What is the Functioning of the Muscular System?

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The muscular system is composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers. Their predominant function is contractibility. Muscles, attached to bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement.
3. Muscles make up the bulk of the body
and account for 1/3 of its weight.!!
Blood vessels and nerves run to every
muscle, helping control and regulate each
muscle’s function.
5. The muscular system creates body heat
and also moves the:
 Bones of the Skeletal system
 Food through Digestive system
 Blood through the Circulatory system
 Fluids through the Excretory system
The body has 3 main types of muscle tissue
1) Skeletal, 2) Smooth, and 3) Cardiac
8. Skeletal muscles attach to
and move bones by
contracting and relaxing in
response to voluntary
messages from the
nervous system.
Skeletal muscle tissue is
composed of long cells
called muscle fibers
that have a striated
Muscle fibers are
organized into bundles
supplied by blood vessels
and innervated by motor
9. Muscle structure
Skeletal (striated or voluntary)
muscle consists of densely
packed groups of hugely
elongated cells known as
These are grouped into bundles
A typical myofiber is 2–3
centimeters ( 3/4–1 1/5 in)
long and 0.05millimeters
(1/500 inch) in diameter and is
composed of narrower
structures – myofibrils. These
contain thick and thin
myofilaments made up mainly
of the proteins actin and
myosin. Numerous capillaries
keep the muscle supplied with
the oxygen and glucose needed
to fuel contraction.
10. Skeletal Muscles
• Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons
(connective tissue) and enable movement.
• Skeletal muscles are mostly voluntary
Feel the back of
your ankle to
feel your
Achilles tendon
- the largest
tendon in your
11. The typical male body contains approximately 640
muscles, which compose around two-fifths of its weight.
The same number in a female body make up a slightly
smaller proportion.
A typical muscle spans a joint and tapers at each end into
a fibrous tendon anchored to a bone. Some muscles
divide to attach to different bones.
12. Tendons are tough, fibrous
cords of connective tissue
that link skeletal muscles to
Within them, Sharpey’s fibers
pass through the bone
covering (periosteum) to
embed in the bone.
Tendons in the hands and
feet are enclosed in self-
lubricating sheaths to protect
them from rubbing against
the bones.
From the hand bones,
tendons extend upwards to
muscles near the elbow.
13. Tendons and Tendon
Sheaths in the hand.
Skeletal muscles are also known
as voluntary muscles, since we
control their actions at will, and as
striated muscles, from their
microscopic appearance.
In the muscular system, skeletal
muscles are connected to the
skeleton, either to bone or to
connective tissues such as
Muscles are always attached at
two or more places.
When the muscle contracts, the
attachment points are pulled
closer together; when it relaxes,
the attachment points move apart.
15. A second type is smooth
muscle, in the walls of body
parts such as the airways,
stomach, Alimentary canal,
and blood vessels.
This is called involuntary
muscle, because it works
automatically rather than
under conscious control, or
smooth muscle, from its
magnified appearance
16. • Smooth muscle lines organs and is
– moves food through digestive organs
– empties liquid from the bladder
– controls width of the blood vessels
Smooth muscle around this
artery allows the artery to
regulate blood flow by
shrinking and expanding.
17. The third type is cardiac muscle,
making up the walls of the heart.
It is part of both the Muscular
System and the Circulatory
It is responsible for circulating
blood throughout the body.
It has its own pacemaker for
rhythmic beating.
18. The heart wall is
composed of three layers.
The middle layer, the
myocardium, is
responsible for the heart’s
pumping action.
Cardiac muscle, found
only in the myocardium,
contracts in response to
signals from the cardiac
conduction system to
make the heart beat.
Cardiac muscle is made
from cells called
19. • Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart.
– pumps blood throughout body
– contains more mitochondria than skeletal
muscle cells
It happens when the
muscular system and
the nervous system
work together:
Somatic signals are
sent from the
cerebral cortex to
nerves associated
with specific skeletal
Most signals travel
through spinal nerves
that connect with
nerves that innervate
skeletal muscles
throughout the body.
21. Muscle contraction
begins when the
nervous system
generates a signal.
The signal, an
impulse called an
action potential,
travels through a type
of nerve cell called a
motor neuron.
The neuromuscular
junction is the name
of the place where the
motor neuron reaches
a muscle cell.
Skeletal muscle tissue
is composed of cells
called muscle fibers.
22. The top image is of a
brain neuron sending
an electronic signal to
a motor neuron, shown
When the nervous
system signal reaches
the neuromuscular
junction a chemical
message is released by
the motor neuron.
The chemical message,
a neurotransmitter
called acetylcholine,
binds to receptors on
the outside of the
muscle fiber. That starts
a chemical reaction
within the muscle, to
make it contract.
23. A multistep molecular
process within the muscle
fiber begins when
acetylcholine binds to
receptors on the muscle
fiber membrane.
The proteins inside
muscle fibers are
organized into long chains
that can interact with
each other, reorganizing
to shorten and relax.
When acetylcholine
reaches receptors on the
membranes of muscle
fibers, membrane
channels open and the
process that contracts a
relaxed muscle fibers
24. When the
stimulation of the
motor neuron
providing the
impulse to the
muscle fibers stops,
the chemical
reaction that
causes the
rearrangement of
the muscle fibers
proteins is stopped.
This reverses the
chemical processes
in the muscle fibers
and the muscle
25. Muscle pairs:
Muscles are grouped together in pairs on your skeleton
Muscles can’t push - they only contract and pull the
bones to which they are anchored.
Relaxed or contracted:
When one muscle of a pair contracts, the other relaxes
Pulling muscles:
Skeletal muscles only pull in one direction. For this reason they
always come in pairs. When one muscle in a pair contracts, to
bend a joint for example, its partner then contracts and pulls in
the opposite direction to straighten the joint out again.
26. An example of how the 2 sets of
arm muscles move to pull the
bone, on one side and then the
other, depending on how the arm
is intended to move.
To steady and move the
head and to move facial
features such as the
eyebrows, eyelids, and
lips, the muscles of the
face, head and neck
The musculature
involved is highly
complex, allowing for a
huge range of facial
Some facial muscles are anchored
to bones.
Others are joined to tendons or to
dense, sheet-like clusters of
fibrous connective tissue called
This means, that some facial
muscles are joined to each other.
Many of these muscles have their
other end inserted into deeper
layers of the skin. The advantage
of this complex system is that
even a slight degree of muscle
contraction produces movement of
the face’s skin, which reveals itself
as a show of expression or
Healthy young skin contains
resilient fibers made of the
protein elastin which help it
return to its original position, for
example, after smiling.
With increasing age, the elastin
degenerates and the skin’s
dermis becomes more loosely
attached to the muscle beneath.
This causes wrinkles as the skin
can no longer stretch or shrink
Initially “crow’s feet” radiate
from the corners of the eyes.
These are followed by lines
around the brow and mouth, in
front of the ears, between the
eyebrows, on the chin and bridge
of the nose.
30. Facial expressions
Facial expressions are among
our most important methods of
non-verbal communication.
The facial musculature enables
many subtle nuances of
appearance that convey an
enormous variety of emotions.
A smile often indicates pleasure,
and a frown the opposite – but
not always.
The smile is a highly ambiguous
and versatile expression, which
can also convey relief or pity, or
widen into a grin for sarcastic SMILING
32. Likewise, a frown can
articulate various
feelings, including
disappointment and
In addition to the
mouth, other regions
of the face are
involved to add
shades of meaning.
33. Muscular System Pathologies:
Common Disorders and Conditions
Muscles allow us to move, but sometimes the wear and tear that
comes from moving our bodies can lead to disorders of the muscular
Below are some of the most common muscular pathologies.
34. The carpal tunnel is the
passageway in the wrist
where the median nerve and
flexor tendons pass through a
narrow opening.
Carpal tunnel syndrome,
which is also called median
nerve compression, occurs
when the tendons become
inflamed, causing
compression of the median
Symptoms include pain,
numbness, and eventual
weakness in the hand. Carpal
tunnel syndrome can occur for
a variety of reasons including
hereditary predisposition,
repetitive movements,
diabetes, or thyroid disorders.
35. The carpal tunnel is between the carpal ligament (flexor
retinaculum), which restrains and aligns the tendons that move the
hand and fingers, and the carpal bones of the wrist. Tendons in their
sheaths slide through this passageway, adjacent to the median nerve.
36. If you do a lot of typing or other repetitive motions over a long
period of time, you can get Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in one or
both wrists.
To minimize the problem if you type a lot, an Ergonomic
keyboard is recommended.
Bursae are small fluid-
filled sacs that cushion
the bones, tendons,
and muscles near the
Bursitis occurs when
bursae become red and
inflamed, causing pain.
This condition often
occurs near joints that
perform frequent
repetitive motion, such
as the shoulder, elbow,
hip, and knee.
38. And Finally, Some Questions
• Muscle Trivia…
• How many muscles are in the average adult
human body? Approximately 640
• What is the strongest muscle in the body?
Debatable, but many say the masseter (jaw).
• What is the largest muscle in the body?
The gluteus maximus in your rear end
39. THE END !!