Thomas Jefferson : The Third President of the US

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This booklet describes Thomas Jefferson who was the country's third president, detailing his personal life, background, education, political beliefs, and at the end gives a short description about Louisiana purchase.
1. Thomas Jefferson
The Country’s Third President
2. Jefferson's Home, Monticello
3. 1. Background and Education
• Father: Peter Jefferson
• Like most sons of land owners, he studied
land surveying
• Graduated from William and Mary
University in Williamsburg, VA
• Tall, red-headed, quiet
4. 2. Political Beliefs
• The government which governs least,
governs best
• Strongly favored States Rights as opposed
to a strong national government
• Believed in a strict construction, or strict
interpretation, of the U.S.Constitution
5. 3. Accomplishments Prior to
becoming President
• Wrote the first draft of the Declaration of
• Wrote the Statute of Virginia for Religious
• Created the University of Virginia
• Served as an ambassador to Europe from
the United States
6. 4. The Election of 1800
• Democratic-Republican Candidates:
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
7. 4. The Election of 1800
• Federalist Candidates:
John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney
8. 4. The Election of 1800
• Adams would have won re-election, perhaps
easily, had Alexander Hamilton not split the
Federalist Party
9. 4. The Election of 1800
• Instead, the Democratic-Republicans won
the election
• Both winning candidates, Jefferson and
Burr, received 73 electoral votes
• Election was settled the House of
Representatives after 35 votes
• Hamilton swings the election to Jefferson
and angers Burr
10. 4. The Election of 1800
• The messed up election pointed out the
need for a Constitutional amendment
regarding the Presidential election
• The 12th Amendment modified the
Constitution so that the President and the
Vice-President are elected using separate
11. 4. The Election of 1800
• Federalists fear what Jefferson will say—
will he start a new revolution?
• Jefferson, surprisingly, calls for unity—he
states “We are all Republicans, we are all
• Jefferson DOES NOT propose to change
or destroy the structure of the federal
12. 5. Accomplishments made during
early part of Jefferson’s 1st term
• Appointed Albert Gallatin as Secretary of
the Treasury
• Cut military spending
• Reduced the army from 4000 to 2500 men
• Reduced the navy from 25 to 7 ships
• Reduced national debt from $83 million to
$45 million
• Cut ALL internal taxes
13. 5. Accomplishments made during
early part of Jefferson’s 1st term
• Only source of government income: tariffs
and sales of Western land
• Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire
14. 6. Issues with the Courts
• Marbury vs. Madison: Does William
Marbury, one of John Adams’ last minute
“midnight judges,” receive his commission
to be judge or not?
• Jefferson had James Madison refuse to
give the commission to Marbury
• Issue went before the Supreme Court
• Ruling became a precedent—an example
for future court cases
15. 6. Issues with the Courts
• With Marbury vs. Madison, the Supreme
Court established the concept of “Judicial
Review” of laws
• Judicial Review means that the Court may
decide if a law is constitutional or not.
• If a law is judged to be unconstitutional, or
goes against the U.S. Constitution, then
the law ceases to be a law.
16. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• By 1800, the western boundary of the U.S.
was the Mississippi.
• The Louisiana Territory, that is all lands
west of the Mississippi River which
drained into the river, was originally
controlled by France.
• As part of losing the French-Indian War,
France ceded, or gave, the Louisiana
Territory to Spain
17. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• The Louisiana Territory continued to be
controlled by Spain until 1800.
• A war fought in Europe between Spain and
France ended with a victory for Napoleon
and the French.
• Secretly, the Louisiana Territory was
transferred from Spain to France as a
result of that European war.
18. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson learned that Louisiana Territory
was now controlled by France
• French ownership of the Louisiana
Territory posed several problems for the
U.S.—mainly the French were popular
with the Indians and the French presence
blocked any sort of westward movement
by U.S. citizens into the Louisiana Territory
19. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• The other major problem involved the city
of New Orleans. New Orleans controlled
all river trade. River trade came from not
only the Louisiana Territory, but also from
the United States. If France decided to
close the city of New Orleans to U.S.
trade, then the U.S. would suffer great
economic hardship.
20. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson realized the problems involved
with France owning the Louisiana Territory.
• Jefferson sends Robert Livingston and
James Monroe to buy New Orleans and
West Florida for $2 million from France.
• Livingston and Monroe may spend UP to
$10 million.
21. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Despite being more money and more land
than expected, both Livingston and
Monroe quickly agree to the deal.
• The deal poses a personal problem for
Jefferson—is this small government? Still,
Jefferson agrees to the deal.
• Congress debates the issue—lots of
money involved—still, they agree to it.
22. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
• Napoleon experiences slave rebellion
trouble in the French colony of Saint
Domingue located in the Caribbean.
• Napoleon also needs money for another
war with Great Britain. He decides to sell
ALL of the Louisiana Territory. His price:
$15 million.
23. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
24. 10. Jefferson’s Reelection
• By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned
success as a President. He was easily
• Burr decided to run for governor of New
York. Hamilton criticized Burr; Burr
challenged Hamilton to a duel; Burr shoots
and kills Hamilton. Burr’s term as Vice
President was not quite over at the time of
the duel.
25. 11. Jefferson’s 2 Term nd
• Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in
the Mediterranean Sea demand tribute
from U.S. trade ships.
• Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute
• The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare
war on the U.S.
• Jefferson does not want to fight; instead,
he orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli.
26. 11. Jefferson’s 2 Term nd
• The blockade eventually works. The U.S.
forces the pirates to sign a peace treaty
which ends all tribute payments.
• The military action is popular in the U.S.,
but shows the need for a U.S. navy.
• Jefferson puts aside his own personal
problems with the government paying for a
navy, and the country develops a stronger
27. 12. Jefferson after the Presidency
• James Madison, the author
of the Constitution, a
and Jefferson’s hand-
picked successor becomes
the next President.
• Madison leads the country
during the War of 1812.
28. 12. Jefferson after the Presidency
• Jefferson renews his friendship with his
long-term friend and political rival, John
• Jefferson and Adams exchange letters
with each other.
• Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both
die on the same day: July 4, 1826. It was
the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of
Independence which both men help write.
29. Jefferson's Tombstones