Age of Enlightenment and its Aspects

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This booklet gives a description of the Age of Enlightenment and its various aspects. It also tells about the situations, conditions, and the role of different personalities influenced at that time.
1. The Age of Enlightenment
2. The Age of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement
beginning in France that advocated Reason and
logic as the basis of authority and all decisions and
using reason and logic to solve social problems
3. The Age of Enlightenment
Many of the United States' Founding Fathers were heavily
influenced by Enlightenment-era ideas:(1600s-1800s)
– particularly in the religious sphere (separation of church and
– And in the political sphere (a major influence on the U.S.
Bill of Rights
4. The Age of Enlightenment
Heavily influenced by the – Scientific Revolution: the time
Scientific Revolution in Europe period where scientists in
during the 1600s Europe began to observe,
hypothesize, and experiment
to reach conclusions about the
natural world
Challenged prevailing religious
beliefs and the Catholic
Church’s authority on all
things relating to the natural
Ex Galileo was excommunicated
from the Church for arguing that
the Earth revolved around the sun
(Helio-centered universe) instead
Developed the Scientific
of other way around
5. Philosphes
believed in using the
Enlightenment philosophers scientific method to solve
who met to discuss reason, social problems
logic, rationale, and how to
solve social problems
were against Divine Right
and believed the people are
the source of government’s
met in underground clubs
called Salons
6. Who Were the Philosophes So Mad at?
King Louis XIV of
France (r. 1643-
“The Sun King”
7. King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Ruled France as an absolute monarch in control of
every aspect of every French citizen’s life
Believed his entire kingdom revolved solely around
him: called himself “The Sun King”
8. King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Lived a lavish life funded by heavy taxes on
most of his subjects
Most of his subjects lived in poverty with barely
enough to eat
9. King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Believed in Divine Right: Believed God
anointed him king so he was only
responsible to answer to God, not to his
10. Palace of Versailles
Became the French capital
12 miles outside of Paris
Really angered the Philosophes
Built 1671-1682 by
King Louis XIV
Shows how out of touch and
insincere King Louis XIV was
towards his subjects
11. Thomas Hobbes
● 1588-1679
● British Philosopher
● Believed humans were
naturally wicked
12. Thomas Hobbes
Believed human beings
Believed human
could not be trusted to
beings were make decisions to benefit
naturally wicked all, only to benefit
Believed an absolute monarch
was necessary to protect
human beings from each other
(Humans not capable of self
13. Hobbes: Leviathan and Social Contract
Wrote Leviathan 1651 Argued that the only way to
avoid war, chaos, disarray
was a strong central ruler
Argued that the people Hobbes’ Social Contract:
people give up their rights to an
and the leader had a absolute ruler in exchange for
Social Contract protection, law, and order. People
do not have the right to rebel
14. Jean Jacque Rousseau
● Swiss Philosopher
● 1712-1778
● Also had a “Social Contract”
● Wrote The Social Contract
Book in 1762
15. Rousseau
Believed humans were naturally good and corrupted
by society, not the other way around (as Hobbes
Believed society forces people to compete brining out
the worst in people
Believed government forces people to distrust each
other and takes freedoms away
16. Rousseau
Believed modern technology made people too
dependent on one another
Believed dependency created inequality, social classes,
17. Rousseau’s Social Contract
The Social Contract: Believed that the people
published 1762 are the source of
government powers
Believed government’s Believed if government did
job was to help people be not do its job people had
happy and needs cared the right to remove leaders,
for rebel
18. Hobbes’ & Rousseau's Social Contracts
Hobbes Rousseau
People are naturally People start out good and
wicked become corrupted by
People need to surrender society
their independence to an People are the source of
absolute leader in government’s power
exchange for law and Government needs to
order help people
People do not have the People can rebel if
right to rebel leaders fail to do their job
19. Baron Montesquieu
French Philosopher
Believed government’s
power needs to be checked
20. Baron Montesquieu
Believed in 3 types of governments:
● Monarchies: ruled by a king/queen guided by honor
● Republics: ruled by elected officials guided by virtue
● Despotisms: ruled by absolute dictators guided by
21. Baron Montesquieu
Separation of Powers
Believed power in government
had to be divided amongst
different branches
Believed checks and balances
are necessary to keep one
branch from becoming too
Believed the people needed Heavily influenced America’s
safeguards from government founding fathers 1770’s-1780’s
becoming too powerful 3 Branches of Gov’t included in US
22. Separation of Powers (Checks and
23. John Locke
British Philosopher
Believed all people were
born with 3 natural rights
(Life, Liberty, Property)
24. John Locke
Believed people are born with minds as a blank slate to
be filled up: not naturally good or bad
Believed it was human nature to want to figure things out and to
want to make sense of the world around you
Disagreed with Hobbes that people are naturally wicked
Believed humans were reasonable creatures capable of figuring
out anything
25. Locke’s 3 Natural Rights
Locke believed all people born with 3 Natural
Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property
Locke’s Natural Rights heavily influenced America’s
Natural Rights included in US Declaration of
Independence (Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of
26. Voltaire 1694-1778
French Philosopher
Staunch supporter
of individual
27. Voltaire
Known for his wit and Believed that organized formal
nonconformity religion was too constricting
Was opposed to organized But did believe in freedom of
religions criticizing other faiths religion
and practitioners
28. Voltaire
Staunch supporter of right to a fair trial
Heavily influenced
leaders of the French
Was opposed to censorship: "I disapprove of what you say, but I
will defend, to the death, your right to say it."
29. Mary Wollstonecraft
British philosopher,
author, and feminist
30. Mary Wollstonecraft
1792 wrote A Vindication of the Rights of
Argued women are not naturally
inferior to men; they just suffer
from lack of educational
31. Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued that men and women should be treated as
equal beings
Argued that social order should be determined by
reason (usefulness) not by gender, race, wealth, etc.
32. Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued that society Argued that women
trains women to be should receive the same
weak and more type and quality of
concerned with their education as men
superficial looks than
contributions to society
Argued it was a problem that
men were so comfortable with
treating women as inferiors
33. Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued that proper Argued women must be
education for women will given the opportunity to
solve their problems participate in the public
sphere as much as the
private sphere
Most Enlightenment
Philosophes did not agree with
her about the roles of women She was a feminist long before
and education for women it was acceptable
She inspired numerous later
generations of feminists in
numerous countries
34. Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Was Queen of
Most powerful Queen in
European History
Believed in Divine Right
35. Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Believed in Divine Right but believed her
subjects were like her children and she had
to take care of them
Never got married or had children: challenged the
popular belief that women had to marry
36. Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Even though she believed in She settled decades-long religious
Divine Right she still saw the tension in England (Catholics vs.
need to rule with reason Protestants)
The Philosophes saw her as an
inspiration to other monarchs: be
an Enlightened ruler