores.
Religious and cultural backgrounds influenced colonists’ ideas about
raising children. But almost everywhere in the colonies, children were
expected to be productive members of the family.
Married women gave birth many times, but nearly half of all children
died before they reached adulthood. Childhood deaths were especially high
in the Middle and Southern Colonies, where the deadly disease of malaria
raged. Adults often died young as well. After the death of a wife or hus-
band, men and women usually remarried quickly. Thus, households often
swelled with stepchildren as well as adopted orphans (children whose par-
ents had died).
Whether colonists lived in cities, in villages, or on isolated farms, their
lives focused on their families. Family members took care of one another
because there was no one else to do so. Young families often welcomed
elderly grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins into their homes when they
could no longer care for themselves. It didn’t matter if there was barely
enough room for everyone. No one would turn away a needy relative.
58 Chapter 4
11. 4.11 Leisure
leisure: time not working
hile most colonists worked hard, they enjoyed their periods of
leisure (time away from work). They also took advantage of
gatherings, such as town meetings and Sunday services, to talk
with neighbors and make friends.
Bees and Frolics When possible, colonists combined work and play
by organizing “bees” and “frolics.” New settlers might hold a “chopping
#10 bee” in which all the neighbors helped clear the trees off their land. Other
frolics included corn-husking bees for men and quilting bees for women.
Sharing the work made it faster and a lot more fun.
The Germans introduced house and barn raisings to the colonies. At
these events, neighbors joined together to build the frame of a house or Here, we see Dutch settlers in a
barn in one day. The men assembled the four walls flat on the ground and spirited game of bowls in New
then raised them into place. Meanwhile, the women prepared a huge feast. Amsterdam. Below, colonists enjoy a
At the end of the day, everyone danced on the barn’s new floor. form of billiards called “trock.”
The Granger Collection, New York
Toys and Sports Colonial children
had a few simple toys, such as dolls, mar-
bles, and tops. They played games of tag,
blindman’s bluff, and stoolball, which was
related to the English game of cricket (a
game like baseball). Children in New
England also enjoyed “coasting” downhill
on sleds. Adults must have thought coast-
ing was dangerous, because several
communities forbade it.
Adults enjoyed several sports. Almost
every village had a bowling green. Here
men rolled egg-shaped balls down a lane
of grass toward a white ball called a
“jack.” Colonists also played a game simi-
lar to backgammon called “tick-tack” and
a form of billiards (pool) called “trock.”
In the Southern Colonies, fox hunting
with horses and hounds was a popular
sport. Card playing was another favorite
pastime, one that New England Puritans
disapproved of strongly. Horse racing,
cockfighting, and bull baiting were also
Fairs were held throughout the
colonies. At these events, colonists com-
peted in contests of skill and artistry.
There were footraces, wrestling matches,
dance contests, and wild scrambles to see
who could win a prize by catching a
greased pig or climbing a greased pole.
Life in the Colonies 59
12. 4.12 Food
he first colonists in North
America traded with Indians
for their food. The Indians
taught them how to grow and cook
corn, which became a major part of
the colonists’ diet. Colonial children
knew that morning and evening
meals would probably consist of
something made from corn.
Most colonists ate ground corn-
meal cooked into a mush or a cake
every day. Women pounded corn for
hours in wooden bowls called mor-
tars. It is said that fishermen lost in
a fog would know they were close
to land when they heard the pound-
ing sound.
Meat was a favorite food for
many colonists. Colonists hunted
The Granger Collection, New York
wild deer, rabbits, and birds. They
Food preparation occupied a great deal of time in the colonies. Here, we see one also raised pigs, cattle, and chick-
woman rolling corn meal while another cooks on the stove. The woman in the ens. Their biggest problem with
doorway is using a butter churn. meat was how to keep it from going
bad. Without refrigerators, meat had #11
to be salted, smoked, or pickled to keep it from rotting. Colonists often
used pepper and other spices to disguise the bad taste of old meat.
Fruit was another major food. Apple trees grew well in the New
England and Middle Colonies. “Apple pie is used through the whole year,”
wrote a visitor to Delaware in 1758. “And when fresh apples are no longer
to be had, dried ones are used. It is the evening meal of children.” In spring
and summer, children picked wild huckleberries, blackberries, blueberries, #11
grapes, and strawberries. In the Southern Colonies, colonists had more
peaches than they could eat.
Many colonists thought vegetables were unhealthy, particularly if eaten
raw. Still, they learned to be thankful for native pumpkins, squash, beans,
peas, and sweet potatoes. They also planted root vegetables, such as
parsnips, turnips, carrots, and onions. In the English tradition, they cooked #11
these vegetables into mushy stews seasoned with meat and herbs from their
Great iron pots of stew simmered 24 hours a day in colonial fireplaces.
Keeping food hot reduced the chances that it would spoil. Each day, bowls
of stew were served at the main meal, which was eaten between noon and
three o’clock. For breakfast and dinner, colonists ate mostly some form of
corn mush sweetened with milk, fruit, honey, molasses, or maple syrup.
60 Chapter 4
13. 4.13 Chapter Summary
n this chapter, you read about life in the American colonies during the
early 1700s. You used a journal to organize information about various
aspects of colonial life.
The colonists developed an economy based on farming, commerce, and
crafts. Farm families produced most of what they needed for themselves. In
the villages and cities, many trades and crafts developed.
American colonists expected to enjoy all the rights of English citizens,
especially the right to have a voice in their own government. Crimes and
punishments were defined by colonial assemblies. Often, punishments were
Class differences in the colonies were based mostly on wealth. Most
people in lower classes could hope to move up through hard work.
Enslaved African Americans had almost no such hope. After being brought
to America in chains, they faced a life of forced obedience and toil.
Religion was very important to the colonists. The First Great Awakening
revived religious feeling and helped spread the idea that all people are
Except in New England, most colonial children received little education.
Instead, they were expected to contribute to the work of the farm or home.
Most colonial families were large. Often they included many relatives
besides the parents and their children.
Much of colonial life was hard work, even preparing food. But colonists
found ways to mix work with play. They also enjoyed sports and games.
For most of the 1700s, the colonists were content to be ruled by English
laws. In the next chapter, however, you’ll learn how tensions grew between
the colonists and the government in far-off England.
This panorama of
Philadelphia in 1702
reveals a number of
aspects of colonial life.
Church steeples,
government buildings,
colonial homes, ships,
and citizens on unpaved
colonial roads are all
evident in the painting.
The Granger Collection, New York