The First Industrial Revolution: 1760-1820/1840

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This booklet describes the First Industrial Revolution and its different aspects, impacts, consequences, different explosion, also about historical significance.
2. Prelude: The Population Explosion
○ Famine
○ War
○ Disease
○ Stricter quarantine
○ The elimination of
the black rat
3. Historical Significance of the
Industrial Revolution
 The Industrial Revolution changed human
life drastically
 More was created in the last 250+ years than
in the previous 2500+ years of known
human history
4. What was the Industrial
 The Industrial Revolution refers to the
greatly increased output of machine
made goods that began in England in
the 1700s
5. The Industrial Revolution
 Machines were invented which replaced
human labor
 New energy sources were developed to
power the new machinery – water,
steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene)
 Increased use of metals and minerals
Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc.
6. Britain Takes
the Lead Great Britain’s advantages:
 Plentiful iron and coal
 A navigable river system
 Colonies that supplied
raw materials and bought
finished goods
 A government that
improvements in
transportation and used
its navy to protect British
7. Development of the Domestic
System of Production
 Domestic system developed in England
 Late 1600s-late 1800s
 Domestic system could not keep up with
8. The Industrial Revolution
 Transportation improved
○ Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships
○ Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers
 Communication improved
9. Background of the Industrial Revolution
 Scientific Revolution
 Intellectual Revolution
 Encouraged learning and the search for better
and newer ways of doing things
 Agricultural Revolution
 Landowners experimented in their enclosures
 Seed drill
 Crop rotation
 Livestock breeding
10. The Seed Drill
11. The Threshing Machine
12. Four-Field System
crop rotation example
Charles “Turnip”
13. Factory System
 Developed to replace the domestic system of
 Faster method of production
 Workers concentrated in a set location
 Production anticipated demand
For example: Under the domestic system, a woman
might select fabric and have a businessperson give it
to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under
the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots
of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple
dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women
would buy them.
15. Why the Industrial Revolution
Started in England
16. England’s Resources: Capital
 merchants had the capital to invest in the factory
system – money to buy buildings, machinery, and
raw materials
 Its colonies gave England access to enormous
markets and vast amounts of raw materials
 possessed the necessary raw materials to create the
means of production (coal, iron)
 English people could freely travel from the
countryside to the cities
 World’s largest merchant fleet
17. England’s Resources:
 England is the political center of Great Britain,
an island
 Great Britain did not suffer fighting on its land
during the wars of the 18th century
 Island has excellent harbors and ports
 Damp climate benefited the textile industry
(thread did not dry out)
 Government stable
 No internal trade barriers
18. Inventions Spur
 Weavers work faster-flying shuttles/
spinning jennies
 Water frame uses H2O to drive spinning
 Power loom- spinning mules speed up
 Move machinery to factories
19. “Necessity Is the Mother of
20. “Necessity Is the Mother of
21. “Necessity Is the Mother of
22. “Necessity Is the Mother of
•The process of inventing never ends
•One invention inevitably leads to improvements upon it
and to more inventions
23. Bell Work
January 13, 2014
 Turn your project into the stack at the front
 Also, turn your current event into your box
 How was your second drawing of the urban
village different than your first?
 Were you surprised at how fast these towns
grew in just 100 years?
 What factors did you think about when
laying out your town?
24. The Birth and Growth of the
Textile Industry
25. These machines were so large. They were placed in
large buildings called factories
27. Development of Steam Engines
 Early water power involved mills built over
fast-moving streams and rivers
 Problems-rivers far removed, not enough
power, prone to drying
 James Watt, Scotland (1769)
Improved Newcomen’s steam engine to power
28. Steam Engines
 By 1800, steam engines were replacing
water wheels as sources of power for
 Factories relocated near raw materials,
workers, and ports
 Cities grew around the factories built
near central England’s coal and iron
Manchester, Liverpool
29. Before the Industrial Revolution
•Canal barges pulled by mules
•Ships powered by sails
•Horse-drawn wagons, carts, and carriages
After the Industrial Revolution
30. Transportation Revolution
31.  Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in 1807
 The Clermont operated the first regular steamboat
route, running between Albany and New York City
 1819 – the Savannah used a steam engine as
auxiliary power for the first time when it sailed
across the Atlantic Ocean
 1836 – John Ericsson invented a screw propeller to
replace paddle wheels
 1838 – the Great Western first ship to sail across
the Atlantic on steam power alone, completing the
trip in 15 days
33. Macadamized Roads
 Strong, hard roads invented by Thomas Telford and
John McAdam
 Improvement over dirt and gravel roads
 Macadamized roads have a smooth, hard surface
that supports heavy loads without requiring a thick
 Modern roads are macadamized roads, with tar
added to limit the creation of dust
35.  1830 – Stephenson’s “Rocket” train traveled the
40 miles between Liverpool and Manchester in 1
½ hours
 1830-1870 – railroad tracks went from 49 miles
to over 15,000 miles
 Steel rails replaced iron rails
 1869 – Westinghouse’s air brake made train
travel safer
 Greater train traveling comfort – heavier train
cars, improved road beds, and sleeping cars
37. Communications Revolution
38. Bell Work
January 14
Review Questions
Pick two to answer thoroughly
1. What was the Industrial Revolution?
2. Describe at least three developments of the Industrial
3. Compare and contrast the domestic and factory
methods of production.
4. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England?
5. Explain why one invention or development leads to
39. Review Questions
6. Explain how developments in the textile industry
sparked the Industrial Revolution.
7. Describe at least three developments in the area of
8. Describe at least three developments in the field of
9. Considering the conditions necessary for
industrialization to occur, how well equipped is the
undeveloped world for becoming industrialized? Are
modern undeveloped nations in a better or worse
position than 18th- and 19th-century England?
40. Industrialization: Section 2
 European cities go through a
period of urbanization because
of the factory system
 This caused living conditions to
be terrible
 Sickness was widespread
 Average worker spent 14hours,
 Dangerous industry-coal mines
42. Class Tension
 New money-factory owners, shippers,
and merchants became middle class
Upper-doctors, lawyers
Lower-factory overseers
 Working class-machines replaced them
Luddites-destroyed machines in factories
and rioted
43. Hey, some good things 
 Created jobs
 Money!
 Increased production of goods
 Hope of improvement
 Expanded educational opportunities
 Took a while for everybody but
eventually conditions improved in the
work place
44. Bell Work
January 15, 2014
 What early industries mechanized in the
United States?
 Why did Belgium lead Europe in
adopting industrialization?
 How did the Industrial Revolution shift
the world balance of power?
45. Industrialization Spreads
Section: 3
 Samuel Slater- built a spinning machine from
memory in U.S.
 Francis Lowell-mechanized every stage of
manufactured cloth in U.S.
 Women flocked to mill jobs
 U.S. went through Industrialization in late
 Resources, inventions, swelling population
were contributors
 Railroads played a major role
46.  Entrepreneurs sold shares of stock or
rights of ownership
 These businesses became corporations
 Gives the ability to raise large amounts
of capital
 Standard Oil
 Carnegie Steel
47. Europe Industrializes
 William Cockerill made his way to
Belgium, his son built large industry
 Germany had pockets of industry
Imported British engineers and build
 Regions in Europe began to Industrialize
(ex. Northern Italy-textile)
 Social structure and geography halted it
48.  Industrialized countries exploited
overseas markets for resources
 Imperialism was born
 Gave Europe great power
 Developed a middle class
 Created a movement for social reform
49. Philosophers: Section 4
 Adam Smith believed
in the term laissez
Policy of letting owner
of industry and
business set working
conditions without
 Wrote about in The
Wealth of Nations
50.  Capitalism-economic system in which the
factors of production are privately owned and
money is invested in business ventures to
make a profit
 Malthus -An Essay on the Principle of
Population epidemics and wars are necessary
 Ricardo- Principles of Political Economy and
Taxation-a permanent underclass
51.  Jeremy Bentham-utilitarianism-people should
judge things based on their usefulness
 Individuals should be free to pursue interests
without interference of the state
 Questioned unregulated capitalism
 Pushed for reforms
 Utopian leaders-Robert Owen-improved
working conditions, attempted to create
Utopia in Indiana
52.  French Reformers
 Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon
 Socialism-factors of production are
owned by the public and operate for the
welfare of all
53.  Karl Marx and Freidrich
 The Communist Manifesto
 Middle class “haves” or
 “have nots” workers or
 Predicted that the workers
would overthrow owners
54.  Marx believed factories would drive
small businesses out, leaving anumber
of manufacturers to control all wealth
 Proletariat would revolt and a classless
society would develop
 Called communism
 All good would be shared equally
55.  Workers joined together
Reforms to form unions
 Engaged in bargaining
with employers if
refused workers would
 Britain-Combination
Acts outlawed unions
but were repealed in
 1886- U.S.- American
Federation of Labor led
successful strikes
56.  Factory Act of 1833-illegal to hire
children under 9
 Could not work more than 8 hours a day
 1842- Mines Act prevented women and
children from working underground
 1847- limited workday to 10 hours
57. Reform Movement
 William Wilberforce was influential in getting
the slave to end in Britain in 1833
 US-1865-Puerto Rico-1873-Brazil-1888
 Women activists met at the International
Council for Women in 1888.
 Horace Mann-advocated for free public
 Alexis de Tocqueville sought to reform the
conditions in prison