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A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics through Conventional & Vedic Mathematics Approach,

ABSTRACT,

Keywords,

Significance of the study,

Operational definitions of the key terms used,

Effectiveness,

Achievement in mathematics,

Vedic mathematics approach,

Conventional method,

Objectives of the study,

Null Hypotheses,

Research tools,

Variables under the study,

Sample & sampling,

Delimitations of the study,

Experimental design,

The procedure of the study,

Analysis and interpretation of data,

Testing the hypothesis,

The calculation of effect size,

Discussion of the results

A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics through Conventional & Vedic Mathematics Approach,

ABSTRACT,

Keywords,

Significance of the study,

Operational definitions of the key terms used,

Effectiveness,

Achievement in mathematics,

Vedic mathematics approach,

Conventional method,

Objectives of the study,

Null Hypotheses,

Research tools,

Variables under the study,

Sample & sampling,

Delimitations of the study,

Experimental design,

The procedure of the study,

Analysis and interpretation of data,

Testing the hypothesis,

The calculation of effect size,

Discussion of the results

1.
Educational Quest: An Int. J. of Education and Applied Social Science: Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 453-458, August 2017

DOI: 10.5958/2230-7311.2017.00089.7

©2017 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved

A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics

through Conventional & Vedic Mathematics Approach

Ajai Kumar Shukla1*, R.P. Shukla1 and Ajay Pratap Singh2

Faculty of Education (K), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India

Department of Education, B.B.A. University, Lucknow, U.P., India

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Vedic mathematics is the name given to the ancient Indian system of mathematics that was rediscovered

in the early twentieth century from ancient Indian scripture namely Atharvaveda. The study was intended

to compare the effectiveness of teaching mathematics through conventional and Vedic mathematics

approach in the terms of students’ achievement in mathematics. In this experimental study, pretest-

posttest equivalent control groups design was used having randomly selected sample of 30 students in

each group from BKT Inter College, Lucknow. The study covered the major topics of UP Basic Education

Board class VIII mathematics syllabus viz., square, square-root, factorization of algebraic expressions and

simultaneous simple equations. Mean, standard deviation, t-test and effect size were used for analyzing

the data collected through self-made Achievement Tests in Mathematics (ATM) as pretest and posttest.

Students’ achievement in mathematics of experimental group on posttest was significant over that of

control group. No significant difference was found between male and female students in each group on

posttest. Effect size was calculated as Glass’ ∆ which was 0.902. Thus the Vedic mathematics approach

is found highly effective for enhancing the students’ achievement in mathematics as well as that of male

and female students equally.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Vedic mathematics, conventional approach, achievement in mathematics

We use mathematics in our all endeavors; therefore in Mathematics have magic and mysteries. Our

it becomes a part of our life. Our imaginations do ancient scholars understood all these mysteries and

involve mathematics. From beggar to businessman, developed some simple ways and techniques to

everyone uses mathematics in their life. The solve mathematical problems. One such technique is

education commission (1964-1966) recommended Vedic mathematics as it helps to solve mathematical

mathematics as a compulsory subject for students problems very much faster than the traditional

at all school level. The National Policy on Education methods of solving problems. The National Policy of

(1986) has also considered the importance of Education (NPE-1986) stated “Mathematics could be

mathematics in general education and suggests that considered as a medium to train a child to develop

mathematics should be visualized as the vehicle to his thinking capacity, to develop his reasoning

train a child to think, reason, analysis and articulate power, and to coherent logically”. So mathematics

logically apart from being a specific subject. But due should be shown as a way of thinking, an art or

to lack of understanding its essence and technique form of beauty, and as human achievement and it

of teaching, mathematics is now considered as can be achieved easily through Vedic mathematics

a dry subject by many learners. Now a learner as it not only helps in generating interest and

shows no interest in learning mathematics, teacher concept clarity in students but also stabilizing the

is teaching and students are learning just for the knowledge for longer duration too.

sake of obtaining marks. Most of the problems

DOI: 10.5958/2230-7311.2017.00089.7

©2017 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved

A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics

through Conventional & Vedic Mathematics Approach

Ajai Kumar Shukla1*, R.P. Shukla1 and Ajay Pratap Singh2

Faculty of Education (K), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India

Department of Education, B.B.A. University, Lucknow, U.P., India

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Vedic mathematics is the name given to the ancient Indian system of mathematics that was rediscovered

in the early twentieth century from ancient Indian scripture namely Atharvaveda. The study was intended

to compare the effectiveness of teaching mathematics through conventional and Vedic mathematics

approach in the terms of students’ achievement in mathematics. In this experimental study, pretest-

posttest equivalent control groups design was used having randomly selected sample of 30 students in

each group from BKT Inter College, Lucknow. The study covered the major topics of UP Basic Education

Board class VIII mathematics syllabus viz., square, square-root, factorization of algebraic expressions and

simultaneous simple equations. Mean, standard deviation, t-test and effect size were used for analyzing

the data collected through self-made Achievement Tests in Mathematics (ATM) as pretest and posttest.

Students’ achievement in mathematics of experimental group on posttest was significant over that of

control group. No significant difference was found between male and female students in each group on

posttest. Effect size was calculated as Glass’ ∆ which was 0.902. Thus the Vedic mathematics approach

is found highly effective for enhancing the students’ achievement in mathematics as well as that of male

and female students equally.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Vedic mathematics, conventional approach, achievement in mathematics

We use mathematics in our all endeavors; therefore in Mathematics have magic and mysteries. Our

it becomes a part of our life. Our imaginations do ancient scholars understood all these mysteries and

involve mathematics. From beggar to businessman, developed some simple ways and techniques to

everyone uses mathematics in their life. The solve mathematical problems. One such technique is

education commission (1964-1966) recommended Vedic mathematics as it helps to solve mathematical

mathematics as a compulsory subject for students problems very much faster than the traditional

at all school level. The National Policy on Education methods of solving problems. The National Policy of

(1986) has also considered the importance of Education (NPE-1986) stated “Mathematics could be

mathematics in general education and suggests that considered as a medium to train a child to develop

mathematics should be visualized as the vehicle to his thinking capacity, to develop his reasoning

train a child to think, reason, analysis and articulate power, and to coherent logically”. So mathematics

logically apart from being a specific subject. But due should be shown as a way of thinking, an art or

to lack of understanding its essence and technique form of beauty, and as human achievement and it

of teaching, mathematics is now considered as can be achieved easily through Vedic mathematics

a dry subject by many learners. Now a learner as it not only helps in generating interest and

shows no interest in learning mathematics, teacher concept clarity in students but also stabilizing the

is teaching and students are learning just for the knowledge for longer duration too.

sake of obtaining marks. Most of the problems

2.
Shukla et al.

Need and significance of the study mathematics problem solving approach with high

speed and accuracy to educational planners and

Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity,

curriculum developers.

space, structure and change. It is a branch of

science that uses numbers and symbols which are Operational definitions of the key terms used

arranged using systematic mathematics rules. It

can create moment of pleasure and wonder for all Effectiveness

pupils when they solve a problem for the first time,

discover a more efficient solution, or notice hidden In the study, effectiveness is described as significant

connection. But the essence and nature of teaching mean difference of a group over the other group

of mathematics is degrading day by day which on posttest in terms of students’ achievement in

creates a fear and phobia among students. Due to mathematics. In this fashion, the group having

excessive use of electronic gadgets and internet- greater mean is called more ‘effective’ than the

software, student and teacher both are diverting other group.

their path from efficient and effective teaching

Achievement in mathematics

learning process.

Now a student is laying less stress on mental Measurement of students’ grasp of knowledge

calculation and is more dependent on the gadgets or their proficiency in certain skills based on

and software for the solution. Vedic mathematics taught mathematical themes during experimental

is a unique method of solving problems by the use treatment. Here in this study it means achievement

of fast calculations. It is unique system as it helps score in mathematics obtained through ATM.

to solve all kinds of mathematical problems easily

Vedic mathematics approach

and efficiently. Tiwari, Gankhuyag, Kim & Cho

(2008) found that the proposed Vedic multiplier Solving mathematical problems easily with the

circuit seems to have better performance in terms help of some sutras, specifically based on the book

of speed. The goal of teaching mathematics is not Vedic Mathematics, authored by Sri Bharati Krishna

just academic achievement but its personal and Tirath Maharaja (1884-1960) of Govardhan Peetha,

professional growth also. Vedic mathematics not Puri (India). But it is originally rediscovered from

only helps in understanding the concept efficiently Atharvaveda (Sthapathya-subveda).

but also brings interest while learning mathematics

through magical techniques. Conventional method

And these techniques help the students to resist the A teacher centered traditional method of teaching

concepts for longer duration. Vedic mathematics with a due weightage to talk and chalk, based on

is found more effective in solving multiplication problem solving approaches given in class VIII

problems than traditional technique (Sharma, mathematics text-books of UP Basic Education

2014). Jiji (2012) also found Vedic mathematics is Board.

more effective, in terms of students’ achievement in

mathematics, than talk and chalk method. But almost Objectives of the study

all the studies were conducted on English medium To compare the means score on the achievement

students (e.g., Jiji, 2012; Sharma, 2014), covering in mathematics of the two groups of the

only few topics (e.g., multiplication and divisions in students on pretest.

arithmetic) and no practical significance (effect size)

was given. So to overcome this knowledge gap, the To compare the means scores on the achievement

present study was conducted on students of class in mathematics of the two groups of students

VIII Hindi medium government school of Lucknow. on posttest.

The study covered the major topics viz., square, To compare the means scores on the achievement

square-root, factorization of algebraic expressions in mathematics of male and female students of

and simultaneous simple equations. So the results of the control group on posttest.

the study can contribute an effective and interesting To compare the means scores on the achievement

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 454 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

Need and significance of the study mathematics problem solving approach with high

speed and accuracy to educational planners and

Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity,

curriculum developers.

space, structure and change. It is a branch of

science that uses numbers and symbols which are Operational definitions of the key terms used

arranged using systematic mathematics rules. It

can create moment of pleasure and wonder for all Effectiveness

pupils when they solve a problem for the first time,

discover a more efficient solution, or notice hidden In the study, effectiveness is described as significant

connection. But the essence and nature of teaching mean difference of a group over the other group

of mathematics is degrading day by day which on posttest in terms of students’ achievement in

creates a fear and phobia among students. Due to mathematics. In this fashion, the group having

excessive use of electronic gadgets and internet- greater mean is called more ‘effective’ than the

software, student and teacher both are diverting other group.

their path from efficient and effective teaching

Achievement in mathematics

learning process.

Now a student is laying less stress on mental Measurement of students’ grasp of knowledge

calculation and is more dependent on the gadgets or their proficiency in certain skills based on

and software for the solution. Vedic mathematics taught mathematical themes during experimental

is a unique method of solving problems by the use treatment. Here in this study it means achievement

of fast calculations. It is unique system as it helps score in mathematics obtained through ATM.

to solve all kinds of mathematical problems easily

Vedic mathematics approach

and efficiently. Tiwari, Gankhuyag, Kim & Cho

(2008) found that the proposed Vedic multiplier Solving mathematical problems easily with the

circuit seems to have better performance in terms help of some sutras, specifically based on the book

of speed. The goal of teaching mathematics is not Vedic Mathematics, authored by Sri Bharati Krishna

just academic achievement but its personal and Tirath Maharaja (1884-1960) of Govardhan Peetha,

professional growth also. Vedic mathematics not Puri (India). But it is originally rediscovered from

only helps in understanding the concept efficiently Atharvaveda (Sthapathya-subveda).

but also brings interest while learning mathematics

through magical techniques. Conventional method

And these techniques help the students to resist the A teacher centered traditional method of teaching

concepts for longer duration. Vedic mathematics with a due weightage to talk and chalk, based on

is found more effective in solving multiplication problem solving approaches given in class VIII

problems than traditional technique (Sharma, mathematics text-books of UP Basic Education

2014). Jiji (2012) also found Vedic mathematics is Board.

more effective, in terms of students’ achievement in

mathematics, than talk and chalk method. But almost Objectives of the study

all the studies were conducted on English medium To compare the means score on the achievement

students (e.g., Jiji, 2012; Sharma, 2014), covering in mathematics of the two groups of the

only few topics (e.g., multiplication and divisions in students on pretest.

arithmetic) and no practical significance (effect size)

was given. So to overcome this knowledge gap, the To compare the means scores on the achievement

present study was conducted on students of class in mathematics of the two groups of students

VIII Hindi medium government school of Lucknow. on posttest.

The study covered the major topics viz., square, To compare the means scores on the achievement

square-root, factorization of algebraic expressions in mathematics of male and female students of

and simultaneous simple equations. So the results of the control group on posttest.

the study can contribute an effective and interesting To compare the means scores on the achievement

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 454 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

3.
A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics through Conventional...

in mathematics of male and female students of experimental group was taught using the Vedic

the experimental group on posttest. mathematics approach while the control group was

To calculate the effect size of the Vedic taught using traditional approach. The experiment

mathematics approach over conventional had been continued for 25 working days. The

approach on posttest. posttest was administered on both the groups, after

the treatment was over.

Null Hypotheses

Research tools

H01: There is no significant difference in the

mean scores of experimental and control group Self-made Achievement Tests in Mathematics (ATM)

on pretest. as pretest and posttest were administered for testing

the class VIII students’ achievement in mathematics.

H02: there was no significant difference in the

The test-retest reliability was established and it was

mean scores of experimental and control group

found that 0.87 and 0.83 respectively. The content

on posttest.

validity of the tests was evaluated by a committee,

H03: There is no significant difference in the which consisted of mathematics teachers and teacher

mean scores of male and female students of the educators. The validity was found satisfactory.

control group on posttest.

H04: There is no significant difference in the Variables under the study

mean scores of male and female students of the Independent variables: Approaches of teaching

experimental group on posttest. mathematics i.e. Vedic mathematics and conventional

(traditional) mathematics.

Dependent variables: Students’ achievement in

All the students of class VIII of Hindi medium mathematics.

schools of Lucknow district for the academic year

Variables uncontrolled: Interest and attitude, socio-

2015-16 following the UP Basic Education Board

economic status, self-concept.

syllabus were constituted the population for the

study. Variables controlled: Time, average-age, classrooms-

conditions.

Sample & sampling

Delimitations of the study

In the study, BKT Inter College, Lucknow was

selected using purposive sampling. Further eighth The present study was confined to the class VIII

standard 60 students from BKT Inter College, Hindi medium students from Lucknow district

Lucknow were randomly selected as the sample. under UP Basic Education Board curriculum

In this manner the selection and the assignment of only.

the students were performed randomly into two The present study was carried on class VIII

groups; Experimental group & Control group. So students’ in terms of their achievement in

the number of students in each group was 30. mathematics only.

The present study covered these topics only

Experimental design

viz., square, square-root, factorization of

Since the nature of the present study was algebraic expressions and simultaneous simple

Experimental. For this purpose the pretest- posttest equations. So only few Vedic mathematics

equivalent groups design was selected. sutras were used to teach these topics.

Procedure of the study Analysis and interpretation of data

The pretest was administered on the students in In analysis the collected data were tabulated and

order to acquire their pre-experimental achievement statistical techniques were employed as per research

score. The groups were randomly assigned to design of the study. All the hypotheses were tested

one control and another experimental group. The at 0.05 level of significance.

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 455 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

in mathematics of male and female students of experimental group was taught using the Vedic

the experimental group on posttest. mathematics approach while the control group was

To calculate the effect size of the Vedic taught using traditional approach. The experiment

mathematics approach over conventional had been continued for 25 working days. The

approach on posttest. posttest was administered on both the groups, after

the treatment was over.

Null Hypotheses

Research tools

H01: There is no significant difference in the

mean scores of experimental and control group Self-made Achievement Tests in Mathematics (ATM)

on pretest. as pretest and posttest were administered for testing

the class VIII students’ achievement in mathematics.

H02: there was no significant difference in the

The test-retest reliability was established and it was

mean scores of experimental and control group

found that 0.87 and 0.83 respectively. The content

on posttest.

validity of the tests was evaluated by a committee,

H03: There is no significant difference in the which consisted of mathematics teachers and teacher

mean scores of male and female students of the educators. The validity was found satisfactory.

control group on posttest.

H04: There is no significant difference in the Variables under the study

mean scores of male and female students of the Independent variables: Approaches of teaching

experimental group on posttest. mathematics i.e. Vedic mathematics and conventional

(traditional) mathematics.

Dependent variables: Students’ achievement in

All the students of class VIII of Hindi medium mathematics.

schools of Lucknow district for the academic year

Variables uncontrolled: Interest and attitude, socio-

2015-16 following the UP Basic Education Board

economic status, self-concept.

syllabus were constituted the population for the

study. Variables controlled: Time, average-age, classrooms-

conditions.

Sample & sampling

Delimitations of the study

In the study, BKT Inter College, Lucknow was

selected using purposive sampling. Further eighth The present study was confined to the class VIII

standard 60 students from BKT Inter College, Hindi medium students from Lucknow district

Lucknow were randomly selected as the sample. under UP Basic Education Board curriculum

In this manner the selection and the assignment of only.

the students were performed randomly into two The present study was carried on class VIII

groups; Experimental group & Control group. So students’ in terms of their achievement in

the number of students in each group was 30. mathematics only.

The present study covered these topics only

Experimental design

viz., square, square-root, factorization of

Since the nature of the present study was algebraic expressions and simultaneous simple

Experimental. For this purpose the pretest- posttest equations. So only few Vedic mathematics

equivalent groups design was selected. sutras were used to teach these topics.

Procedure of the study Analysis and interpretation of data

The pretest was administered on the students in In analysis the collected data were tabulated and

order to acquire their pre-experimental achievement statistical techniques were employed as per research

score. The groups were randomly assigned to design of the study. All the hypotheses were tested

one control and another experimental group. The at 0.05 level of significance.

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 455 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

4.
Shukla et al.

Testing the hypothesis No. 1 in terms of students’ achievement in mathematics.

The null hypotheses No. 1 was that there was Testing the hypothesis No. 3

no significant difference in the mean scores of

The null hypothesis No.3 was that there was no

experimental and control group on pretest. This

significant difference in the mean scores of male

hypothesis was tested by calculating means,

and female students of the control group on

standard deviation and t-value. The means,

posttest. This hypothesis was tested by calculating

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

means, standard deviation and t-value. The means,

table 1 below:

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

Table 1: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of table below:

Achievement in Mathematics on pretest

Table 3: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of

Groups N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Achievement in Mathematics of Control group on

Hypothesis posttest

Experimental 30 5.97 2.32

Students N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Hypothesis*

Group 0.066 Failed to

Control 30 5.93 2.39 reject Male 18 6.56 1.93

Group

0.97 Failed to reject

Female 12 6.67 2.12

The null hypothesis was failed to reject on the

*Critical value of t with 28 df at 0.05 level is 2.05

basis of the above table and t-value was 0.066. This

indicates that there was no significant difference From the Table 3, it can be seen that the difference

between control and experimental group in terms in the achievement in mathematics of the male and

of their achievement in mathematics on pretest. female students from control group is not significant

therefore the null hypothesis was failed to reject.

Testing the hypothesis No. 2 This indicates the achievement in mathematics of

The null hypotheses No. 2 was that there was male and female students from control group were

no significant difference in the mean scores of same on posttest.

experimental and control group on posttest. This

Testing the hypothesis No. 4

hypothesis was tested by calculating means,

standard deviation and t-value. The means, The null hypothesis No. 4 was that there was no

standard deviation and t-value are given in the significant difference in the mean scores of male

table below: and female students of the experimental group on

posttest. This hypothesis was tested by calculating

Table 2: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of means, standard deviation and t-value. The means,

Achievement in Mathematics on posttest

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

Groups N Mean S.D. t-Value Null table below:

Hypothesis

Experimental 30 8.53 1.31 Table 4: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of

Group Achievement in Mathematics of Experimental group

4.214 Rejected

on posttest

Control 30 6.60 2.14

Group Students N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Hypothesis*

Male 17 8.24 1.53

The null-hypothesis was rejected and the research 1.027 Failed to reject

Female 13 8.92 2.21

hypothesis was accepted on the basis of the Table 2,

i.e. it can be seen that the difference in the means of *Critical value of t with 28 df at 0.05 level is 2.05

students’ achievement in mathematics from Control

From the Table 4, it can be seen that the difference

Group and Experimental Group is significant. Thus

in the achievement in mathematics of the male

Vedic mathematics approach is effective over the

and female students from experimental group is

conventional approach of teaching mathematics

not significant therefore, the null hypothesis was

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 456 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

Testing the hypothesis No. 1 in terms of students’ achievement in mathematics.

The null hypotheses No. 1 was that there was Testing the hypothesis No. 3

no significant difference in the mean scores of

The null hypothesis No.3 was that there was no

experimental and control group on pretest. This

significant difference in the mean scores of male

hypothesis was tested by calculating means,

and female students of the control group on

standard deviation and t-value. The means,

posttest. This hypothesis was tested by calculating

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

means, standard deviation and t-value. The means,

table 1 below:

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

Table 1: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of table below:

Achievement in Mathematics on pretest

Table 3: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of

Groups N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Achievement in Mathematics of Control group on

Hypothesis posttest

Experimental 30 5.97 2.32

Students N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Hypothesis*

Group 0.066 Failed to

Control 30 5.93 2.39 reject Male 18 6.56 1.93

Group

0.97 Failed to reject

Female 12 6.67 2.12

The null hypothesis was failed to reject on the

*Critical value of t with 28 df at 0.05 level is 2.05

basis of the above table and t-value was 0.066. This

indicates that there was no significant difference From the Table 3, it can be seen that the difference

between control and experimental group in terms in the achievement in mathematics of the male and

of their achievement in mathematics on pretest. female students from control group is not significant

therefore the null hypothesis was failed to reject.

Testing the hypothesis No. 2 This indicates the achievement in mathematics of

The null hypotheses No. 2 was that there was male and female students from control group were

no significant difference in the mean scores of same on posttest.

experimental and control group on posttest. This

Testing the hypothesis No. 4

hypothesis was tested by calculating means,

standard deviation and t-value. The means, The null hypothesis No. 4 was that there was no

standard deviation and t-value are given in the significant difference in the mean scores of male

table below: and female students of the experimental group on

posttest. This hypothesis was tested by calculating

Table 2: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of means, standard deviation and t-value. The means,

Achievement in Mathematics on posttest

standard deviation and t-value are given in the

Groups N Mean S.D. t-Value Null table below:

Hypothesis

Experimental 30 8.53 1.31 Table 4: Mean, Standard deviation and t-value of

Group Achievement in Mathematics of Experimental group

4.214 Rejected

on posttest

Control 30 6.60 2.14

Group Students N Mean S.D. t-Value Null Hypothesis*

Male 17 8.24 1.53

The null-hypothesis was rejected and the research 1.027 Failed to reject

Female 13 8.92 2.21

hypothesis was accepted on the basis of the Table 2,

i.e. it can be seen that the difference in the means of *Critical value of t with 28 df at 0.05 level is 2.05

students’ achievement in mathematics from Control

From the Table 4, it can be seen that the difference

Group and Experimental Group is significant. Thus

in the achievement in mathematics of the male

Vedic mathematics approach is effective over the

and female students from experimental group is

conventional approach of teaching mathematics

not significant therefore, the null hypothesis was

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 456 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

5.
A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics through Conventional...

failed to reject. This indicates that the achievement terms of their achievement in mathematics while

in mathematics of male and female students from scores of remaining 81.59% students of the control

experimental group were same on posttest. group were less than mean score of experimental

group. Thus we can say that the Vedic mathematics

The calculation of effect size approach is highly effective for enhancing the

After testing the hypotheses, the practical significance students’ achievement in mathematics. It may be

must be calculated (Sulivan & Feinn, 2012). Here noted that to calculate Glass’ ∆, there was used

Table No. 5 shows the calculation of effect size for standard deviation of control group because the

understanding the practical significance of Vedic control group is the original representative of

mathematics approach. the population and not affected by experimental

treatment (Coe, 2002). So this provided unbiased

Table 5: Calculation of Effect size (Glass’ ∆) effect size. On the basis of above findings, it can be

concluded that Vedic mathematics can be extended

Groups Mean S.D. Effect size (Glass’ ∆)

by teachers, curriculum developers for elementary

and secondary classes.

Experimental 8.53 1.31 (8.53 − 6.60)

Group ∆ E −C = In this context, every teacher should inculcate the

2.14

Control Group 6.60 2.14 habit of reading books related to Vedic mathematics;

= 0.902

at least some periods should be allotted in the class

to use Vedic mathematics tricks. So students can

Here Glass’∆ was calculated as effect size of Vedic

actively participate in solving problems. Schools

mathematics approach over conventional approach

should also realize the classrooms are not meant

of teaching mathematics which was 0.902.

only for transaction of knowledge but also for

Discussion of the results developing creative abilities and talents through

joyful teaching-learning approaches. With the

In this study, the control and experimental group help of Vedic mathematics students can score high

were found equivalent in the terms of their marks and also excel in competitive examinations.

achievement in mathematics at the time of starting In the present scenario, almost all the competitive

the treatment. So there is no need to use analysis examinations contain reasoning aptitude sessions,

of covariance (ANCOVA) in the study (Best & in which students have to score good marks. Since

Kahn, 2006). Vedic mathematics approach is found education has its main aim to transfer the cultural-

effective over the conventional approach of teaching heritage from one generation to other. In this order

mathematics in terms of students’ achievement in Vedic mathematics should be conserved as non-

mathematics. This finding is supported by many materialistic Indian cultural-heritage also.

studies only on the multiplication operation (e.g.,

Many further studies may be conducted at higher

Sharma, 2014); square and square-root (e.g., Jiji,

level of education through qualitative or mixed

2012). Whereas in the study, the Vedic mathematics

approach of the study, as the case may be; for testing

approach is found effective over the conventional

the effectiveness of Vedic mathematics in other

approach of teaching mathematics covering the

various terms viz., attitude towards mathematics,

experiment on the major topics viz., square, square-

interest in mathematics, motivation level, speed

root, factorization of algebraic expressions and

and accuracy in a particular time phase using

simultaneous simple equations. Conventional as

various Vedic sutras. Various problems faced by the

well as Vedic mathematics approach of teaching

students while using the Vedic mathematics may be

mathematics produce similar results on male and

diagnosed and remediated.

female students’ achievement, i.e. Vedic mathematics

is equally effective for male and female students. REFERENCES

As the assumptions of NPC are followed, the Best, J.W. and Kahn, J.V. 2006. Research in Education (10th ed.).

effect size (Glass’ ∆=0.902) can be described as only New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited.

18.41% students of the control group performed Coe, R. 2002. It’s the Effect Size, Stupid what effect size

better than mean score of experimental group in is and why it is important. Paper presented at the

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 457 Online ISSN: 2230-7311

failed to reject. This indicates that the achievement terms of their achievement in mathematics while

in mathematics of male and female students from scores of remaining 81.59% students of the control

experimental group were same on posttest. group were less than mean score of experimental

group. Thus we can say that the Vedic mathematics

The calculation of effect size approach is highly effective for enhancing the

After testing the hypotheses, the practical significance students’ achievement in mathematics. It may be

must be calculated (Sulivan & Feinn, 2012). Here noted that to calculate Glass’ ∆, there was used

Table No. 5 shows the calculation of effect size for standard deviation of control group because the

understanding the practical significance of Vedic control group is the original representative of

mathematics approach. the population and not affected by experimental

treatment (Coe, 2002). So this provided unbiased

Table 5: Calculation of Effect size (Glass’ ∆) effect size. On the basis of above findings, it can be

concluded that Vedic mathematics can be extended

Groups Mean S.D. Effect size (Glass’ ∆)

by teachers, curriculum developers for elementary

and secondary classes.

Experimental 8.53 1.31 (8.53 − 6.60)

Group ∆ E −C = In this context, every teacher should inculcate the

2.14

Control Group 6.60 2.14 habit of reading books related to Vedic mathematics;

= 0.902

at least some periods should be allotted in the class

to use Vedic mathematics tricks. So students can

Here Glass’∆ was calculated as effect size of Vedic

actively participate in solving problems. Schools

mathematics approach over conventional approach

should also realize the classrooms are not meant

of teaching mathematics which was 0.902.

only for transaction of knowledge but also for

Discussion of the results developing creative abilities and talents through

joyful teaching-learning approaches. With the

In this study, the control and experimental group help of Vedic mathematics students can score high

were found equivalent in the terms of their marks and also excel in competitive examinations.

achievement in mathematics at the time of starting In the present scenario, almost all the competitive

the treatment. So there is no need to use analysis examinations contain reasoning aptitude sessions,

of covariance (ANCOVA) in the study (Best & in which students have to score good marks. Since

Kahn, 2006). Vedic mathematics approach is found education has its main aim to transfer the cultural-

effective over the conventional approach of teaching heritage from one generation to other. In this order

mathematics in terms of students’ achievement in Vedic mathematics should be conserved as non-

mathematics. This finding is supported by many materialistic Indian cultural-heritage also.

studies only on the multiplication operation (e.g.,

Many further studies may be conducted at higher

Sharma, 2014); square and square-root (e.g., Jiji,

level of education through qualitative or mixed

2012). Whereas in the study, the Vedic mathematics

approach of the study, as the case may be; for testing

approach is found effective over the conventional

the effectiveness of Vedic mathematics in other

approach of teaching mathematics covering the

various terms viz., attitude towards mathematics,

experiment on the major topics viz., square, square-

interest in mathematics, motivation level, speed

root, factorization of algebraic expressions and

and accuracy in a particular time phase using

simultaneous simple equations. Conventional as

various Vedic sutras. Various problems faced by the

well as Vedic mathematics approach of teaching

students while using the Vedic mathematics may be

mathematics produce similar results on male and

diagnosed and remediated.

female students’ achievement, i.e. Vedic mathematics

is equally effective for male and female students. REFERENCES

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better than mean score of experimental group in is and why it is important. Paper presented at the

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Annual Conference of the British Educational Research Sharma, A. 2014. A comparative study of multiplication

Association, University of Exeter, England. Retrieved operation. Bharatiya Shiksha Shodh Patrika, 33(1): 28-32.

December 23, 2016, from https://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ Sulivan, G.M. and Feinn, R. 2012. Using effect size- or why

documents/00002182.htm. the P value is not enough. Journal of Graduate Medical

Jiji, S. 2012. A Study of Effectiveness of Teaching Vedic Mathematics Education, 4(3): 279-282.

on Students’ Achievement. Doctoral thesis, SJJT University, Tiwari, H.D., Gankhuyag, G., Kim, C.M. and Cho, Y.B. 2008.

Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from Multiplier design based on ancient Vedic mathematics.

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/21247. Multiplier design based on ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics.

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(Education and National Development). Delhi: Ministry of SOCDC.2008.4815685

Education, GoI. Retrieved January 12, 2017 from https:// M.H.R.D. 1986. National Policy on Education 1986. Delhi.

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on1964-66D.S.KothariReport Maharaja, B.K.T. 2009. Vedic mathematics. Delhi: Motilal

Banarasidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Print ISSN: 0976-7258 458 Online ISSN: 2230-7311