Learning English Grammar

Contributed by:
It gives you an idea of what grammar is about.
1. Book
Younger students at beginning to intermediate levels will
greatly benefit from this step-by-step approach to English
grammar basics. This is the ideal supplement to your
language arts program whether your students are native
English speakers or beginning English language learners.
Skill-specific lessons make it easy to locate and prescribe
instant reinforcement or intervention.
• Illustrated lessons are tightly focused on core concepts
of grammar
• Nearly 70 practice exercises are included
for ready reinforcement
• A wealth of examples are provided on every topic
• Concise explanations are bolstered by extra grammar
tips and useful language notes
2. Book
Anne Seaton • Y. H. Mew
Ismail Digital Library
3. Three Watson
Irvine, CA 92618-2767
Web site: www.sdlback.com
First published in the United States by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 3 Watson, Irvine,
CA 92618 by arrangement with Learners Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore
Copyright ©2007 by Saddleback Educational Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this book
may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the
ISBN 1-59905-201-6
Printed in the United States of America
13 12 11 10 09 08 07 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
4. Introduction
Grammar is a very old field of study. Did you know that the
sentence was first divided into subject and verb by Plato,
the famed philosopher from ancient Greece? That was
about 2,400 years ago! Ever since then, students all over
the world have found it worthwhile to study the structure
of words and sentences. Why? Because skill in speaking
and writing is the hallmark of all educated people.
Lesson by lesson, this book provides basic instruction
in the eight parts of speech—nouns, pronouns, verbs,
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and
interjections—as well as the standard patterns of English
All students of English, be they native speakers or those
who are studying English as a second language, will
profit from the fundamental introduction and review of
grammar provided by SADDLEBACK’S BASIC ENGLISH
GRAMMAR 1 and 2. Helpful marginal notes throughout
the books have been provided to reinforce existing skills
and call attention to common problem areas.
We wish you every success in your pursuit of English
5. 1 What is Grammar? 5 The Simple Past Tense 98
Regular and Irregular Verbs 99
Was and Were 104
2 The Capital Letter 6 The Past Progressive Tense 106
The Future Tense 108
Can and Could 112
May and Might 113
3 Nouns 8 Do, Does and Did 115
Common Nouns 8 Would and Should 120
Proper Nouns 13
Singular Nouns 21
Plural Nouns 23 8 Subject-Verb Agreement 123
Collective Nouns 34
Masculine and Feminine Nouns 37
9 Adverbs 127
4 Pronouns 44
Personal Pronouns 44 10 Prepositions 132
Reflexive Pronouns 47
Interrogative Pronouns 48
Demonstrative Pronouns 49 11 Conjunctions 135
5 Adjectives 52
12 Interjections 138
Adjective Endings 54
Kinds of Adjectives 58
Comparison of Adjectives 65 13 Sentences 139
What is a Sentence? 139
6 Determiners 71 Kinds of Sentences 140
The Imperative 141
The Articles 71 The Subject and the Object 143
Demonstrative Determiners 73 Direct and Indirect Objects 144
Interrogative Determiners 74 Positive and Negative Sentences 146
Possessive Determiners 75 Questions 147
7 Verbs and Tenses 79 14 Punctuation 150
The Simple Present Tense 80 Period 150
Am, Is and Are 83 Comma 151
The Present Progressive Tense 89 Exclamation Point 152
Have and Has 93 Question Mark 152
The Present Perfect Tense 96 Apostrophe 153
6. 1 What is Grammar?
Here’s an old children’s rhyme about the eight parts of
speech of English grammar. It gives you an idea of what
grammar is about. Read and remember it.
Every name is called a noun, Pronoun
As field and fountain, street and town.
In place of noun the pronoun stands,
As he and she can clap their hands.
The adjective describes a thing,
As magic wand or bridal ring.
Most verbs mean action, something done,
To read and write, to jump and run.
How things are done the adverbs tell,
As quickly, slowly, badly, well.
ition Adverb
The preposition shows relation,
As in the street or at the station.
Conjunctions join, in many ways,
Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase.
The interjection cries out, “Heed!
Conjunction An exclamation point must
follow me!”

7. 2 The Capital Letter
The capital letter is also called a big letter or upper-
case letter, or sometimes just a capital.
When do you use a capital letter?
4 Use a capital letter for the first letter in a
The dog is barking.
Come here!
4 Always use a capital letter for the word I :
I am eight years old.
Tom and I are good friends.
4 Use a capital letter for the names of people:
Alice, Tom, James, Kim, Snow White
4 Use a capital letter for the names of places:
National Museum, Bronx Zoo, London, Sacramento
4 Use a capital letter for festivals, holidays,
days of the week, months of the year:
New Year’s Day, Christmas, Labor Day, Mother’s Day,
Sunday, Monday, Friday, January, May, July, October

8. Exercise 1
Circle the letters that should be CAPITALS. Then write
the correct letter in the space above them.
1 peter and i are good friends.
2 we are going to chicago during our summer
3 there is an interesting football game on sunday.
4 jason lives on thomson avenue.
5 january is the first month of the year.
Exercise 2
Look at the signs on the left. Can you find the
mistakes? Write the names correctly.
hopkins hotel lincoln school
orchard street newton road
botanic gardens national library
shea stadium

9. 3 Nouns
Common Nouns
Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns.
Common nouns are words for people, animals, places,
or things.
These are words for people. They are common nouns.
Word File
Here are more words for people:
actor lawyer
aunt judge
baby man
baker nurse
cook police officer acrobat
dentist singer
doctor soldier
giant teacher astronaut
you kn
id o
D Another word for astronaut is
spaceman or spacewoman.

10. These are words for animals. They are common nouns.
bear Word File
Here are more words for animals:
cat goose
cow hen
dog horse
dolphin mouse
duck parrot
fish shark
goat whale

11. These are words for places. They are common nouns.
Word File
Here are more words for places:
airport market
cave mountain
library church playground
shop farm restaurant
hill school
Everfresh Co.
hospital seashore
hotel stadium
house supermarket
island temple
mall zoo
12. These are words for things. They are common nouns.
blanket Word File
Here are more words for things:
bag kite
box ladder
bread lamp
can picture
chair radio
cot television
cup train
desk truck
door watch
gate egg window
13. Exercise 1
Underline the common nouns in these sentences.
1 There’s a little bird in the garden.
2 Who is your teacher?
3 Don’t eat that rotten apple.
4 Kate has a lovely doll.
5 I like reading stories.
6 My father is a doctor.
7 Every child has a dictionary.
8 Rudy hates bananas.
9 The phone is ringing.
10 Here’s a book for you.
Exercise 2
Here’s a mixed bag of words. Put each word under its
correct heading.
swimmer snail fire engine clown
letters flag river barber
mountain fox hotel parrot
granny taxi gardener camel
People Animals Places Things
14. Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are names for particular people, places or
things. They always begin with a capital letter.
Word File Santa Claus
Here are some more names
of people:
Ali Baba
Florence Nightingale
Derek Jeter
Johnny Depp
Harry Potter
Robin Hood
you kn
id o Your own name and the names
of your friends are proper
Kim Lee
nouns too.
15. The names of countries and their people are also
proper nouns.
American Egyptian Indian Italian Thai
Japanese Korean Malay Filipino Pakistani
Country People Country People
America Americans Korea Koreans
Egypt Egyptians Malaysia Malaysians
India Indians Pakistan Pakistanis
Italy Italians France the French
Japan the Japanese Thailand Thais
16. The names of towns, cities, buildings and landmarks
are proper nouns.
Hong Kong
the Great Wall of China
the Statue of Liberty
Tokyo Sydney
Bangkok New Delhi
London Denver the Grand Canyon
New York Central Park the Leaning Tower of Pisa
Paris the Eiffel Tower Brooklyn Bridge
Beijing Big Ben Pike’s Peak
17. The days of the week and months of the year are proper
Sunday March March March March
Monday 1 2 3 4
Sunday Monday Tuesda es day
y Wedn
March March Mar
Thursday ch
5 6 7
Thursday Friday Satu
Saturday y
February March April April
May June
July August August
e r October November December
you kn
id o
January is the first month of the year.
Sunday is the first day of the week.
A table that shows the months, weeks and
18. The names of mountains, seas, rivers and lakes are
proper nouns.
Mount Everest
the Thames
Lake Michigan
the Alps the Himalayas
the Dead Sea the Pacific Ocean Niagara Falls
Mount Fuji the Yellow River
you kn
id o
You often use the before names of oceans,
rivers, seas and ranges of mountains.
Mount means mountain.
It is often used in the names of mountains.
For example: Mount Everest
Mount St. Helens
The written short form for Mount is Mt.
For example: Mt. Everest, Mt. Fuji
19. The names of festivals, some special events and holidays
are proper nouns, too.
Valentine’s Day
Father’s Day
Word File
Here are more names of festivals and holidays:
Christmas Mother’s Day New Year’s Day
Memorial Day April Fool’s Day
Labor Day Thanksgiving Day
Independence Day St. Patrick’s Day
20. Exercise 1
Underline the proper nouns in the following
1 July is often the hottest month in summer.
2 One day Ali Baba saw the forty thieves hiding in a
3 Shawn and Ashley are going to the beach for a swim.
4 Mr. Lee is reading a book.
5 “I am your fairy godmother,” said the old woman to
6 Uncle Mike is a lawyer.
7 Next Tuesday is a public holiday.
8 Many children enjoyed the movie Lion King.
Exercise 2
Look at the words in the box. Which ones are common
nouns and which ones are proper nouns? Put each word
under its correct heading.
Lisa bank President Hotel United Bank
January beach White Sand Beach hotel
doctor month Dr. Wang girl
Common Nouns Proper Nouns
21. Exercise 3
Write C for common or P for proper on the blank
before each noun.
1 _______ the White House
2 _______ the green dress
3 _______ the tall building
4 _______ the Empire State Building
5 _______ the Yellow River
6 _______ the muddy river
7 _______ the governor
8 _______ Governor Parker
9 _______ the Oregon Trail
10 _______ the winding trail
Exercise 4
Underline the nouns that should be capitalized. Circle the
nouns that should not be capitalized.
1 Robert louis Stevenson wrote treasure island.
2 The Capital of illinois is Springfield.
3 My Friends and I prefer Glittergums toothpaste.
4 Their Family visited Yellowstone national Park.
5 Juan and maria attend kennedy Middle school.
6 We had a Surprise Party for aunt Helen.
7 Spring and Fall are my favorite Seasons.
8 The Manager scolded his lazy Employees.
22. Singular Nouns
Nouns can be singular or plural. When you are talking
about one person, animal, place, or thing, use a singular
an owl
a ship
a train
a woman
Word File
These are also singular nouns:
an airplane a letter
a bicycle a map
a boy a photograph
a bus a refrigerator
a flower a comb a slide
a girl a swing
a key a van
23. m ar H
4 Use a or an before singular nouns.
Use an before words beginning with vowels
(a, e, i, o,­­ u). For example, say:
an axe an igloo
an egg an orange
an envelope an umbrella
an ice cream an uncle
4 But some words don’t follow this rule. For example,
use a (not an) before these words that begin with u:
a uniform a university
4 Use a before words beginning with the other
letters of the alphabet, called consonants.
For example, say:
a basket a rainbow
a bowl a monster
a car a pillow
a hill a watch
a house a zoo
4 But some words don’t follow this rule. For example,
use an (not a) before these words that begin with h:
an heir
an honor
an hour
24. Plural Nouns
When you are talking about two or more people,
animals, places, or things, use plural nouns.
Most nouns are made plural by adding -s at the end.
star bats
Word File
Singular Plural
bird birds
broom brooms
camel camels fan
desk desks
doll dolls mugs
egg eggs
flower flowers
fork forks
game games
lamb lambs cap
nest nests fans
pen pens
photo photos
shirt shirts caps
spoon spoons
25. Some plural nouns end in -es.
bus brush
watch Word File
watches Singular Plural
beach beaches
branch branches
box boxes
bush bushes
church churches
dish dishes
dress dresses
sandwich sandwiches
witch witches
m ar H
am ch
When the last letters of singular sh
nouns are ch, sh, s, ss or x, s es
you usually add -es to form ss
the plural. x
26. Some plural nouns end in -ies.
Word File
Singular Plural
baby babies
cherry cherries lilies
diary diaries
dictionary dictionaries
fairy fairies
family families
fly flies candies
lady ladies candy
library libraries
puppy puppies
story stories
strawberry strawberries
m ar H
i +
Nouns like these are made es
plural by changing y to i, and y
adding -es.
27. What if there is a vowel before the y?
In that case, add -s to form the plural. y s
Word File
Singular Plural
chimney chimneys
cowboy cowboys
day days
donkey donkeys
jersey jerseys
kidney kidneys
monkey monkeys
toy toys
trolley trolleys
valley valleys
28. If a noun ends in -f, you often change f to v, and add -es.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
calf calves loaf loaves v es
elf elves shelf shelves
half halves thief thieves
leaf leaves wolf wolves
m ar H
f s
Often nouns that end in -f, just
need -s to form the plural.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
chef chefs handkerchief handkerchiefs
chief chiefs roof roofs
cliff cliffs sheriff sheriffs
For some words that end in -f, the plural can be spelled
in two different ways.
Singular Plural
dwarf dwarfs or dwarves
hoof hoofs or hooves ves
scarf scarfs or scarves
With some words that end in -fe, you change f to v, and add -s.
Singular Plural f
knife knives
life lives v e s
wife wives
you kn
id o
But you only add -s to giraffe to form the
29. If a noun ends in -o, you just add -s to form the plural.
a rhino rhinos
Word File
Singular Plural
a hippo hippos
a video videos
a zoo zoos
a kangaroo kangaroos
But with some nouns that end in -o, you add -es to form
the plural.
Word File
Singular Plural
a tomato tomatoes
a flamingo a potato potatoes
flamingoes a hero heroes
m m ar H
With some nouns that end in -o, you can add
either -s or -es to form the plural.
Singular Plural Plural
a mango mangoes mangos
a mosquito mosquitoes mosquitos
a zero zeroes zeros
a buffalo buffaloes buffalos
30. Some plural nouns don’t follow the -s rule. They don’t end in
-s, -es, -ies or -ves. Instead, the word changes form.
mouse mice
Word File
Singular Plural
child children
man men
ox oxen
tooth teeth
woman women
foot feet
you kn
id o
The plural of the mouse that you
use with your computer is either
mice or mouses.
31. Some plural nouns are the same as the singular noun.
sheep sheep
reindeer reindeer
Word File
Singular Plural
bison bison
fish deer deer
you kn
id o
You can use fishes as the plural of
fish when you are talking about
different kinds of fish: all the fishes
of the Pacific Ocean.
32. Some nouns are always plural.
Word File pliers
pants scissors
pajamas sneakers
shorts slippers
trousers stockings
sandals jeans
you kn
id o
Another word for spectacles
is glasses.
m ar H
You can make these plural nouns singular by
using a pair of:
a pair of binoculars
a pair of spectacles
a pair of goggles
a pair of jeans
a pair of shorts
a pair of pliers
a pair of shoes
33. Exercise 1
Look at the words below. Do you know which ones
are singular and which are plural ? Put a checkmark
(✓) in the correct box.
Singular Plural
Exercise 2
Do you add -s or -es to these singular nouns to make
them plural? Write your answers on the lines.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 desk 6 basket ___________
2 class 7 peach ___________
3 comb 8 belt ___________
4 mug 9 taxi ___________
5 bus 10 box ___________
34. Exercise 3
Do you change -y to -ies, or just add -s to make
these singular nouns plural? Write your anwers.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 key 6 toy
2 city 7 baby
3 butterfly 8 party
4 monkey 9 chimney
5 fly 10 lady
Exercise 4
All these singular nouns end with -o. Add either -s or -es
as you write the plurals on the line.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 video 6 radio
2 piano 7 hippo
3 mango 8 zoo
4 kangaroo 9 zero
5 rhino 10 photo
35. Collective Nouns
Collective nouns are words for groups of people,
animals or things.
These are nouns for groups of people.
a family
a crew
an orchestra Word File
Here are some more groups
of people:
an audience a gang
a band a group
a choir a team
a class
m ar H
Many collective nouns can be used with a
singular or plural verb.
For example:
My family was happy to see me.
My family were happy to see me.
But the following collective nouns always take a plural verb:
cattle people the police
36. Here are more collective nouns that are used for groups
of people, animals or things.
a brood of chickens
a band of musicians
Word File a school of fish
Here are some more
collective nouns:
a bunch of keys
a class of pupils
a collection of books
a deck of cards
a fleet of ships
a flock of sheep
a gaggle of geese
a gang of robbers a team of players
a herd of cattle
a litter of cubs
a pod of whales
a pack of wolves
a pride of lions a flight of steps
a set of stamps
a swarm of bees
a troupe of actors
37. Farmer John had several different kinds of animals
on his farm. Write the correct collective noun for
each group of his animals.
Farmer John had:
a of geese
a of sheep
a of cattle
a of horses
One day a of coyotes tried to attack his animals.
Farmer John yelled and waved a pitchfork to frighten them
38. Masculine and Feminine Nouns
Masculine nouns are words for men and boys, and
male animals.
Feminine nouns are words for women and girls, and
female animals.
bride bridegroom
Word File
Masculine Feminine
boy girl
man woman
prince princess
steward stewardess
king queen
waiter waitress
39. Here are some more masculine and feminine nouns for
Masculine Feminine
actor actress
brother sister
emperor empress
father mother
gentleman lady
grandfather grandmother
grandson granddaughter
headmaster headmistress
man woman
master mistress
nephew niece
prince princess
son daughter
steward stewardess
uncle aunt
wizard witch
you kn
id o Masculine nouns belong to the
masculine gender.
Feminine nouns belong to the
feminine gender.
40. Here are some masculine and feminine nouns for male
and female animals.
Animal Male Female
chicken rooster hen
cattle bull cow
deer buck doe
donkey jack jenny
duck drake duck
fox fox vixen
goose gander goose
horse stallion mare
lion lion lioness
sheep ram ewe
tiger tiger tigress
you kn
id o
Nouns that end in -ess and -ress often belong
to the feminine gender. For example:
actress stewardess
lioness tigress
princess waitress
41. Many nouns are used for both males and females.
Word File
Nouns like these are used for
both males and females:
accountants parents
artists managers
hairdressers designers pupils
engineers singers
lawyers teachers
m ar H
We call these nouns common-gender nouns.
42. Words for things that are neither male nor female are
called neuter nouns.
Word File
Here are some neuter nouns:
ball forest
building gymnasium
broom playground
cake rock
computer sky
card socks
floor wind
43. Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with the correct masculine or
feminine nouns.
Masculine Feminine
1 master
2 uncle
3 niece
4 lioness
5 tiger
6 empress
7 husband
8 son
9 mother
10 madam
Exercise 2
Fill in each blank with a suitable masculine or feminine
1 The host and the ____________ welcomed their guests.
2 The steward and the ____________ look after the
passengers on the plane.
3 My uncle and ________ lived in Nebraska.
4 The king and the _________ had two children, a boy
and a ________. The prince was eight and the
_____________ was five.
5 Ladies and ______________ , welcome to our party this
44. Exercise 3
Look at the words in the box. Write each word under
its correct heading.
children sun witch king
boy son father girl
mother queen file teacher
lamp doctor dancer wizard
ram rooster elf fish
Masculine Feminine Common Gender Neuter
45. 4 Pronouns
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common
noun or a proper noun. There are different kinds of pronouns.
Personal Pronouns
The words I, you, he, she, it, we and they are called
personal pronouns. They take the place of nouns and
are used as the subject of the verb in a sentence.
My name is David. I am the youngest in the family.
This is my father. He is a teacher.
This is my mother. She is a lawyer.
I have a brother and two sisters.
They are Peter, Sharon and Jenny.
I have a dog. It is called Lucky.
Lucky, you are a good dog.
Good morning, children! You may sit down now.
My family and I live in a big city. We have an apartment.
m ar H
The subject of a sentence is the person, animal,
place or thing that does the action shown by the
46. The words me, you, him, her, it, us and them are also
personal pronouns. They also take the place of nouns.
These pronouns are used as the object of the verb in a
I am standing on my head. Look at me.
My mother is kind. Everybody likes her.
Lisa, I told you to tidy your bed!
Sharon and Jenny! Dad is waiting for you!
Lucky and I are playing in the park. Dad is watching us.
You must not play with the knife. Give it to me.
Pick up your toys and put them away.
Baby birds cannot fly. Tom likes riding my bicycle.
Mother bird has to feed them. I sometimes lend it to him.
m ar H
The object of a sentence is the person, animal,
place or thing that receives the action shown by
the verb.
47. m ar H
There are three groups of pronouns: first person,
second person and third person.
The person speaking is called the first person.
The first-person pronouns are I or me (in the singular) and
we or us (in the plural).
The person spoken to is called the second person. The
second-person pronoun is you (in both singular and plural).
The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the
third person. The third-person pronouns are he or him, she or
her, and it (in the singular), and they or them (in the plural).
The word I is always spelled with a capital letter.
The pronoun he is used for men and boys, she for
women and girls, and it for things and animals.
Here is a table to help you.
Subject Object
First person singular I me
Second person singular you you
Third person singular he him
she her
it it
First person plural we us
Second person plural you you
Third person plural they them
48. Reflexive Pronouns
The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, yourselves and themselves are called
reflexive pronouns.
They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of
the verb.
I made this cake myself.
Be careful with the knife. You’ll cut yourself.
Michael is looking at himself in the mirror.
Susan has hurt herself.
Our cat washes itself after each meal.
We organized the party all by ourselves.
Come in, children, and find yourselves a seat.
Baby birds are too young to look after themselves.
m ar H
Here is a table to remind you about reflexive
Singular Plural
First person (I,me) myself (we,us) ourselves
Second person (you) yourself (you) yourselves
Third person (he, him) himself (they, them) themselves
(she, her) herself (they, them) themselves
(it) itself (they, them) themselves
49. Interrogative Pronouns
The words who, whom, whose, what and which are
called interrogative pronouns.
These pronouns are used to ask questions.
Who Whom
Who is he talking to? Whom are you playing with?
Who are those people? Whom is he talking to?
Which Whose
Which of these bags is yours? Whose is this umbrella?
Which do you prefer? Whose are these gloves?
What is your dog’s name?
What are you talking about?
What is the time?
m ar H
Who can be used as the object of a verb as well
as the subject.
Whom is used only as the object. For example,
you can say:
Who are you playing with?
Whom are you playing with?
50. Demonstrative Pronouns
The words this, these, that and those are called
demonstrative pronouns. They are showing words.
Those are goats.
That is John’s house.
That is a mountain.
Those are horses.
What are those?
We can do better
These are sheep.
than that.
No, that’s not mine.
This is my house. You mean you won?
This is a hill. That’s amazing!
These are donkeys. Hello, who is that
What is this? speaking, please?
Did you drop this? Hello, is that you,
Hi, Jane! This is Michael! George?
m m ar H
You use this and these when you point to things
near you.
You use that and those when you point to things
farther away.
Demonstrative pronouns can be singular or plural:
Singular Plural
this these
that those
51. Exercise 1
Draw a line to join each of the subject pronouns
to the object pronoun that matches.
I he it she they you we
us her you them me him it
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns.
1 Peter and I are brothers. _______ share a bedroom
2 Sue isn’t well. Dad is taking _______ to see a doctor.
3 My brother is a teacher. _______ teaches English.
4 All his students like _______ very much.
5 Children, _______ are making too much noise!
6 Who are those people? Where are _______ from?
7 Mom is a doctor. _______ works in a hospital.
8 The sky is getting dark. _______ is going to rain.
9 John, we are all waiting for _______. Are you coming
with _______?
10 May _______ borrow your pen?
11 Yes, of course. When can you return _______ to
12 What are _______ reading, Jenny?
52. Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with the correct reflexive pronouns
from the box.
yourselves themselves itself myself
himself yourself ourselves herself
1 No one can help us. We have to help ____________.
2 Jane always makes the bed by ____________.
3 They painted the wall all by ____________.
4 I hurt ____________ in the playground yesterday.
5 John, you must behave __________ before your friends.
6 Children, you must do the homework ____________.
7 Tom defended ____________ against the bullies.
8 The dog is scratching ____________.
Exercise 4
Write the correct interrogative pronouns in the blanks to
complete the sentences:
1 _______ is the matter with you?
2 _______ invented the computer?
3 _______ of the twins is older?
4 _______ do you wish to speak to?
5 _______ is this car in front of our house?
6 _______ knows the answer?
7 _______ came first, the chicken or the egg?
8 _______ would you like to drink?
9 _______ of them do you think will win the race?
10 _______ is the word for a stamp collector?
53. 5 Adjectives
An adjective is a describing word. It tells you more about
a noun. An adjective usually appears before the noun
it describes. Sometimes, though, the adjective appears
after the noun, later in the sentence.
a smart dog
an old building
a busy street
a dark corner
a deep sea a tall basketball player
a large bed
It is windy.
John’s handwriting is very neat.
The sea is rough.
All the players are very tall.
The baby’s hands are very small.
Sue’s drawing is beautiful.
That problem is too difficult.
Peter is very quiet today.
a low fence
54. Exercise 1
Underline the adjectives in the following sentences.
1 There is an empty room upstairs.
2 It’s a hot summer.
3 You are so kind.
4 Don’t be crazy.
5 This park is clean and green.
6 Many people exercise to keep healthy.
7 I think these eggs are rotten.
8 We are all bored. There isn’t anything to do.
9 The pupils don’t find the joke amusing.
10 James was absent because he was ill.
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with suitable adjectives from the box.
hot large short free
high sweet poor playful
1 The ice cream is very _________.
2 It’s very _________ in summer.
3 The company is giving away _________ gifts to its
4 They live in a _________ house.
5 Jean is wearing a _________ skirt.
6 The climbers are climbing up a _________ mountain.
7 These puppies are very _________.
8 Many _________ people have no home.
55. Adjective Endings
Adjectives have different endings.
Some adjectives end in -ful or -less.
a beautiful dress
a careless driver
a faithful dog
a harmless insect
a useful tool
homeless people playful puppies
m m ar H
An adjective that ends in -less is the opposite of
the same adjective that ends in -ful.
For example:
careful – careless useful – useless
colorful – colorless harmful – harmless
The -ful ending means having a lot of something.
For example:
painful = having a lot of pain
hopeful = having a lot of hope
The -less ending means without.
For example:
leafless = without leaves
sleeveless = without sleeves
56. Some adjectives end in -y.
a dirty street
a noisy room
an oily pot a stormy sea
a sleepy passenger
a sunny day
a muddy path
Some adjectives end in -ive.
an expensive necklace
an active child
an attractive hat
a creative toy
talkative pupils
Some adjectives end in -ing.
a cunning fox
a caring nurse
an interesting book
loving parents
matching clothes
a smiling face
dazzling sunshine
57. Some adjectives end in -ly.
a costly diamond ring a daily newspaper
an elderly woman
lively kittens
a lonely boy
a lovely girl
a weekly magazine
a friendly police officer
m ar H
Many adverbs also end in -ly.
Here are some adjectives with the endings -able, -al,
-en, -ible, -ish and -ous.
a broken chair
a famous pop singer
childish behavior a national costume
a comfortable chair a musical instrument
a dangerous place a terrible mess
a foolish act a woolen sweater
a horrible smell a wooden table
a loveable koala a poisonous snake
58. Exercise 1
Add the correct endings to turn these words
into adjectives.
-y -ful -less -al
1 peace 6 dirt
2 storm 7 music
3 mud 8 nation
4 forget 9 dust
5 spot 10 play
Exercise 2
Add the correct endings to turn these words
into adjectives.
-en -y -ing
-ish -ous -ly
1 wind 6 fool
2 gold 7 charm
3 friend 8 child
4 rot 9 love
5 danger 10 interest
59. Kinds of Adjectives
There are different kinds of adjectives.
Some adjectives describe the qualities of nouns.
a hot bun
a cold drink
an ugly monster
a fierce dog a beautiful rainbow
a clever monkey
a difficult question
happy children
a kind lady
a new car
an old house
a pretty girl
a rich family
a sad story
a strong man
a loud crash a wicked queen
60. Some adjectives tell you which place or country a person
or thing comes from, or belongs to. They are called
adjectives of origin.
Chinese kungfu an Indian temple
Dutch clogs
a Mexican hat
Australian apples
a Balinese dancer
the English language
the French flag
an Italian car
a Japanese garden
a Scottish kilt
A Filipino shirt Thai boxing
61. Some adjectives tell you the color of things.
Please get me some white paint.
The sky is gray.
The sea is blue.
George is wearing brown shoes.
I don’t like green apples.
Carrots are orange.
Flamingos are pink.
Eggplants are purple. Your hands are black!
Roses are red.
62. Some adjectives tell you the size of the nouns they
a big hat
a huge balloon broad shoulders
a high mountain
a large ship
a long bridge
a low ceiling
a narrow path
a fat sumo wrestler small animals
tiny insects
a wide street
a thin boy
a short man
you kn
id o
The word tall describes people and narrow,
upright objects. For example, you can say:
a tall girl a tall bookcase
The word high describes bigger or wider objects that reach
a great height. For example, you can say:
a high mountain a high wall
63. Numbers are adjectives, too. They tell you how many
people, animals, or things there are. Sometimes they are
called adjectives of quantity.
two princes three princesses
four mermaids five witches
one giant
seven elves
six fairies
nine dwarfs
eight puppets
ten angels
eleven hens fifteen frogs nineteen lizards
twelve geese sixteen snails twenty butterflies
thirteen birds seventeen kittens
fourteen mice eighteen ants
64. Other adjectives tell you something about quantity
without giving you the exact number.
some soldiers
a little ice cream
a little rice
a lot of books not many people
too much salt
lots of insects
plenty of money
some food
Is there any milk?
a few cups
a few puppies
you kn
id o
Adjectives that tell you about quantity are also
called quantifying determiners.
65. Look at the underlined words in the following
sentences. Do you know what kinds of adjectives
they are?
In the blanks write C if the underlined words tell you
about color, S if they tell you about size, Ql if they tell
you about quality, O if they tell you about origin, or Qn if
they tell you about the number or quantity of things.
1 Dad has two pairs of shoes. ___
2 One pair is brown and the other pair ___
is black. ___
3 This is a very simple puzzle. ___
4 What color is the American flag? ___
5 A kind fairy appeared before Cinderella. ___
6 He is a proud man. ___
7 There is some food left. ___
8 Tom is wearing a blue T-shirt. ___
9 Jack has ten marbles; Peter has twenty. ___ ___
10 How many marbles have Jack and Peter ___
11 There is an Indian temple in the city. ___
12 There is a large crowd outside the temple. ___
13 My house is just a few miles from the ___
14 They are driving a small car. ___
15 Sue likes those yellow and red balloons. ___ ___
66. Comparison of Adjectives
When you compare two people or things, use the
comparative form of the adjective.
Lots of comparative adjectives end in -er.
fast faster
small smaller
bright cheap cheaper
clear clearer
brighter loud louder
new newer
old older
rich richer
short shorter
tall taller
slow slower
thick thicker
m ar H
The word than is often used with comparative
adjectives. For example, you might say:
Jack is taller than John.
A sports car is faster than a motorbike.
67. Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare
three or more nouns. Lots of superlatives end in -est.
dark darker darkest
thick thicker
clean cleaner cleanest
easy easier easiest
fat fatter fattest
flat flatter flattest
heavy heavier heaviest
hot hotter hottest
narrow narrower narrowest
noisy noisier noisiest
simple simpler simplest
thin thinner thinnest
wet wetter wettest long longer longest
m ar H
You often add the before the superlative form.
For example, you say:
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the
Peter is the tallest boy in his class.
68. m ar H
4 With adjectives that end in -e, add -r to form
the comparative, and -st to form the superlative.
For example:
Comparative Superlative
close closer closest
large larger largest
safe safer safest
wide wider widest
4 Some adjectives have only one syllable, end with a
consonant, and have a single vowel before the
consonant. With these adjectives, double the last letter
before adding –er to form the comparative, and -est to
form the superlative. For example:
Comparative Superlative
big bigger biggest
dim dimmer dimmest
mad madder maddest
sad sadder saddest
4 Some adjectives have two syllables and end in -y. With
these adjectives change the y to i. Then add -er to form
the comparative, and -est to form the superlative.
For example:
Comparative Superlative
busy busier busiest
dirty dirtier dirtiest
happy happier happiest
pretty prettier prettiest
69. With some adjectives, you use more to make the
comparative form, and most to make the superlative
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
active more active most active
charming more charming most charming
cheerful more cheerful most cheerful
comfortable more comfortable most comfortable
delicious more delicious most delicious
you kn
id o
Adjectives that form their comparative and
superlative with more and most are usually
adjectives with two or more syllables, or
sounds. For example:
ac-tive ex-pen-sive
beau-ti-ful fa-mous
charm-ing for-tu-nate
cheer-ful in-tel-li-gent
com-fort-a-ble pow-er-ful
de-li-cious val-u-a-ble
70. The comparative and superlative forms of some
adjectives are completely different words.
good better best
little less least
bad worse worst
few less least
many more most
much more most
m ar H
With these adjectives, you don’t add -er or more
to form the comparative, or -est or most to form
the superlative.
71. Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and
superlative forms of the following adjectives.
Comparative Superlative
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and
superlative forms of the following adjectives.
Comparative Superlative
72. 6 Determiners
Determiners are words such as this, those, my, their,
which. They are special adjectives that are used before
The Articles
The words a, an and the belong to this group of words
called determiners.
The words a and an are called indefinite articles. You
can use them with singular nouns to talk about any
single person or thing.
Can you hear a
bird singing ?
This is a picture of an elephant.
Rudy is reading a book.
Mom bought me a new dress today.
Do you wear a You will need an umbrella when you go out.
uniform to school? She eats an apple a day.
m ar H
The article an is usually used before words
beginning with vowels. The article a is used
before words beginning with consonants.
73. The word the is called the definite article. Use the
before a noun when you are talking about a certain
person or thing.
The telephone is ringing.
Where’s the cat?
I think she is under the bed.
Tom has won the race.
Granny is sitting in the garden.
The street is very busy today.
The sky is getting dark. The ice is melting.
m ar H
You also use the before a noun when there
is only one. For example:
the sun
the moon
the sky
the front door of my house
74. Demonstrative Determiners
The words this, that, these and those are determiners.
They are used to tell which thing or person you mean.
These words are called demonstrative determiners, or
demonstrative adjectives.
I am keeping these books.
I am selling those books.
This ice cream is delicious.
How much is that racket?
What is that animal?
James lives in this house. Bring me that ball.
Would you like these apples?
m ar H
You use this and these to point to people or
things near you.
You use that and those to point to people or things that are
farther from you.
You use this and that before singular nouns.
You use these and those before plural nouns.
Here’s a table to help you remember the rules:
Singular Plural
this these
that those
75. Interrogative Determiners
Use the words what, which and whose before nouns
to ask about people or things. These words are called
interrogative determiners or interrrogative adjectives.
What size do you wear? What kind of bird is that?
What time is it?
What color is her hair?
What kind of clothes do you like to wear?
Which school do you go to?
Which doll is your favorite?
Which road leads to the zoo?
Which runner is the winner?
Do you know which girl won the prize?
Whose footprints are these? which
Whose baby is this? whose
Whose dog was barking in the middle of the night?
76. Possessive Determiners
The words my, your, his, her, its, our, their are called
possessive determiners or posessive adjectives. Use
these words before nouns to say who something
belongs to.
I lent Margaret my guitar.
Is this your house?
Robert, your handwriting is difficult to read. The dentist asked
Michael is showing his tortoise to his friends. his patient to open
My sister lost her way in the city.
her mouth.
The lion is chasing its prey.
m m ar H
Here is a table to help you remember the
possessive determiners.
Singular Plural
First person my our
Second person your your
Third person his their
her their
its their
77. Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with a, an or the.
1 __________ owl 7 __________ moon
2 __________ rocket 8 __________ Missouri River
3 __________ apron 9 __________ mango
4 __________ sun 10 __________ animal
5 __________ page 11 __________ eagle
6 __________ computer 12 __________ baby
Exercise 2
Write a, an or the in the blanks to complete the
1 There is ________ rainbow in ________ sky.
2 Who is ________ man outside ______ gate?
3 ________ doctor gave Jane ________ injection.
4 Paul opened ________ door to let ________ dog in.
5 Mark is ________ only child in _______ family.
6 What’s ______ largest animal in ________ world?
7 There’s ________ nest in ________ tree.
8 Sue is writing ________ letter to her grandfather.
9 Jack has ________ brother and ________ sister.
10 We reached ________ top of ______ hill in two hours.
78. Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with the correct demonstrative
1 Come and look at ________ insects.
2 Stop ________ man!
3 I was in fifth grade last year. I am in sixth grade
________ year.
4 Bring ________ chairs here.
5 ________ ice cream is delicious.
6 Can you see ________ stars in the sky?
Exercise 4
Are the underlined words demonstrative adjectives or
demonstrative pronouns? Write DA (for demonstrative
adjectives) or DP (for demonstrative pronouns) in the
1 This house has five bedrooms. _______
2 Who is that man? _______
3 This is our school. _______
4 These are wild animals. _______
5 That is right. _______
6 What’s that noise? _______
7 These books are Jane’s. _______
8 Those books belong to me. _______
9 These are donkeys. _______
10 Those are horses. _______
79. Exercise 5
Choose the correct possessive adjectives from the
box to fill in the blanks.
my his your her
its our their
1 Is this Jane’s dog? Yes, this is ______ dog.
2 The dog is chasing ________ own tail.
3 Peter, is ________ father at home?
4 Rudy is showing ________ stamps to Ali.
5 I am going to ________ aunt’s house this evening.
6 We always keep ________ classroom clean.
7 Children, have you all finished ________ homework?
8 The children are proud of ________ school.
Exercise 6
Choose the correct interrogative adjectives from the box
to fill in the blanks.
what which whose
1 ________ kind of animal is that?
2 ________ runner is the winner?
3 ________ is the matter?
4 ________ desk is this?
5 ________ handphone is ringing?
6 ________ is your name?
7 ________ twin is taller?
8 ________ hand is holding the pebble?
80. 7 Verbs and Tenses
Most verbs are action words. They tell you what people,
animals or things are doing.
knock burst
Word File
act jump
bake move
bend pull
buy run
close shout
cook sing
cross sit
fall slide
fly stand
drop go start
grow swim
hop walk
81. The Simple Present Tense
The simple present tense expresses a general truth or
a customary action.
The sun rises in the east.
Uncle Joe wears glasses.
Ducks love water. The children go to school by bus.
Mary enjoys singing.
Peter sometimes lends me his bike.
Cows eat grass.
Monkeys like bananas.
Tom collects stamps.
The earth goes around the sun.
It often snows in winter.
We always wash our hands before meals.
We eat three meals a day.
Father takes the dog for a walk every morning.
82. Use the simple present tense to talk about things that are
planned for the future.
Melanie starts
school tomorrow. Next week I go to
summer camp.
The train departs
in five minutes.
We join the senior scout troop in July this year.
My big brother leaves school at 4 o’clock.
The new supermarket opens next Friday.
The new grammar book comes out in September.
Grandad retires next year.
We fly to London next Thursday.
The plane lands at 5:30 P.M.
We move to our new house in a month.
My big sister begins her summer job next week.
83. Exercise 1
Underline the verbs in the following sentences.
1 The children go to school by bus.
2 Bats sleep during the day.
3 These toys belong to Kathy.
4 Every pupil has a good dictionary.
5 Polar bears live at the North Pole.
6 Most children learn very fast.
7 Mr. Thomas teaches us science.
8 The earth goes around the sun.
9 We never cross the street without looking.
10 Many stores close on Sunday.
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the simple present tense of the
verbs in parentheses.
1 Winter ________ after autumn. (come)
2 A dog ________. (bark)
3 You ________ tired. (look)
4 Everyone ________ mistakes. (make)
5 Ali ________ in a department store. (work)
6 Judy ________ English very well. (speak)
7 Tim’s knee ________. (hurt)
8 Monkeys ________ bananas. (like)
9 Kate always ________ sandwiches for lunch. (eat)
10 He ________ very fast. (type)
84. Am, Is and Are
The words am, is, are are also verbs, but they are not
action words. They are the simple present tense of the
verb be.
Use am with the pronoun I, and is with the pronouns he,
she and it. Use are with the pronouns you, we and they.
It is a donkey.
It is not a horse.
It is very hot today.
It is not very comfortable.
the verb ‘be’
am is are
I am Peter. I am not Paul.
She is Miss Lee. She is a teacher.
He is my father. He is a doctor. He is not a lawyer.
You are a stranger. You are not my friend.
We are in the same class, but we are not on the same team.
They are good friends. They are not enemies.
85. m ar H
Here’s a table to help you remember how to
use am, is and are:
Singular Plural
First person I am we are
Second person you are you are
Third person he is they are
she is they are
it is they are
Learn these short forms called contractions:
I am = I’m they are = they’re
you are = you’re we are = we’re
he is = he’s
she is = she’s
it is = it’s
am not = aren’t (only in questions)
is not = isn’t
are not = aren’t
In questions, use aren’t as a contraction of am not. For
example, you can say:
I’m taller than you, aren’t I?
But in a statement you say:
I’m not as old as you.
86. Use the verb is with singular nouns and are with plural
The camel is a desert animal. Vegetables and fruit
are healthy foods.
Lambs are baby sheep. is
Singular Plural are
nouns nouns
Kenneth is a lawyer.
Rex is a clever dog.
A duck is a kind of bird.
The playground is full of people today.
My house is near the school.
These questions are too difficult.
The balloons are very colorful.
Those people are very busy.
Dad and Mom are in the kitchen.
87. Use is and are with the word there to say what you can
see and hear.
There is a castle on the hill. There is a wasps’ nest
There are some clouds in the sky. in the tree.
There is a fence around the school.
There are a lot of books in the library.
There are two guards at the gate.
Is there any food in the fridge?
Are there any apples left on the tree?
How much rice is there?
There are a few sharks in the bay.
There are enough candies for everyone, aren’t there?
There are two pigeons on the roof.
m ar H
Learn this contraction:
there is = there’s
88. Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with am, is or are.
1 They ________ my good friends.
2 He ________ a soldier.
3 You ________ taller than Charlie.
4 She ________ ill.
5 We ________ very hungry.
6 It ________ a sunny day.
7 I ________ angry with Joe.
8 You ________ all welcome to my house.
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with is or are.
1 John’s dog ________ very friendly.
2 Robert ________ ten years old.
3 These flowers ________ very pretty.
4 The two schools ________ close to each other.
5 Math ________ not a very difficult subject.
6 ________ dinner ready?
7 This computer ________ very easy to use.
8 All the windows ________ open.
9 Sue and Jane ________ neighbors.
10 His hair ________ curly.
89. Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with There is or There are.
1 ______________ a fence around the barn.
2 ______________ trees along the road.
3 ______________ a rainbow in the sky.
4 ______________ lots of parks in our town.
5 ______________ nothing in the cupboard.
6 ______________ not many bedrooms in the new house.
7 ______________ lots of mistakes on your test paper.
8 ______________ a wasps’ nest in the tree.
9 ______________ ants in the cookies.
10 ______________ many different kinds of animals
in the zoo.
11 ______________ plenty of food on the table.
12 ______________ a church on the hilltop.
13 ______________ no more water in the pool.
14 ______________ too many people on the beach.
15 ______________ only a few customers in the shop.
90. The Present Progressive Tense
When do you use the present progressive tense? To talk
about actions in the present, or things that are still going
on or happening now.
I am writing
a letter.
Mom is knitting
a sweater
for Sally.
The phone is ringing.
I’m playing chess with my friend.
She’s riding a horse.
He’s taking a walk in the park.
The man’s counting the money.
They are practicing tai chi.
We’re rushing to the airport to meet Mr. Smith.
They are still sleeping.
They are swimming in the sea.
What are they doing?
What’s happening?
Why aren’t you doing your homework?
Aren’t I sitting up straight?
91. m ar H am +
is verb ing
4 Form the present progressive tense like this:
am + present participle
is + present participle
are + present participle
4 The present participle is the form of a verb ending with
-ing. For example:
show + ing = showing
come + ing = coming
4 You have to double the last letter of some verbs before
you add -ing. For example:
get + ing = getting rob + ing = robbing
nod + ing = nodding stop + ing = stopping
jog + ing = jogging swim + ing = swimming
4 Notice that the verbs above are all short verbs of just
one syllable.
They all end with a consonant such as b, d, g, m, p, t
and have only one vowel before the consonant.
4 If a verb ends in e, you usually have to drop the e
before you add -ing. For example:
chase + ing = chasing
cycle + ing = cycling
drive + ing = driving
smile + ing = smiling
92. Use the present progressive tense to talk about things you
have planned to do, or things that are going to happen in
the future. To form the present progressive tense, use am,
is and are as helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.
When are you taking We are having a barbecue
me to the zoo? later this evening.
We are going camping tomorrow.
I’m starting piano lessons soon.
Jim’s parents are taking him to Texas next week.
My favorite TV program is starting in a minute.
All our friends are coming.
Who’s bringing salad for the barbecue? I am.
I am visiting Joe next week.
Where are you going for your vacation?
What are we eating for dinner?
93. Exercise 1
Write the present participle of these verbs on the
1 come ____________ 7 go ____________
2 run ____________ 8 ask ____________
3 sleep ____________ 9 catch ____________
4 fall ____________ 10 write ____________
5 jump ____________ 11 drop ____________
6 climb ____________ 12 bring ____________
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the present progressive tense of the
verbs in parentheses.
1 They ________________ the roller-coaster ride. (enjoy)
2 Jill ________________ her hair. (wash)
3 It ________________ dark. (get)
4 The dentist ________________ Sue’s teeth. (examine)
5 The train ________________ through the tunnel. (pass)
6 The men _______________ very hard in the sun. (work)
7 What _________ the theater _________ today? (show)
8 We ________________ a snowman. (make)
9 The plane ________________ above the clouds. (fly)
10 The teachers ________________ a meeting. (have)
94. Have and Has
The verbs have and has are used to say what people own
or possess. They are also used to talk about things that
people do or get, such as illnesses. These words are the
simple present tense of the verb have.
Peter has a sore knee.
We have breakfast at 7:00 A.M.
He has a lot of stamps.
She has long hair.
Our house has large windows.
I have a younger brother. Monkeys have
We have art lessons on Mondays. long tails.
Have a cookie, if you like.
Dad has a cold.
Jenny often has sandwiches for lunch.
95. m ar H
Use has with he, she, it, and with singular nouns. Use
have with I, you, we, they, and with plural nouns.
Here is a table to help you remember the rules:
Singular Plural
First person I have we have
Second person you have you have
Third person he has they have
she has they have
it has they have
Learn these contractions:
I have = I’ve
you have = you’ve
he has = he’s
she has = she’s
it has = it’s
we have = we’ve
they have = they’ve
have not = haven’t
has not = hasn’t
96. Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with have or has.
1 We ________ a new science teacher.
2 He ________ a bad temper.
3 I often ________ fruit for dessert.
4 You ________ a good chance of winning the prize.
5 She always ________ oatmeal for breakfast.
6 The broom ________ a blue handle.
7 They never ________ any problem with tests.
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with have or has.
1 The girls ________ golden hair.
2 An insect ________ six legs.
3 Dad ________ his cell phone with him.
4 The children ________ a new swing set.
5 Many poor people ________ nothing to eat.
6 Chicago ________ a very big airport.
7 A triangle ________ three sides.
8 The man ________ two daughters.
9 James ________ a toothache.
10 All the passengers ________ their tickets.
97. The Present Perfect Tense
Use the present perfect tense to talk about happenings
in the past that explain or affect the present. The verbs
have and has are used as “helping” or auxiliary verbs to
form the present perfect tense.
Sam has scored two goals.
I’ve just finished my shower.
Uncle Tom has lost his wallet.
It’s been very wet today.
John has gone out.
The Lees have moved to Ohio.
Kim’s cut It has not rained for months.
her finger. Have you found your keys yet?
Tim has made two spelling mistakes.
They have opened a new shop.
m ar H
To form the present perfect tense join have or
has to the past participle of the verb:
have + past participle
has + past participle
The past participle of a regular verb usually ends in -ed,
just like the simple past tense. But the past participles of
irregular verbs don’t follow this rule.
98. Exercise 1
Write the past participle of these verbs on the
1 break _______________ 6 buy _______________
2 drink _______________ 7 find _______________
3 cut _______________ 8 draw _______________
4 do _______________ 9 hear _______________
5 sing _______________ 10 know _______________
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the present perfect tense of the
verbs in parentheses.
1 Dad ______________ his car key. (lose)
2 All the guests ______________. (arrive)
3 Tony ______________ a goal. (score)
4 Peter _____________ in the tent several times. (sleep)
5 It ____________ not ____________ for two months. (rain)
6 Some prisoners ______________ from the prison. (escape)
7 The plane ______________ at the airport. (land)
8 John ______________ a puppet. (make)
9 Dad and I ______________ a big fish. (catch)
10 I ______________ this movie twice. (see)
99. The Simple Past Tense
Use the simple past tense to talk about things that
happened in the past. The simple past tense is also
used to talk about things that happened in stories.
The wicked Queen gave Pinocchio’s nose grew longer
Snow White a poisoned apple. every time he told a lie.
Dinosaurs lived
millions of years ago.
I bought a new camera last week.
Joe learned to play the guitar very quickly.
We drove to the safari park last weekend.
The giant panda gave birth to a cub last night.
Yesterday Dad took me to the carnival.
The plane landed a few minutes ago.
The children visited a farm during the holidays.
Who invented the computer?
Jack and Jill went up the hill.
Little Red Riding Hood decided to visit her grandmother.
The Three Bears found Goldilocks asleep in their house.
100. Regular and Irregular Verbs
The simple past tense of most verbs ends in -ed. These
verbs are called regular verbs.
Spelling File
Base Form Simple Past
aim aimed
bake baked
open opened
happen happened Who closed all
pull pulled the windows?
push pushed
scold scolded
shout shouted
visit visited
wait waited
walk walked
work worked It snowed last night.
Mom opened the door for us.
Sally petted the dog.
That event happened long ago.
We visited our uncle last week.
They walked to school together yesterday.
They worked until twelve last night.
Dad tried to fix the light.
William Tell aimed at the apple on his son’s head.
101. m ar H
4 The simple past tense is usually formed by adding -ed
to the verb. For example:
jump + ed = jumped lift + ed = lifted
laugh + ed = laughed look + ed = looked
4 If the verb ends with -e, just add -d. For example:
agree + d = agreed hate + d = hated
die +d = died live + d = lived
4 Remember these spelling rules:
You must double the last letter of some verbs before
adding -ed. For example:
fan + ed = fanned pat + ed = patted
grab + ed = grabbed rip + ed = ripped
nod + ed = nodded slam + ed = slammed
4 Notice that the verbs above are all short verbs of just
one syllable. They all end with a consonant such
as b, d, m, n, p, t, and have only a single vowel
before the consonant.
4 With verbs that end in -y, change the y to i before
adding -ed. For example:
bury + ed = buried fry + ed = fried
carry + ed = carried hurry + ed = hurried
cry + ed = cried try + ed = tried