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Abstract,

Keywords,

Introduction,

Need for the study,

Objectives of the study,

Hypotheses of the study,

Variables,

Delimitations of the study,

Methodology and Methods,

Samples,

Tools,

Reliability and validity of the tool,

The procedure of the study,

Statistical Technique,

Findings,

Educational Implications,

Conclusion

Abstract,

Keywords,

Introduction,

Need for the study,

Objectives of the study,

Hypotheses of the study,

Variables,

Delimitations of the study,

Methodology and Methods,

Samples,

Tools,

Reliability and validity of the tool,

The procedure of the study,

Statistical Technique,

Findings,

Educational Implications,

Conclusion

1.
Vol. 2 No. 2 March, 2014 ISSN: 2320 - 2653

Effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics in Learning Subtraction at Standard IV

E. Dhivyadeepa

Assistant Professor of Mathematics Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

The study enlightens the effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics in learning Subtraction at standard IV.

Objectives of the study: [i] To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score

between Pretest of Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group. [ii] To find out the significant

difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group and Posttest of

Experimental group. [iii] To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between

Posttest of Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group. Methodology: Parallel group

experimental method. Samples: Twenty four pupils studying in standard IV from Government

Primary School, Kalveerampalayam, Coimbatore. Twelve students were considered as Controlled

group and another twelve students were considered as Experimental group. Tool: Researcher’s self-

made Achievement test. Reliability of the tool: The reliability of the tool was calculated by split-

half method and the calculated reliability value was 0.72. Procedure of the study: [i] Identification

of the problem by administrating a Pretest for both the group [ii] Teaching and learning activities

through Vedic method and Conventional method. [iii] Administrating Posttest. Findings: [i] There is

no significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group. [ii] There is a significant difference in achievement mean score

between the Pretest of Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group. [iii] There is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between the Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Keywords: Vedic method, Conventional method, Subtraction, Achievement.

Mathematics is highly useful for explaining fundamental building blocks of daily life,

from the pattern of cloth purchasing to calculate the distances of orbits from their

respective planet. In today’s rapidly changing world, it cannot be denied that for an

individual to be competent in mathematics. The four fundamental operations – Addition,

Subtraction, Multiplication and Division, and their relations are basic mathematical

concepts to be taught at primary education level. Acquisition of those four basic operations

and their relations enables students to develop their understanding for numbers and

calculating strategies as well as associating them with daily life problems. In the primary

level, the basic operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Divisions are

most essential for an individual. It is sometimes difficult for the pupil those are in primary

level to appreciate the importance of those four basic operation. Among basic operations,

Shanlax International Journal of Education 23

Effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics in Learning Subtraction at Standard IV

E. Dhivyadeepa

Assistant Professor of Mathematics Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

The study enlightens the effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics in learning Subtraction at standard IV.

Objectives of the study: [i] To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score

between Pretest of Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group. [ii] To find out the significant

difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group and Posttest of

Experimental group. [iii] To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between

Posttest of Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group. Methodology: Parallel group

experimental method. Samples: Twenty four pupils studying in standard IV from Government

Primary School, Kalveerampalayam, Coimbatore. Twelve students were considered as Controlled

group and another twelve students were considered as Experimental group. Tool: Researcher’s self-

made Achievement test. Reliability of the tool: The reliability of the tool was calculated by split-

half method and the calculated reliability value was 0.72. Procedure of the study: [i] Identification

of the problem by administrating a Pretest for both the group [ii] Teaching and learning activities

through Vedic method and Conventional method. [iii] Administrating Posttest. Findings: [i] There is

no significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group. [ii] There is a significant difference in achievement mean score

between the Pretest of Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group. [iii] There is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between the Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Keywords: Vedic method, Conventional method, Subtraction, Achievement.

Mathematics is highly useful for explaining fundamental building blocks of daily life,

from the pattern of cloth purchasing to calculate the distances of orbits from their

respective planet. In today’s rapidly changing world, it cannot be denied that for an

individual to be competent in mathematics. The four fundamental operations – Addition,

Subtraction, Multiplication and Division, and their relations are basic mathematical

concepts to be taught at primary education level. Acquisition of those four basic operations

and their relations enables students to develop their understanding for numbers and

calculating strategies as well as associating them with daily life problems. In the primary

level, the basic operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Divisions are

most essential for an individual. It is sometimes difficult for the pupil those are in primary

level to appreciate the importance of those four basic operation. Among basic operations,

Shanlax International Journal of Education 23

2.
Vol. 2 No. 2 March, 2014 ISSN: 2320 - 2653

Subtraction is considered a difficult mathematical operation. All pupils must acquire the

skills of Subtraction so that they would be able to use Subtraction when they are faced with

a situation that demands it. Hence, the researcher used Vedic method to develop the

pupils’ computation skill in Subtraction.

Need for the study

The main goal of mathematics education in primary school is joyful learning of

mathematics. The children should learn to enjoy mathematics rather than avoid it. They

should pose and solve meaningful problem with out errors. At primary level, it is important

that the four basic operations in Arithmetic are to be familiarized. In Conventional method

of teaching, pupils commit mistake in Subtraction with or without regrouping. Hence, the

researcher used “Vedic method” for Subtraction to improve their computation skill without

Objectives of the study

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Posttest

of Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

Hypotheses of the study

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

The independent variable is Vedic method and the dependent variable is

Achievement score.

Delimitations of the study

The responsibility of the researcher is to see that the study is conducted with

maximum care in order to be reliable. However, the following delimitations could not be

avoided in the present study. [i] The study is confined to 24 students of standard IV

studying in Government Primary School, Kalveerampalayam, Coimbatore. [ii] The study is

confined to learning Subtraction of two and three digit numbers only.

Shanlax International Journal of Education 24

Subtraction is considered a difficult mathematical operation. All pupils must acquire the

skills of Subtraction so that they would be able to use Subtraction when they are faced with

a situation that demands it. Hence, the researcher used Vedic method to develop the

pupils’ computation skill in Subtraction.

Need for the study

The main goal of mathematics education in primary school is joyful learning of

mathematics. The children should learn to enjoy mathematics rather than avoid it. They

should pose and solve meaningful problem with out errors. At primary level, it is important

that the four basic operations in Arithmetic are to be familiarized. In Conventional method

of teaching, pupils commit mistake in Subtraction with or without regrouping. Hence, the

researcher used “Vedic method” for Subtraction to improve their computation skill without

Objectives of the study

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• To find out the significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Posttest

of Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

Hypotheses of the study

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• There is no significant difference in Achievement in Mathematics between Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

The independent variable is Vedic method and the dependent variable is

Achievement score.

Delimitations of the study

The responsibility of the researcher is to see that the study is conducted with

maximum care in order to be reliable. However, the following delimitations could not be

avoided in the present study. [i] The study is confined to 24 students of standard IV

studying in Government Primary School, Kalveerampalayam, Coimbatore. [ii] The study is

confined to learning Subtraction of two and three digit numbers only.

Shanlax International Journal of Education 24

3.
Vol. 2 No. 2 March, 2014 ISSN: 2320 - 2653

Parallel group experimental method was adopted in the study.

A sample of 24 Students of standard IV, studying in the Government primary school,

Kalveerampalayam in Coimbatore District was selected by simple random sampling

technique. 12 students were considered as Controlled group and another 12 students were

considered as Experimental group.

Researcher’s self made Achievement test was used as a tool for the study. The

achievement test consisted of 8 questions in subtraction.

Reliability and validity of tool

The reliability of the tool was found 0.72 at 0.01 significant level by split half

method. The validity of the tool was established by juries’ opinion. Hence the reliability

and validity of the tool were established.

Procedure of the study

• Pre-test was conducted for the students in Subtraction. It contained 8 questions. Marks

in the pre-test were awarded for correct working and correct final answers.

• According to the marks scored by the pupils, the pupils were grouped into two equal

groups such as controlled group and experimental group.

• The next stage was the teaching and learning session. It consisted 4 hour sessions (one

hour per day) and a one hour session for revision.

• Controlled group students were taught Subtraction by Conventional method and

Experimental group students were taught Subtraction by Vedic method.

• Post-test was conducted after the teaching and learning sessions. Marks in the Posttest

were awarded for correct working and correct final answers.

Statistical Technique

Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used to analyze the study.

Shanlax International Journal of Education 25

Parallel group experimental method was adopted in the study.

A sample of 24 Students of standard IV, studying in the Government primary school,

Kalveerampalayam in Coimbatore District was selected by simple random sampling

technique. 12 students were considered as Controlled group and another 12 students were

considered as Experimental group.

Researcher’s self made Achievement test was used as a tool for the study. The

achievement test consisted of 8 questions in subtraction.

Reliability and validity of tool

The reliability of the tool was found 0.72 at 0.01 significant level by split half

method. The validity of the tool was established by juries’ opinion. Hence the reliability

and validity of the tool were established.

Procedure of the study

• Pre-test was conducted for the students in Subtraction. It contained 8 questions. Marks

in the pre-test were awarded for correct working and correct final answers.

• According to the marks scored by the pupils, the pupils were grouped into two equal

groups such as controlled group and experimental group.

• The next stage was the teaching and learning session. It consisted 4 hour sessions (one

hour per day) and a one hour session for revision.

• Controlled group students were taught Subtraction by Conventional method and

Experimental group students were taught Subtraction by Vedic method.

• Post-test was conducted after the teaching and learning sessions. Marks in the Posttest

were awarded for correct working and correct final answers.

Statistical Technique

Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used to analyze the study.

Shanlax International Journal of Education 25

4.
Vol. 2 No. 2 March, 2014 ISSN: 2320 - 2653

Hypothesis 1

There is no significant difference in Achievement mean score between the Pretest

of Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group in learning Subtraction.

Table 1 Showing achievement mean score between Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Pretest 12 2.500 2.393

11 1.662 Not significant

Post test 12 3.917 1.730

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 1.662 is less than the

tabulated t-value 2.201. Null hypothesis is accepted at 0.05 level. Hence, there is no

significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement scores in

Subtraction is not statistically increased by “Conventional method”.

Hypothesis 2

There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction.

Table 2 Showing achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Pretest 12 2.750 2.301 Significant at

11 6.642

Posttest 12 7.417 0.793 0.05 level

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 6.642 is greater than

the tabulated t-value 2.201. Null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 level. Hence, there is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group

and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement

scores in Subtraction is increased by “Vedic method”.

Hypothesis 3

There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction

Table 3 Showing achievement mean score between Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Posttest of Controlled group 12 3.917 1.730

22 Significant at

Posttest of Experimental 6.371

12 7.417 0.793 0.05 level

group

Shanlax International Journal of Education 26

Hypothesis 1

There is no significant difference in Achievement mean score between the Pretest

of Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group in learning Subtraction.

Table 1 Showing achievement mean score between Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Pretest 12 2.500 2.393

11 1.662 Not significant

Post test 12 3.917 1.730

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 1.662 is less than the

tabulated t-value 2.201. Null hypothesis is accepted at 0.05 level. Hence, there is no

significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Controlled group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement scores in

Subtraction is not statistically increased by “Conventional method”.

Hypothesis 2

There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction.

Table 2 Showing achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Pretest 12 2.750 2.301 Significant at

11 6.642

Posttest 12 7.417 0.793 0.05 level

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 6.642 is greater than

the tabulated t-value 2.201. Null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 level. Hence, there is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between Pretest of Experimental group

and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement

scores in Subtraction is increased by “Vedic method”.

Hypothesis 3

There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction

Table 3 Showing achievement mean score between Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group.

Group N Mean S.D df t-value Significance

Posttest of Controlled group 12 3.917 1.730

22 Significant at

Posttest of Experimental 6.371

12 7.417 0.793 0.05 level

group

Shanlax International Journal of Education 26

5.
Vol. 2 No. 2 March, 2014 ISSN: 2320 - 2653

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 6.371 is greater than

the tabulated t-value 2.074. Null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 level. Hence, there is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement scores in

Subtraction is increased by “Vedic method” than by “Conventional method”

• There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• There is a significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• There is a significant difference in achievement mean score between the Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

Educational Implications

• The Vedic mathematics can be used for teaching Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and

Calculus and it can be extended to primary level, secondary level and higher secondary

level.

• Slow learners can be improved by using Vedic Mathematics.

The result of the study reveals that learning through Vedic method helped to

improve the achievement of students in the Subtraction. Vedic Mathematics is certainly

more integrated, more efficient and more fun than Conventional Mathematics. Hence it is

important that introducing Vedic method in teaching of Arithmetic at primary level. These

types of innovative methodss may overcome the difficulties faced by the learners in

Mathematics and on future the Mathematics class may become an attractive one. Further

research is needed to scientifically compare the effects of Vedic method in teaching other

three basic operations such as Addition, Multiplication and Division.

• Aitken, A.C.(1954). The art of mental calculation: With demonstrations. Transactions of the

• society of Engineers.

• Bettie, I. D. (1979). Children’s Strategies for Solving Subtraction-Fact Combinations.

Arithmetic Teacher, Volume 27, Number 1, 14 – 15.

• Bibhutibhushan, D.,&Avadesh, N.S.(2001). History of Hindu Mathematics. Delhi: Bharatiya

kala Prakashan.

• Booker, G., Bond, D., Sparrow, L., & Swan, P.(2004). Teaching Primary Mathematics.

Malaysia: Pearson Education Australia.

• Jeniffer, S., Andrew, D.,& Maria, G.(2006). Mathematical Knowledge for Primary Teacher (3rd

ed.).Washington, DC:David Falton Publication.

• Rajesh Kumar Thakur. (2009). Vedic Mathematics. New Delhi, Unicorn Books Publications.

• Robert, A.C., & Marilyn, J.C.(1974). Arithmetic of Whole Numbers. New York:John Wiley &

Sons Inc.

• http://www.mastermindvedicmaths.com/about-vedicmaths.html

• http://www.scribd.com/doc/7150802/Vedic-Mathematics-Subtraction

• http://www.geniusvedicmaths.com/vedic-maths-lessons-14435.html

Shanlax International Journal of Education 27

It is evident from the above table that the calculated t-value 6.371 is greater than

the tabulated t-value 2.074. Null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 level. Hence, there is a

significant difference in achievement mean score between Posttest of Controlled group and

Posttest of Experimental group in learning Subtraction. The students’ achievement scores in

Subtraction is increased by “Vedic method” than by “Conventional method”

• There is no significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Controlled group.

• There is a significant difference in achievement mean score between the Pretest of

Experimental group and Posttest of Experimental group.

• There is a significant difference in achievement mean score between the Posttest of

Controlled group and Posttest of Experimental group.

Educational Implications

• The Vedic mathematics can be used for teaching Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and

Calculus and it can be extended to primary level, secondary level and higher secondary

level.

• Slow learners can be improved by using Vedic Mathematics.

The result of the study reveals that learning through Vedic method helped to

improve the achievement of students in the Subtraction. Vedic Mathematics is certainly

more integrated, more efficient and more fun than Conventional Mathematics. Hence it is

important that introducing Vedic method in teaching of Arithmetic at primary level. These

types of innovative methodss may overcome the difficulties faced by the learners in

Mathematics and on future the Mathematics class may become an attractive one. Further

research is needed to scientifically compare the effects of Vedic method in teaching other

three basic operations such as Addition, Multiplication and Division.

• Aitken, A.C.(1954). The art of mental calculation: With demonstrations. Transactions of the

• society of Engineers.

• Bettie, I. D. (1979). Children’s Strategies for Solving Subtraction-Fact Combinations.

Arithmetic Teacher, Volume 27, Number 1, 14 – 15.

• Bibhutibhushan, D.,&Avadesh, N.S.(2001). History of Hindu Mathematics. Delhi: Bharatiya

kala Prakashan.

• Booker, G., Bond, D., Sparrow, L., & Swan, P.(2004). Teaching Primary Mathematics.

Malaysia: Pearson Education Australia.

• Jeniffer, S., Andrew, D.,& Maria, G.(2006). Mathematical Knowledge for Primary Teacher (3rd

ed.).Washington, DC:David Falton Publication.

• Rajesh Kumar Thakur. (2009). Vedic Mathematics. New Delhi, Unicorn Books Publications.

• Robert, A.C., & Marilyn, J.C.(1974). Arithmetic of Whole Numbers. New York:John Wiley &

Sons Inc.

• http://www.mastermindvedicmaths.com/about-vedicmaths.html

• http://www.scribd.com/doc/7150802/Vedic-Mathematics-Subtraction

• http://www.geniusvedicmaths.com/vedic-maths-lessons-14435.html

Shanlax International Journal of Education 27