The Significance of the Frontier in American History 1893

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This booklet shares the marks that describe the closing of a great historic movement. Up to our day, American history has been to a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development
1. The Texas Revolution
 Do we have expectations of modern day
What are those expectations?
2. Spanish Texas
 The Spanish had
been in the
Americas since
Columbus in 1492.
 Spain owned a large
part of North
America, including
3. The Spanish Settle Texas
The mission system The mission system ends
 The Spanish attempted to settle  Native Americans rejected
Texas by building missions, small mission life, where they were
settlements designed to convert expected to give up their culture
the Indians to Christianity. as well as their religion.
 The Spanish had effectively used  Some Indian groups viewed the
the mission system in Mexico. Spanish as dangerous
trespassers, attacking the
 They built two dozen missions missions and towns.
and presidios between the late
1600s and 1700s; they also built  The system was built to convert
San Antonio and Nacogdoches. the Indians and to thwart French
claims. In 1762, France ceded to
 Despite Spanish hopes, the Spain much of its land claim in
missions failed and the towns North America.
never flourished.
 By 1800, Spain still claimed
Texas, but had only three
settlements in the region.
4. Tejanos
In 1821, only about 4,000 Tejanos lived
in Texas.
Tejanos are people of Spanish heritage
who consider Texas their home.
The Spanish government tried to attract
Spanish setters to Texas, but very few
5. Moses Austin
 An American, Moses
Austin was given
permission by the
Spanish government to
start a colony in Texas.
 All the Americans had to
do was follow Spanish
 Moses died in 1821, so
his son Stephen tried to
start the colony.
6. In 1821, Mexico won
independence from Spain
7. Mexican Independence
Changes Texas
 The Mexican government
told Stephen Austin his
settlers would have to
become Mexican citizens
and members of the Roman
Catholic Church, and learn
 Between 1821 and 1827,
Austin attracted 297 families
to his new settlement.
8.  The success of Austin’s colony attracted
more land speculators and settlers to Texas
from the United States. Some were looking
for a new life, some were escaping from the
law, and others were looking for a chance to
grow rich. By 1830, the population had
swelled to about 30,000,with Americans
outnumbering the Tejanos six to one.
9. Rising Tensions in Texas
In 1829, the Mexican government
outlawed slavery.
The settlers wanted to keep their slaves
so they could grow cotton.
The Americans also didn’t want to learn
Spanish or follow Mexican laws.
Very few settlers had converted to
10.  In 1829, the Mexican government closed the
state to further American immigration.
 Texans had to start paying taxes for the first time.
 Mexican president, General Antonio Lopez de
Santa Anna sent more Mexican troops to Texas.
 Texans began talk of breaking away from Mexico.
 When Stephen Austin was jailed, the Texans did
 Santa Anna led 6,000 troops to Texas to put
down the revolt.
11. The Alamo
 The first battle
between the Texans
and Mexicans took
place at on old
mission that was
used as a fort.
 It was called the
12. The Fight for the Alamo
 There were only 183 Texans guarding the Alamo.
 The Mexican army had 1,800 men.
 The Texans held the Alamo for twelve days.
 On the thirteenth day, Santa Anna ordered his men
to storm the fortress.
 When it was over, all but five Texans were dead.
The men not killed in the battle were executed by
Santa Anna.
 Texans were shocked by the slaughter at the
Alamo and vowed to fight for their freedom.
15. Fighting for Independence
The Runaway Scrape Texans victorious
 Santa Anna’s army continued to  Santa Anna’s army followed
defeat the Texan rebels. Houston’s forces to San Jacinto,
Prisoners were held in the where Houston managed to take
presidio at Goliad. the Mexican army by surprise.
Texans shouted, “Remember the
 After Mexican soldiers executed Alamo!” and “Remember Goliad!”
340 prisoners at Goliad, Houston as they won a quick victory.
retreated to the east with his
poorly trained army.  The captured Santa Anna was
forced to sign the Treaties of
 Word of Houston’s retreat and the Velasco, ending the war. Mexico
news of the Goliad Massacre had to withdraw its troops and
started a panic. recognize Texas independence.
 In what would be called the  Problems with Mexico continued
Runaway Scrape, thousands of for the Republic of Texas.
Texans, including many Tejanos,
fled Santa Anna’s advancing
16. General Santa Anna
surrenders to General Houston
17. Lone Star Republic
 In 1836, Texas declared itself
The Lone Star Republic.
 Sam Houston was elected
 Some Americans wanted
Texas to be part of the U.S.
 Some people were afraid of
Texas becoming a slave
state, others of war with
 Both would eventually