Contributed by:

This PDF contains :

Abstract,

Keywords,

1. Introduction,

2. Conventional multiplier and divider,

2.1 Four-bit Array multiplier,

2.2 Eight-bit Array multiplier,

2.3 Binary divider,

3. Vedic mathematics algorithms,

3.1 Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Sutra for multiplication,

3.2 Nikhilam Sutra for multiplication,

3.3 Nikhilam Sutra for division,

3.4 Dhwajank Sutra for division,

3.5 An application of digital signal processor,

4. Implementation and comparisons,

5. Conclusion

Abstract,

Keywords,

1. Introduction,

2. Conventional multiplier and divider,

2.1 Four-bit Array multiplier,

2.2 Eight-bit Array multiplier,

2.3 Binary divider,

3. Vedic mathematics algorithms,

3.1 Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Sutra for multiplication,

3.2 Nikhilam Sutra for multiplication,

3.3 Nikhilam Sutra for division,

3.4 Dhwajank Sutra for division,

3.5 An application of digital signal processor,

4. Implementation and comparisons,

5. Conclusion

1.
Sådhanå (2021)46:83 Ó Indian Academy of Sciences

Sadhana(0123456789().,-volV)FT3](012345

6789().,-volV)

Performance analysis of Vedic mathematics algorithms

on re-configurable hardware platform

RHEA BIJI and VIJAY SAVANI*

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technology, Nirma University,

Ahmedabad, India

e-mail: 19mecv15@nirmauni.ac.in; vijay.savani@nirmauni.ac.in

MS received 26 November 2020; revised 18 January 2021; accepted 10 February 2021

Abstract. For the overall performance of systems like microprocessors and digital signal processors (DSPs)

platforms, arithmetic units, all must be efficient in terms of speed, power, and area. Multipliers and dividers are

inevitable hardware employed in such systems. This paper focuses on Vedic mathematics algorithms for

multiplication and division for power-efficient, faster, and area-efficient design. For four- and eight-bit Vedic

multiplication algorithms, Urdhva Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam Sutras are employed in this paper. For eight-bit

Vedic division algorithms, Nikhilam and Dhwajank Sutras are used. The Vedic mathematics algorithms are also

compared to conventional methods of multiplication (like Array multiplier) and division (using Booth multi-

plication algorithm). As an application of DSP, the linear convolution operation is implemented using both

conventional and Vedic algorithms. It has been observed that the Vedic algorithms operate faster, consume less

power, and occupy less area on a targeted hardware platform. The implementations were carried out using the

Verilog HDL language and Xilinx’s Vivado EDA tool. To measure various performance parameters, Cadence

simvision (using 180-nm GPDK CMOS Technology) and Xilinx’s ISE tool were also used.

Keywords. Digital signal processing; Vedic mathematics algorithms; Urdhva Tiryagbhyam; Nikhilam Sutra;

Verilog.

1. Introduction are discussed. The logic is much better on the count of

power consumption, hardware requirements, execution

Vedic mathematics has been the source of inspiration in the time, and space management. Key advantages from all the

field of computation for many centuries [1]. It is an ancient sutras have been taken and a novel architecture is devel-

system of mathematics based on 16 sutras [2]. Out of these, oped for the fast and efficient division [7].

Urdhva Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam Sutras for multiplica- In [8], the authors have proposed a multiplier architec-

tion and Nikhilam Sutra and Dhwajank Sutra for division ture for signed multiplication. Signed multiplier architec-

are used in this paper. Multipliers and dividers, both are an ture is based on two’s complement and for unsigned data,

important computational unit in a processor and controllers. Urdhva Triyakbhyam Vedic multiplier is utilized. A carry

It affects the overall performance of the system also [3]. select adder is used in this method while calculating the

Hence, the optimization of area, speed, and power of these partial product. The major advantage obtained is less

units is very important [4, 5]. Thus Vedic mathematics combinational path delay compared with the existing

concepts and their algorithms are used in this paper to methods [9].

achieve a reduction in major performance parameters, i.e. In [6], the convolution operation is implemented. It

area, power, and speed (delay), as compared with conven- includes multiplication and additions in it. To improve the

tional multiplier and division architectures. Using Vedic overall speed of the convolution operation, Vedic (Urdhva

multiplication, a convolution operation is implemented. Triyakbhyam) multiplier is used.

This is a time-efficient way of implementing the operation The paper is organized as follows. In section 2, a con-

[6]. ventional Array multiplier and a conventional Binary

In [1] the authors have presented and compared the divider are discussed. In section 3, Vedic algorithms for

performance of different division sutras, namely Nikhilam, multiplication and division are discussed. Section 4 pre-

Paravartya, and Dhwajank. Principles in developing a sents the performance analysis of the algorithms. Imple-

completely new division logic for the base 2 number system mentation and its comparison of conventional and Vedic

algorithms are highlighted and presented in tabular form.

*For correspondence Finally, the concluding remarks are drawn in section 5.

Sadhana(0123456789().,-volV)FT3](012345

6789().,-volV)

Performance analysis of Vedic mathematics algorithms

on re-configurable hardware platform

RHEA BIJI and VIJAY SAVANI*

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Institute of Technology, Nirma University,

Ahmedabad, India

e-mail: 19mecv15@nirmauni.ac.in; vijay.savani@nirmauni.ac.in

MS received 26 November 2020; revised 18 January 2021; accepted 10 February 2021

Abstract. For the overall performance of systems like microprocessors and digital signal processors (DSPs)

platforms, arithmetic units, all must be efficient in terms of speed, power, and area. Multipliers and dividers are

inevitable hardware employed in such systems. This paper focuses on Vedic mathematics algorithms for

multiplication and division for power-efficient, faster, and area-efficient design. For four- and eight-bit Vedic

multiplication algorithms, Urdhva Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam Sutras are employed in this paper. For eight-bit

Vedic division algorithms, Nikhilam and Dhwajank Sutras are used. The Vedic mathematics algorithms are also

compared to conventional methods of multiplication (like Array multiplier) and division (using Booth multi-

plication algorithm). As an application of DSP, the linear convolution operation is implemented using both

conventional and Vedic algorithms. It has been observed that the Vedic algorithms operate faster, consume less

power, and occupy less area on a targeted hardware platform. The implementations were carried out using the

Verilog HDL language and Xilinx’s Vivado EDA tool. To measure various performance parameters, Cadence

simvision (using 180-nm GPDK CMOS Technology) and Xilinx’s ISE tool were also used.

Keywords. Digital signal processing; Vedic mathematics algorithms; Urdhva Tiryagbhyam; Nikhilam Sutra;

Verilog.

1. Introduction are discussed. The logic is much better on the count of

power consumption, hardware requirements, execution

Vedic mathematics has been the source of inspiration in the time, and space management. Key advantages from all the

field of computation for many centuries [1]. It is an ancient sutras have been taken and a novel architecture is devel-

system of mathematics based on 16 sutras [2]. Out of these, oped for the fast and efficient division [7].

Urdhva Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam Sutras for multiplica- In [8], the authors have proposed a multiplier architec-

tion and Nikhilam Sutra and Dhwajank Sutra for division ture for signed multiplication. Signed multiplier architec-

are used in this paper. Multipliers and dividers, both are an ture is based on two’s complement and for unsigned data,

important computational unit in a processor and controllers. Urdhva Triyakbhyam Vedic multiplier is utilized. A carry

It affects the overall performance of the system also [3]. select adder is used in this method while calculating the

Hence, the optimization of area, speed, and power of these partial product. The major advantage obtained is less

units is very important [4, 5]. Thus Vedic mathematics combinational path delay compared with the existing

concepts and their algorithms are used in this paper to methods [9].

achieve a reduction in major performance parameters, i.e. In [6], the convolution operation is implemented. It

area, power, and speed (delay), as compared with conven- includes multiplication and additions in it. To improve the

tional multiplier and division architectures. Using Vedic overall speed of the convolution operation, Vedic (Urdhva

multiplication, a convolution operation is implemented. Triyakbhyam) multiplier is used.

This is a time-efficient way of implementing the operation The paper is organized as follows. In section 2, a con-

[6]. ventional Array multiplier and a conventional Binary

In [1] the authors have presented and compared the divider are discussed. In section 3, Vedic algorithms for

performance of different division sutras, namely Nikhilam, multiplication and division are discussed. Section 4 pre-

Paravartya, and Dhwajank. Principles in developing a sents the performance analysis of the algorithms. Imple-

completely new division logic for the base 2 number system mentation and its comparison of conventional and Vedic

algorithms are highlighted and presented in tabular form.

*For correspondence Finally, the concluding remarks are drawn in section 5.

2.
83 Page 2 of 5 Sådhanå (2021)46:83

2. Conventional multiplier and divider

In this section, the conventional methods of multiplication

and division are explained. Four- and eight-bit Array

multipliers and eight-bit Binary dividers are described.

2.1 Four-bit Array multiplier

The whole process requires multiplication and addition

operations. In binary, two bits can be multiplied using the

AND operation. The final result is obtained by adding the

partial products and the carry generated from the previous

additions [10, 11]. Here the full adders are being used for

this purpose. Four full adders have the third input as a fixed

value ‘‘0’’. Hence, they are equivalent to half adders. For a

4 4 Array multiplier, 16 AND gates, 4 half adders, and 8

full adders (totally 12 adders) are required.

Figure 1. Line diagram for 4 4 multiplication [13, 14].

2.2 Eight-bit Array multiplier

The structure of the eight-bit Array multiplier can be

realized by extending the four-bit Array multiplier struc- The line diagram in figure 1 shows the steps involved in

ture. In general x y multiplier needs x y AND gates, y 4 4 Vedic multiplication. The same procedure can be

half adders, and ðx 2Þ y full adders (totally ðx 1Þ y extended to build higher-order multipliers [13].

adders). Thus eight-bit Array multiplication needs 64 AND A four-bit Vedic multiplier is made using 4 two-bit

gates, 8 half adders, and 48 full adders (totally 56 adders). Vedic multipliers and 3 adders; 1 four-bit adder and 2

eight-bit adders are required for the same. An eight-bit

Vedic multiplier is made with the help of 4 four-bit Vedic

2.3 Binary divider multipliers and 3 adders. Totally, One 8-bit adder and two

In division operation, dividend and divisor are the inputs 12-bit adders are needed for this implementation.

and the outputs are in the form of quotient and remainder.

Mainly, a counter is present and some decisions need to be

taken. Also, shifting left operation is used. Booth’s division 3.2 Nikhilam Sutra for multiplication

algorithm is implemented for an 8-bit division operation. In this method, the complement of the larger number from

According to the steps, a program is written using Verilog its nearby base is calculated (see figure 2) before multi-

HDL and simulated to verify the functionality. plication [13].

3. Vedic mathematics algorithms 3.3 Nikhilam Sutra for division

In this section, Vedic mathematics algorithms for multi- The basics of division using Nikhilam Sutra for the division

plication and division are presented and explained. Two is shown in figure 3. Complement of divisor, multiplica-

algorithms for multiplication (i.e. Urdhva Tiryagbhyam tion, addition, incrementing of the counter, and comparison

Sutra and Nikhilam Sutra) and two algorithms for division, are the steps involved in this sutra [1].

(i.e. Nikhilam Sutra and Dhwajank Sutra, are discussed).

3.4 Dhwajank Sutra for division

3.1 Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Sutra for multiplication Mainly addition and multiplication of cross-products are

This sutra is known as Vertical and Cross-wise multipli- involved in the Dhwajank Sutra operation. MSBs of the

cation. It is generic for any of the n-bit multiplication [12]. divisor are kept aside. Later, the MSB of the dividend is

The multiplication and the addition operations are done in divided with the MSB of the divisor. Cross-product of

parallel [13]. quotient and rest of the bits is taken and addition is done.

2. Conventional multiplier and divider

In this section, the conventional methods of multiplication

and division are explained. Four- and eight-bit Array

multipliers and eight-bit Binary dividers are described.

2.1 Four-bit Array multiplier

The whole process requires multiplication and addition

operations. In binary, two bits can be multiplied using the

AND operation. The final result is obtained by adding the

partial products and the carry generated from the previous

additions [10, 11]. Here the full adders are being used for

this purpose. Four full adders have the third input as a fixed

value ‘‘0’’. Hence, they are equivalent to half adders. For a

4 4 Array multiplier, 16 AND gates, 4 half adders, and 8

full adders (totally 12 adders) are required.

Figure 1. Line diagram for 4 4 multiplication [13, 14].

2.2 Eight-bit Array multiplier

The structure of the eight-bit Array multiplier can be

realized by extending the four-bit Array multiplier struc- The line diagram in figure 1 shows the steps involved in

ture. In general x y multiplier needs x y AND gates, y 4 4 Vedic multiplication. The same procedure can be

half adders, and ðx 2Þ y full adders (totally ðx 1Þ y extended to build higher-order multipliers [13].

adders). Thus eight-bit Array multiplication needs 64 AND A four-bit Vedic multiplier is made using 4 two-bit

gates, 8 half adders, and 48 full adders (totally 56 adders). Vedic multipliers and 3 adders; 1 four-bit adder and 2

eight-bit adders are required for the same. An eight-bit

Vedic multiplier is made with the help of 4 four-bit Vedic

2.3 Binary divider multipliers and 3 adders. Totally, One 8-bit adder and two

In division operation, dividend and divisor are the inputs 12-bit adders are needed for this implementation.

and the outputs are in the form of quotient and remainder.

Mainly, a counter is present and some decisions need to be

taken. Also, shifting left operation is used. Booth’s division 3.2 Nikhilam Sutra for multiplication

algorithm is implemented for an 8-bit division operation. In this method, the complement of the larger number from

According to the steps, a program is written using Verilog its nearby base is calculated (see figure 2) before multi-

HDL and simulated to verify the functionality. plication [13].

3. Vedic mathematics algorithms 3.3 Nikhilam Sutra for division

In this section, Vedic mathematics algorithms for multi- The basics of division using Nikhilam Sutra for the division

plication and division are presented and explained. Two is shown in figure 3. Complement of divisor, multiplica-

algorithms for multiplication (i.e. Urdhva Tiryagbhyam tion, addition, incrementing of the counter, and comparison

Sutra and Nikhilam Sutra) and two algorithms for division, are the steps involved in this sutra [1].

(i.e. Nikhilam Sutra and Dhwajank Sutra, are discussed).

3.4 Dhwajank Sutra for division

3.1 Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Sutra for multiplication Mainly addition and multiplication of cross-products are

This sutra is known as Vertical and Cross-wise multipli- involved in the Dhwajank Sutra operation. MSBs of the

cation. It is generic for any of the n-bit multiplication [12]. divisor are kept aside. Later, the MSB of the dividend is

The multiplication and the addition operations are done in divided with the MSB of the divisor. Cross-product of

parallel [13]. quotient and rest of the bits is taken and addition is done.

3.
Sådhanå (2021)46:83 Page 3 of 5 83

multipliers: Array multiplier and Vedic multiplier. The

delays obtained are compared in the Implementation and

comparisons section. It has been observed that the opera-

tions performed using the Vedic multiplier are faster as

compared with the conventional method.

4. Implementation and comparisons

In this section, the whole gist of the work is summarized in

terms of implementation results and comparison. Results

obtained are compared to see the significance of the Vedic

Figure 2. Example of Nikhilam (base) Sutra [13].

algorithms in the arithmetic unit. The implementation and

results for power are obtained using the Cadence EDA tool

with 180-nm GPDK CMOS Technology. The Xilinx

Vivado tool is used to figure out the area and delay (speed)

of the respective algorithms.

A conventional 4 4 Array multiplier is compared with

2 4-bit Vedic multipliers for performance parameters area,

delay, and power. The results of these performance

parameters are enumerated in table 1. There is a significant

decrease in the delay due to the efficient Vedic algorithm.

The other two parameters, which are area and power, do not

significantly decrease as compared to the conventional

method/algorithms. Also, the performance parameters of

the Vedic multiplier are compared to the results presented

[2, 8].

Figure 3. Example of Nikhilam (base) Sutra [15]. Percentage reduction in area, delay, and power as com-

pared with conventional method are listed in table 2. Per-

centage reduction is calculated as [(value in the

Sum is subtracted from a combination of the previous conventional algorithm – value in Vedic algorithm)/value

remainder and the next digit of the dividend. in conventional algorithm] 100. Significant improvement

The final remainder is obtained by subtraction of the in the delay is observed. The other two parameters have

right part of dividend prefixed by the last remainder and comparable reduction as shown in table 2.

cross-multiplication of quotient and divisor [16]. A conventional 8 8 Array multiplier is compared with

two 8-bit Vedic multipliers for performance parameters and

their results are presented in table 3. A significant decrease

3.5 An application of digital signal processor in delay, area, and power is observed using both the Vedic

algorithms. Also, performance parameters of Vedic multi-

(DSP): linear convolution

plier from literature are mentioned in it.

Linear convolution helps to estimate the output of the Percentage reduction in terms of area, delay, and power

system when an arbitrary input and the impulse response is as compared with the conventional method are listed in

available [17]. Basically, in linear convolution, multipliers table 4. Significant improvement in the area, power, and

and adders are element components for this operation. The delay is observed. Thus Vedic multiplication is faster and

convolution operation is done using two types of the resources required to store the intermediate values are

Table 1. Performance comparison of 4-bit conventional and Vedic multipliers (NR: not reported in corresponding reference).

Array multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier Vedic_Nikhilam multiplier Multiplier Multiplier

Parameters (4 4) (4 4) (4 4) [2] [8]

Cells (area) 39 37 58 24 39

Power 48475.89 46363.21 46005.71 NR 125.06

Delay (ns) 5.85 3.75 3.29 10.43 14.62

multipliers: Array multiplier and Vedic multiplier. The

delays obtained are compared in the Implementation and

comparisons section. It has been observed that the opera-

tions performed using the Vedic multiplier are faster as

compared with the conventional method.

4. Implementation and comparisons

In this section, the whole gist of the work is summarized in

terms of implementation results and comparison. Results

obtained are compared to see the significance of the Vedic

Figure 2. Example of Nikhilam (base) Sutra [13].

algorithms in the arithmetic unit. The implementation and

results for power are obtained using the Cadence EDA tool

with 180-nm GPDK CMOS Technology. The Xilinx

Vivado tool is used to figure out the area and delay (speed)

of the respective algorithms.

A conventional 4 4 Array multiplier is compared with

2 4-bit Vedic multipliers for performance parameters area,

delay, and power. The results of these performance

parameters are enumerated in table 1. There is a significant

decrease in the delay due to the efficient Vedic algorithm.

The other two parameters, which are area and power, do not

significantly decrease as compared to the conventional

method/algorithms. Also, the performance parameters of

the Vedic multiplier are compared to the results presented

[2, 8].

Figure 3. Example of Nikhilam (base) Sutra [15]. Percentage reduction in area, delay, and power as com-

pared with conventional method are listed in table 2. Per-

centage reduction is calculated as [(value in the

Sum is subtracted from a combination of the previous conventional algorithm – value in Vedic algorithm)/value

remainder and the next digit of the dividend. in conventional algorithm] 100. Significant improvement

The final remainder is obtained by subtraction of the in the delay is observed. The other two parameters have

right part of dividend prefixed by the last remainder and comparable reduction as shown in table 2.

cross-multiplication of quotient and divisor [16]. A conventional 8 8 Array multiplier is compared with

two 8-bit Vedic multipliers for performance parameters and

their results are presented in table 3. A significant decrease

3.5 An application of digital signal processor in delay, area, and power is observed using both the Vedic

algorithms. Also, performance parameters of Vedic multi-

(DSP): linear convolution

plier from literature are mentioned in it.

Linear convolution helps to estimate the output of the Percentage reduction in terms of area, delay, and power

system when an arbitrary input and the impulse response is as compared with the conventional method are listed in

available [17]. Basically, in linear convolution, multipliers table 4. Significant improvement in the area, power, and

and adders are element components for this operation. The delay is observed. Thus Vedic multiplication is faster and

convolution operation is done using two types of the resources required to store the intermediate values are

Table 1. Performance comparison of 4-bit conventional and Vedic multipliers (NR: not reported in corresponding reference).

Array multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier Vedic_Nikhilam multiplier Multiplier Multiplier

Parameters (4 4) (4 4) (4 4) [2] [8]

Cells (area) 39 37 58 24 39

Power 48475.89 46363.21 46005.71 NR 125.06

Delay (ns) 5.85 3.75 3.29 10.43 14.62

4.
83 Page 4 of 5 Sådhanå (2021)46:83

Table 2. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay for 4-bit Table 4. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay (8-bit

multipliers. multipliers).

Percentage reduction as Percentage reduction as

compared with Vedic_Nikhilam compared with Vedic_Nikhilam

conventional multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier conventional multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier

(%) multiplier (4 4) (4 4) (%) multiplier (8 8) (8 8)

Cells (area) 5 No reduction Cells (area) 26.3 20.53

Power (nW) 4.35 5.10 Power (nW) 19.0 5.4

Delay (ns) 35.9 43.8 Delay (ns) 70.00 68.25

decreased. Finally, the reduction in delay and area helps in

the reduction of the overall power of the system.

In table 5 and table 6, a conventional divider is com- Table 5. Performance comparison of 8-bit conventional and

pared with two Vedic dividers (i.e. Nikhilam and Dhwa- Vedic dividers.

jank) for performance evaluation. Dividers have a higher

area than the multipliers. Hence, improvement using Vedic Binary Vedic_Nikhilam Vedic_Dhwajank

dividers is very useful to reduce the overall area, power, Parameters divider divider divider

and delay of the system. Cells 238 41 30

(area)

As seen from table 7, Vedic algorithms have advantages Power 3,71,982.66 3,01,062.29 3,51,893.61

in terms of delay when applied to a convolution operation (nW)

in DSP-related applications. The Vedic multiplier used here Delay (ns) 22.59 2.27 17.08

is the Urdhva Tiryagbhyam multiplier. Percentage reduc-

tion in terms of delay obtained in this paper and a reference

paper is also mentioned in the table.

As seen from table 8, 22.64% reduction in the delay is

Table 6. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay for 8-bit

observed when Vedic multiplier is used in the convolution

dividers.

operation as compared with a conventional Array multi-

plier. Percentage reduction as per [17] is 28%. Hence, it can Percentage reduction as

be concluded that convolution operation can be performed compared with Vedic_Nikhilam Vedic_Dhwajank

significantly faster when the Vedic multipliers are used. conventional divider (%) divider divider

Cells (area) 82.77 87.39

Power (nW) 19.06 5.4

5. Conclusion Delay (ns) 89.0 24.4

Vedic algorithms have advantages in terms of power, area,

and delay. Thus they are used in systems like DSPs and

microprocessors so that the overall system becomes effi-

cient. In this paper two arithmetic units, i.e. multipliers and Table 7. Convolution using Array and Vedic multipliers.

dividers, are implemented using Vedic algorithms. For 4-bit

Urdhva multiplier, 5%, 35.9%, and 4.35% reductions in Convolution using Array Convolution using Vedic

area, delay, and power, respectively, are obtained as com- Parameters multiplier multiplier

pared with the conventional 4-bit Array multiplier; for the Delay (ns) 7.89 6.11

4-bit Vedic multiplier (Nikhilam), 5.1% and 43.8%

Table 3. Comparison of 8-bit conventional and Vedic multipliers (NR: not reported in corresponding reference).

Array multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier Vedic_Nikhilam multiplier Multiplier Multiplier

Parameters (8 8) (8 8) (8 8) [2] [8]

Cells (area) 190 140 151 125 159

Power 1376457.98 31896.31 73683.43 NR 138.45

Delay (ns) 22.42 6.69 7.12 18.46 23.67

Table 2. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay for 4-bit Table 4. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay (8-bit

multipliers. multipliers).

Percentage reduction as Percentage reduction as

compared with Vedic_Nikhilam compared with Vedic_Nikhilam

conventional multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier conventional multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier

(%) multiplier (4 4) (4 4) (%) multiplier (8 8) (8 8)

Cells (area) 5 No reduction Cells (area) 26.3 20.53

Power (nW) 4.35 5.10 Power (nW) 19.0 5.4

Delay (ns) 35.9 43.8 Delay (ns) 70.00 68.25

decreased. Finally, the reduction in delay and area helps in

the reduction of the overall power of the system.

In table 5 and table 6, a conventional divider is com- Table 5. Performance comparison of 8-bit conventional and

pared with two Vedic dividers (i.e. Nikhilam and Dhwa- Vedic dividers.

jank) for performance evaluation. Dividers have a higher

area than the multipliers. Hence, improvement using Vedic Binary Vedic_Nikhilam Vedic_Dhwajank

dividers is very useful to reduce the overall area, power, Parameters divider divider divider

and delay of the system. Cells 238 41 30

(area)

As seen from table 7, Vedic algorithms have advantages Power 3,71,982.66 3,01,062.29 3,51,893.61

in terms of delay when applied to a convolution operation (nW)

in DSP-related applications. The Vedic multiplier used here Delay (ns) 22.59 2.27 17.08

is the Urdhva Tiryagbhyam multiplier. Percentage reduc-

tion in terms of delay obtained in this paper and a reference

paper is also mentioned in the table.

As seen from table 8, 22.64% reduction in the delay is

Table 6. Percentage reduction in area, power, and delay for 8-bit

observed when Vedic multiplier is used in the convolution

dividers.

operation as compared with a conventional Array multi-

plier. Percentage reduction as per [17] is 28%. Hence, it can Percentage reduction as

be concluded that convolution operation can be performed compared with Vedic_Nikhilam Vedic_Dhwajank

significantly faster when the Vedic multipliers are used. conventional divider (%) divider divider

Cells (area) 82.77 87.39

Power (nW) 19.06 5.4

5. Conclusion Delay (ns) 89.0 24.4

Vedic algorithms have advantages in terms of power, area,

and delay. Thus they are used in systems like DSPs and

microprocessors so that the overall system becomes effi-

cient. In this paper two arithmetic units, i.e. multipliers and Table 7. Convolution using Array and Vedic multipliers.

dividers, are implemented using Vedic algorithms. For 4-bit

Urdhva multiplier, 5%, 35.9%, and 4.35% reductions in Convolution using Array Convolution using Vedic

area, delay, and power, respectively, are obtained as com- Parameters multiplier multiplier

pared with the conventional 4-bit Array multiplier; for the Delay (ns) 7.89 6.11

4-bit Vedic multiplier (Nikhilam), 5.1% and 43.8%

Table 3. Comparison of 8-bit conventional and Vedic multipliers (NR: not reported in corresponding reference).

Array multiplier Vedic_Crisscross multiplier Vedic_Nikhilam multiplier Multiplier Multiplier

Parameters (8 8) (8 8) (8 8) [2] [8]

Cells (area) 190 140 151 125 159

Power 1376457.98 31896.31 73683.43 NR 138.45

Delay (ns) 22.42 6.69 7.12 18.46 23.67

5.
Sådhanå (2021)46:83 Page 5 of 5 83

Table 8. Percentage reduction in delay (convolution using Vedic [6] Batham N and Anjum S 2016 Algorithm for convolution

multiplier). operation in DFT using vedic multiplication. International

Journal of Engineering Innovations and Research 5(5):

Convolution using Vedic 288–291

Parameters multiplier [7] Toro S, Patil A, Chavan Y V, Patil S C, Bormane D S, and

Wadar S 2016 Division operation based on vedic mathe-

Reduction in delay [this 22.64% matics. In: Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International

work] Conference on Advances in Electronics, Communication and

Reduction in delay [17] 28.00% Computer Technology (ICAECCT), IEEE, pp. 450–454

[8] Pichhode K, Patil M D, Shah D and Rohit B C 2015 FPGA

implementation of efficient vedic multiplier. In: Proceedings

of the 2015 International Conference on Information Pro-

reduction in power and delay are observed. Implementation cessing (ICIP), IEEE, pp. 565–570

[9] Sapkal K J and Shrawankar U 2017 Complexity analysis of

of 8-bit Urdhva multiplier results in 26.3%, 70%, and 19%

vedic mathematics algorithms for multicore environment.

reduction in terms of area, delay, and power, respectively,

International Journal of Rough Sets and Data Analysis 4:

compared with the conventional 8-bit Array multiplier; for 31–47

the 8-bit Nikhilam multiplier, 20.53%, 68.25%, and 5.4% [10] Kumar A 2017 Comparative analysis of vedic and array

reductions in area, delay, and power are obtained; nearly multiplier. International Journal of Electronics and Com-

80% reduction in terms of area and power is observed for munication Engineering and Technology 8(3): 17–27

8-bit Nikhilam and Dhwajank dividers as compared with [11] Sriraman L and Prabakar T N 2012 Design and implemen-

the conventional divider whereas reduction in the delay is tation of two variable multiplier using KCM and vedic

89% and 24.4%. Convolution using Vedic operations has a mathematics. In: Proceedings of the 2012 1st International

reduction in delay of 22.64% over conventional methods. Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology

Implementations can be extended to 16-, 32-, 64-bit mul- (RAIT), IEEE, pp. 782–787

[12] Sudeep M C, Bimba M S, and Vucha M 2014 Design and

tipliers and dividers.

FPGA implementation of high speed vedic multiplier.

International Journal of Computer Applications 90(16):

10.5120/15802-4641

[13] Prasada G S V, Seshikala G, and Sampathila N 2018

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urdhva tiryakbyham and nikhilam navatashcaramam dasha-

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Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for COVER), IEEE, pp. 28–31

Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials [14] Prasada G S V, Seshikala G, and Niranjana S 2019 Design

(ICSTM), IEEE, pp. 317–320 of high speed 32-bit floating point multiplier using urdhva

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nology and Exploring Engineering 8(9S): 302–306 Engineering Research 8(10): 99–103

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reduction in power and delay are observed. Implementation cessing (ICIP), IEEE, pp. 565–570

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of 8-bit Urdhva multiplier results in 26.3%, 70%, and 19%

vedic mathematics algorithms for multicore environment.

reduction in terms of area, delay, and power, respectively,

International Journal of Rough Sets and Data Analysis 4:

compared with the conventional 8-bit Array multiplier; for 31–47

the 8-bit Nikhilam multiplier, 20.53%, 68.25%, and 5.4% [10] Kumar A 2017 Comparative analysis of vedic and array

reductions in area, delay, and power are obtained; nearly multiplier. International Journal of Electronics and Com-

80% reduction in terms of area and power is observed for munication Engineering and Technology 8(3): 17–27

8-bit Nikhilam and Dhwajank dividers as compared with [11] Sriraman L and Prabakar T N 2012 Design and implemen-

the conventional divider whereas reduction in the delay is tation of two variable multiplier using KCM and vedic

89% and 24.4%. Convolution using Vedic operations has a mathematics. In: Proceedings of the 2012 1st International

reduction in delay of 22.64% over conventional methods. Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology

Implementations can be extended to 16-, 32-, 64-bit mul- (RAIT), IEEE, pp. 782–787

[12] Sudeep M C, Bimba M S, and Vucha M 2014 Design and

tipliers and dividers.

FPGA implementation of high speed vedic multiplier.

International Journal of Computer Applications 90(16):

10.5120/15802-4641

[13] Prasada G S V, Seshikala G, and Sampathila N 2018

References Performance analysis of 6464 bit multiplier designed using

urdhva tiryakbyham and nikhilam navatashcaramam dasha-

[1] Tadas A and Rotake D 2015 64 bit divider using vedic tah sutras. In: Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Distributed

mathematics. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Computing, VLSI, Electrical Circuits and Robotics (DIS-

Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for COVER), IEEE, pp. 28–31

Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials [14] Prasada G S V, Seshikala G, and Niranjana S 2019 Design

(ICSTM), IEEE, pp. 317–320 of high speed 32-bit floating point multiplier using urdhva

[2] Akhter S and Chaturvedi S 2019 Modified binary multiplier triyagbhyam sutra of vedic mathematics. International

circuit based on vedic mathematics. In: Proceedings of the Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8(2 special

2019 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and issue 3): 1064–1067

Integrated Networks (SPIN), IEEE, pp. 234–237 [15] Rajani M and Sridevi N 2015 Survey on implementation of

[3] Kishor D R and Bhaaskaran V K 2014 Low power divider IEEE754 floating point number division using vedic tech-

using vedic mathematics. In: Proceedings of the 2014 niques. International Journal of Engineering Development

International Conference on Advances in Computing, Com- and Research 3(3)

munications and Informatics (ICACCI), IEEE, pp. 575–580 [16] Ugra Mohan Kumar S K, Singh M P, and Yadav A K 2017

[4] Thakur K and Sharma T 2019 Area efficient high speed Fast and efficient division technique using vedic mathemat-

vedic multiplier. International Journal of Innovative Tech- ics in Verilog code. International Journal of Scientific and

nology and Exploring Engineering 8(9S): 302–306 Engineering Research 8(10): 99–103

[5] Akhter S, Saini V and Saini J 2017 Analysis of vedic [17] Punwantwar N R and Chatur P N 2015 Convolution and

multiplier using various adder topologies. In: Proceedings of deconvolution using vedic mathematics. International Jour-

the 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing nal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics, and

and Integrated Networks (SPIN), IEEE, pp. 173–176 Instrumentation Engineering 4(6): 5216–5223