# Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts Contributed by: This PDF contains :
Vinculum Numbers / Vinculum Process,
Subtraction using Vinculum,
Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dastah,
Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and Crosswise),
Nikhilam Sutra,
Paravartya Yogayat Sutra (Transpose and Apply),
Square root of a perfect Square,
Cube Root of a Perfect Cube (Max 6 digits).
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Vedic Mathematics is a system of mathematics which was invented by Indian mathematician
Jagadguru Shri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj in the period between A.D. 1911 and 1918.
It consists of 16 Sutras (methods) and 13 sub-sutras (Sub methods). Vedic Mathematics's
methods are highly efficient when it comes to calculation of regular arithmetics like subtraction,
multiplication, division of numbers and polynomials, squares, square roots, cubes, cube roots,
solving equation, partial fractions, derivatives, conics, etc.
Vinculum Numbers / Vinculum Process:
Vinculum Process forms the very basic requisites for Vedic Mathematics.
Vinculum is a Sanskrit word which means a line i.e. bar over number i.e. negative digits.
Vinculum numbers are numbers which have atleast 1 digit as a negative digit.
Vinculum numbers/digits are also called as Bar numbers/digits.
Eg: Vinculum number converted to normal number using Place Value concept.
Another Method of Conversion of Vinculum number to Normal number:
1. Find 1st Bar digit and takes is 10's complement.
2. a) If next digit is again Bar digit then take its 9's complement. Continue taking 9's
complement till non-bar digit is obtained.
b) Decrement non-bar digit by 1.
1. Continue (1) & (2) till complete number is covered.
Conversion of Normal number to Vinculum number:
1. Find 1st digit > 5 & take its 10's complement with a bar over it.
2. a) If next digit is again >= 5, take its 9's complement with a bar over it & continue this
till a digit <5 is obtained.
b) Increment <5 digit by 1.
1. Continue (1) & (2) till complete number is covered.
Conversion of Vinculum numbers to Normal numbers and vice versa is very important
for other concepts of Vedic Mathematics.
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Subtraction using Vinculum:
(More examples on http://mathlearners.com/vedic-mathematics/basic-requisites/)
Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dastah:
Popularly called as Nikhilam Sutra and English it means as 'All from 9 and last from 10'.
Nikhilam Sutra in Multiplication is used whenever the numbers are closer to power of 10 i.e. 10, 100,
1000, ....
This creates 3 groups:
1. Numbers are less than power of 10 i.e. 10, 100, 1000, ....
2. Numbers are more than power of 10 i.e. 10, 100, 1000, ....
3. Numbers are present on either side of power of 10 i.e. 10, 100, 1000, ....
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and Crosswise):
Commonly called as Urdhva Tiryak Sutra used in multiplication and its a General method
which can be applied to any types of numbers.
Example:
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Nikhilam Sutra:
Nikhilam Sutra in Division is applied when divisor is closer to and slightly lesser than power of 10.
Examples:
# 12/9 (See Below)
1. 9 is 1(deficiency) less than 10(nearest power of 10).
2. Split Dividend in 2 parts (Quotient & Remainder) in such a way Remainder to have same
digits as that of Divisor. In this case its 1.
3. Take 1 as it is down.
4. Multiply the above deficiency (1) with the 1 and put below 2 and add them column wise.
5. Thus Quotient=1 & Remainder=3.
# 3483/99 (See Below)
1. 99 is 01(deficiency) less than 100(nearest power of 10).
2. Split Dividend in 2 parts (Quotient & Remainder) in such a way Remainder to have same
digits as that of Divisor. In this case its 2.
3. Take 3 as it is down.
4. Multiply the above deficiency (01) with the 3 and put them below 4 and 8(as shown),
5. Multiply the above deficiency (01) with the 4 now and put in next columns (as shown),
6. Repeat this process till a number comes in last column. In this example a
number (4) has appeared in last column so stop here.
7. Thus Quotient=35 & Remainder=18.
Also, if deficiency has bigger digits like 6, 7, 8 and 9 then apply Vinculum and then apply
Nikhilam Sutra on that.
Instead of Quotients and Remainders, division answers can be obtained in decimal format as well.
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Paravartya Yogayat Sutra (Transpose and Apply):
Paravartya Sutra can be applied for division whenever divisor is closer and slightly greater
than power of 10.
Process almost remains same as that of Division’s Nikhilam Sutra except 1st digit of divisor is
discarded and other digits are transposed.
Example:
Ekadhikena Purvena is used to find square of number which end with 5.
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Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Yavadunam is used to find square of a number which is closer to power of 10.
  932 = (93-7)/72 = 86/49 = 8649 
  892 = (89-11)/112 = 78/121 = 7921 
  1132 = (113+13)/132 = 126/169 = 12769 
 10022 = (1002+2)/22 = 1004/004 = 1004004 
Yavadunam can be used find cube of a number but condition remains same i.e. number should
be closer to power of 10.
Square root of a perfect Square:
Examples:
Square root of 2209
1. Number ends with 9, Since it’s a perfect square, square root will end with 3 or 7.
2. Need to find 2 perfect squares (In Multiplies of 10) between which 2209
exists. Numbers are 1600(402) and 2500(502).
3. Find to whom 2209 is closer. 2209 is closer to 2500. Therefore squareroot is nearer to
50 Now from Step 2, possibilities are 43 or 47 out of which 47 is closer to 50
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4. Hence squareroot = 47.
Vedic Mathematics Tricks and Shortcuts
Square root of 7056
1. Number ends with 6, So square root ends with 4 or 6.
2. Perfect squares (In Multiplies of 10) between which 7056 exists are 6400(80 2) and 8100(902).
7056 is closer to 6400. Therefore squareroot is nearer to 80
3. Now from Step 2, possibilities are 84 or 86 out of which 84 is closer to 80
4. Hence squareroot = 84.
Cube Root of a Perfect Cube (Max 6 digits):
Cubes from 1- 10:
Number Cube Cube ends with
1 1
1
2 8
8 (Compliment of 2)
3 27
7 (Compliment of 3)
4 64
4
5 125 Thus as seen cubes have distinct ending, there
5 is no overlapping. Thus, if the given number is
perfect cube, then the last digit will help to find
6 216 the cube root.
6
7 343
3 (Compliment of 7)
8 512
2 (Compliment of 8)
9 729
9
10 1000
0
Cube root of 1728:
1. Group the numbers from R -> L in the group of 3. So we have 1,728.
2. Last group (728) ends with 8, so cube root will end in 2.
3. 1st group is 1. Find perfect cube root <= 1 i.e. 1 and its cube root is 1.