Infectious diseases mean illnesses caused by germs that enter the body, multiply, and can cause an infection.
1. Acinetobacter infection | Actinomycosis | Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) | Aerobic organisms | Al Kumrah virus | Anaplasmosis | An mportation regulations | Anthrax | Antimicrobial resistance | Arctic Investigations Program | Arenaviruses | Argentine hemorrhagic fever | Avip iosafety Level 4 laboratory | Bioterrorism preparedness | Blood, organ, and other tissue safety | Bolivian hemorrhagic fever | Botulism | Bo E M E R G I N G & Z O O N O T I C pongiform encephalopathy | Brazilian hemorrhagic fever | Buffalopox | Bunyaviruses | Buruli ulcer | Campylobacter | Candidiasis | Carbape INFECTIOUS DISEASES roducing Klebsiella pneumoniae | CDC Drug Service | Central line bloodstream infection | Chikungunya fever | Cholera | Chronic fatigue syndro hronic wasting disease | Clostridium difficile infection | Community mitigation | Cowpox | Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease | Crimean-Congo hemorrha ver | Cryptococcus | Cryptosporidium | Dengue fever | Diarrheal diseases | Eastern equine encephalitis | Ebola hemorrhagic fever | Ehrlichios Emerging Infections Program | Emerging Infectious Diseases journal | Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases Program | E. fection | Equine morbillivirus | Flaviviruses | Filoviruses | Foodborne diseases | FoodNet | Food safety | Giardia | Glanders | Global migration uarantine | Green monkey disease | Guillain-Barré syndrome | Guanarito virus | Hansen’s disease (leprosy) | Hantavirus | Healthy travel | Hen rus disease | Immigrant, refugee, and migrant health | Immunization safety | Japanese encephalitis | Junin virus | Kawasaki disease | Klebsi neumoniae in healthcare settings | Korean hemorrhagic fever | Kuru | Kyasanur forest disease | Laboratory quality | Laboratory Response Netw Lassa fever | Leptospirosis | Listeriosis | Lujo virus | Lyme disease | Lymphocytic choriomeningitis | Machupo virus | Marburg hemorrhagic fev Melioidosis | MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infection | Milker’s nodule | Molluscum contagiosum | Monkeypox | Mucormyco Mycobacterium abscessus in healthcare settings | National Healthcare Safety Network | Naegleria fowleri | National Antimicrobial Resistan Monitoring System (NARMS) | Nipah virus encephalitis | Nocardiosis | Omsk hemorrhagic fever | Orf virus | Parapox | Pasturella species | Plag rion diseases | Pseudocowpox | PulseNet | Puumala virus | Q fever | Quarantine stations | Rabies | Raccoonpox | Rat-bite fever | Recreational w nesses | Reye syndrome | Rickettsial diseases | Rift Valley fever | Rocky Mountain spotted fever | Sabia virus | Safe Water System | Salmonella | Sea elect Agent Program | Shiga toxin-producing E. coli | Shigella | Skunkpox | Slow virus | Smallpox | Squirrelpox | Tanapox | Tickborne encephalitis | Tular Typhoid fever | Undulant fever (brucellosis) | Unexplained fatal illness | Urinary tract infection (catheter-associated) | Vaccinia | Vaccine Adver vent Reporting System (VAERS) | Vaccine safety | Vibrio vulnificus | Viral hemorrhagic fevers | Volepox | Waterborne diseases | West Nile viru Western equine encephalitis | Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus | The Yellow Book | Yellow fever | Yersiniosis | Zika virus | Zoonosis
2. 2 3 4 Here are just a few examples of what we do: • F oodborne illness. One in six Americans gets sick each year from something they ate. Illnesses caused by eating food contaminated with germs like Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are costly and all too common. The good news is that these illnesses can be prevented. 1 • I nfections that spread in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare setting. At any given National Center for Emerging time, about 1 in every 20 patients has an infection related to their hospital care. But when staff and patients and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases follow recommendations, infections are prevented, and The National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious this saves both lives and dollars. Diseases is committed to protecting people from infectious • Infections that are resistant to antimicrobial diseases. We target familiar problems (like foodborne drugs (like antibiotics). Antimicrobial resistance illnesses) and many that are less common (like viral is the result of germs changing in a way that reduces hemorrhagic fever). or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or Above, L-R: 1 CDC scientists in 2011 study bats in Uganda to learn more about their relationship to Marburg virus which, like Ebola virus, can cause a rare but deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates. 2 Worldwide water quality is declining, as evidenced by the outbreak of cholera in Haiti in 2010. 3 The Emerging Infectious Diseases journal publishes peer-reviewed scientific articles about emerging infections. 4 Bacillus anthracis spores cause anthrax, a rare but deadly disease in animals (for example, cows) and people.
3. 1 2 3 4 other agents to cure or prevent infections. Methicillin- shots they need or precautions they should take? The resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the Travelers’ Health Web site (www.cdc.gov/travel) is the more familiar types of antimicrobial infections, but comprehensive online resource for travelers who need many others are rapidly spreading in hospitals, the answers to their questions about how to stay healthy community, and even on the farm. Tracking and limiting before, during, and after a trip. the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms is •D iseases spread by mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. critical to the center’s mission. These vectors continue to spread many of the world’s •D eadly diseases. Germs that cause smallpox, anthrax, most destructive diseases. Each year, scientists discover, rabies, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and plague require 24/7 on average, about two new mosquito-transmitted viruses oversight, especially because of the threat of bioterrorism. that can make people sick. Tracking these diseases domestically and globally, Such wide-ranging work is guided by principles—to operating state-of-the-art laboratories that can identify conduct exemplary science, inform policies using our them, and preventing their spread are national priorities. scientific evidence, strengthen preparedness, and share • I llnesses that affect immigrants, refugees, migrants, vital information with the public. Making the country safer expatriates, and travelers. For example, where do from the spread of infectious diseases also requires ongoing international travelers find up-to-date advice about collaborations with national and global partners. Above, L-R: 1 The Biotechnology Core Facility uses state-of-the-art methods to help CDC researchers study infectious agents. 2 CDC’s laboratories at Fort Collins, Colorado, help develop vaccines to prevent dengue, West Nile virus infection, and other diseases spread by mosquitoes. 3 Producing posters for display in airports is one way that CDC helps international travelers stay healthy. 4 Healthcare-associated infections do not just affect patients in hospitals. These infections are also a problem for the millions of older adults living in nursing homes and assisted living facilities.
4. About Our Name Infectious diseases mean illnesses caused by germs (such as • reappearing in an area (like dengue in south Florida). bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that enter the body, multiply, and • old infections that have become resistant to antibiotics can cause an infection. (like staph and the deadly gram-negative infections that • Some infectious diseases are contagious (or communicable), are cropping up in hospitals). that is, spread from one person to another. Zoonotic means infectious diseases of animals that are • Other infectious diseases can be spread by germs carried in spread to humans by ticks, mosquitoes, or fleas or contact with air, water, food, or soil. They can also be spread by vectors animals; these diseases include (like biting insects) or by animals. • Lyme disease (spread by ticks). Emerging means infections that have increased recently or are • West Nile virus disease (spread by mosquitoes). threatening to increase in the near future. These infections could be • rabies (spread by raccoons, skunks, bats, and other • completely new (like SARS). mammals). Below, L-R: 1 Farm animals such as goats can spread Salmonella, E. coli, the bacteria that cause Q fever, and other germs. 2 This type of flea can spread plague. Scattered cases of plague occur in the southwestern United States. 3 Each year, roughly 1 in 6 people in the United States gets sick (and 3,000 die) from eating contaminated food. 4 Athletes should bandage scrapes and cuts to protect against MRSA infection. 1 2 3 4
5. 1 2 3 4 The Center’s Seven Divisions The center’s seven divisions work with partners throughout the United States and around the world to prevent illness, disability, and death caused by infectious diseases. Division of 5 Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases and hygiene (WASH)-related disease, focusing on Focus diarrheal diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. To prevent diseases caused by contaminated food or water • Educate people in the United States about using and detect and contain fungal infections. water sanitation systems and good hygiene to keep Some key activities our drinking water, swimming pools, lakes, and other • Rapidly identify the germs that cause foodborne illnesses, water sources safe. track down the places where contamination occurs, and • Detect fungal threats, such as candidiasis, cryptococ- inform people how to protect themselves and others. cosis, and mucormycosis so that they can be quickly • Quickly detect outbreaks of foodborne disease that contained before causing harm to people with impaired cause illnesses in multiple states. immune systems. • Direct the center’s work in global water, sanitation, http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/ Above, L-R: 1 A novel dipstick screening test reduces deaths caused by a deadly infection from a fungus called Cryptococcus. 2 When consumed raw, milk, certain cheeses, ice cream, and yogurt can pose severe health risks. 3 An outbreak of listeriosis in cantaloupe in 2011 was the deadliest outbreak of foodborne disease in the U.S. in nearly 90 years. 4 Swimming when ill with diarrhea places other swimmers at significant risk for getting sick. 5 CDC works to prevent diseases caused by contaminated food and water and dangerous fungal infections found in the soil.
6. 2 3 4 • Provide vital health information to help international travelers stay healthy before, during, and after their trips. • P romote the safe importation of animals and animal products through regulations. • Respond to global public health emergencies to slow 1 the spread of illness—for example, cholera in Haiti, the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine radiation disaster in Japan, H1N1 pandemic flu, and tuberculosis outbreaks near the U.S.-Mexican border. To protect the health of our communities in a globally http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dgmq/ mobile world by preventing the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases. Some key activities • Provide education and manage programs to screen immigrants and refugees for infectious diseases. • Partner for health at airports, seaports, and land borders. Above, L-R: 1 Quarantine officer at an airport reviewing data collected from an airline contact investigation. 2 Following CDC’s guidance, healthcare workers at a clinic in a refugee camp in Thailand watch to make sure that refugees with tuberculosis are taking their medicine before they come to the United States. 3 Doctor discussing an immigrant’s chest X-ray. 4 The Yellow Book is a reference for doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who advise international travelers about health risks.
7. 1 2 3 Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion To protect patients and healthcare workers and to promote safety in healthcare settings. Some key activities • I nvestigate and respond to emerging infections and adverse events in healthcare facilities, including 4 healthcare-associated infections; antimicrobial (drug- resistance, and medical errors. resistant) infections; adverse events from the use or • Maintain the National Healthcare Safety Network misuse of a drug (like accidental overdoses); blood, (NHSN), a tool for monitoring and preventing organ, and tissue safety; and vaccine safety. healthcare-associated infections, used by healthcare • Support the enhancement of state infrastructure for facilities in all 50 states. elimination of healthcare-associated infections. http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dhqp/ • Develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines and recommendations to prevent and control healthcare-associated infections, antimicrobial Above, L-R: 1 CDC works with many partners to encourage healthcare professionals to eliminate infections spread through contaminated needles, solutions, and syringes. 2 Educational materials promote healthy behaviors, such as hand hygiene in hospitals. Keeping hands clean is one of the most important ways to prevent the spread of infections. 3 CDC scientists track antimicrobial-resistant pathogens around the globe. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the world’s most pressing health problems. 4 At any given time, about 1 in every 20 patients has an infection related to their hospital care.
8. 2 3 4 • Assist in investigations of unexplained critical illness and deaths. • C onduct laboratory studies of tissue samples and 1 investigate infectious diseases of unknown origin. These Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology studies helped identify SARS and hantavirus pulmonary Focus syndrome, a deadly disease spread by mice and rats. To improve public health and safety domestically and • Conduct laboratory studies to better understand human globally by preventing illness and death caused by highly papillomavirus infection, which increases the risk for lethal, contagious, or unexplained diseases. cervical and other cancers. Some key activities • Track specific prion diseases (diseases that attack • Monitor, investigate, and study diseases caused by the brain and central nervous system), such as hazardous viruses and bacteria—such as those that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. cause rabies, anthrax, and viral hemorrhagic fevers •R esearch potential causes of chronic fatigue syndrome (like Ebola in Africa). and recommend new interventions. • C ollaborate with partners around the world to find http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dhcpp/ ways to prevent these infections. Above, L-R: 1 Although most bats do not have rabies, rabid bats have been found in all states except Hawaii. 2 The remains of a hospital in Sudan that was devastated in 1976 by that region’s Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever outbreak. 3 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a sometimes deadly disease transmitted by infected mice and rats. 4 The 2-year-old girl in Bangladesh who had the world’s last known case of naturally occurring smallpox (variola major) in 1975. Although smallpox has been eradicated, monkeypox (a related disease mostly found in Africa) sickened several people in the United States in 2003.
9. 1 2 3 Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections 4 their capacity through activities such as the Emerging To assure that the public health system can detect and Infections Program and the Epidemiology and respond to infectious disease threats, with a special focus Laboratory Capacity program. on emerging pathogens, biological warfare agents, and the • Manage the Laboratory Response Network, which diseases that are of particular concern to people living in Alaska and other Arctic regions. links 160 highly specialized laboratories, including Some key activities health department laboratories, federal and military • Help prepare CDC and its partners to use vaccines, drugs, laboratories, environmental testing and diagnostic and diagnostic tests—countermeasures that would be veterinary laboratories, as well as international critically important to saving lives during a large-scale laboratories. This unique network of laboratories public health emergency caused by bioterrorists. is designed to respond to bioterrorism, chemical • Work to ensure that public health laboratories terrorism, and other public health emergencies. throughout the country are using the same high • Target diseases that are a special problem for Alaska standards that are vital for successful collaborations. Natives, such as viral hepatitis and foodborne botulism. • Assist state and local health departments in building http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dpei/ Above, L-R: 1 CDC staff help coordinate the agency’s rapid response to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies, such as the H1N1 flu outbreak. 2 CDC’s Emerging Infections Program tracks infections caused by gram-positive Clostridium difficile that patients can get in a hospital or other healthcare facility. 3 Anthrax was used as a weapon in 2001, when it was deliberately spread through the U.S. postal system. 4 The Arctic Investigations Program sent a team to a remote Alaskan village to investigate an outbreak of meningitis.
10. 2 3 4 CDC laboratorians need to do their work. •D istribute investigational and licensed drugs and unique biologicals (antitoxins) to approved physicians 1 for treatment of rare, tropical, or exceptional diseases. Division of Scientific Resources • Maintain an adequate supply of smallpox vaccine Focus in the Strategic National Stockpile for emergency To partner with CDC laboratories in responding to public distribution. The stockpile has medicine and medical health needs through the supply of state-of-the‑art supplies if there is a public health emergency (like a technology, expertise, and high-quality products. terrorist attack). Some key activities •R eceive and distribute specimens to CDC laboratories; • P rovide expertise to develop and apply modern report test results to state public health laboratories; technologies (such as genomic sequencing) that result ship specimens and products to CDC’s partners. in faster identification of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and •M anage CDC’s laboratory waste decontamination and other pathogens. disposal, as well as laboratory water systems. • Provide high-quality laboratory products and http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dsr/ services, in compliance with FDA regulations, that Above, L-R: 1 Chemists create peptides for infectious disease research. The peptides are used for various laboratory studies including research to find a malaria vaccine. 2 Scientists make nucleotides, the building blocks for DNA and RNA, to use in genetic studies. 3-4 Division of Scientific Resources staff stock laboratory supplies (such as glassware) and provide services for CDC’s high-containment laboratories, where scientists study lethal infectious pathogens.
11. West Nile Virus (WNV) activity reported to ArboNET, January–July 2011 1 2 3 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases To protect the nation from bacterial and viral diseases transmitted by vectors (like insects and ticks). Some key activities • Help domestic and global public health agencies identify and respond to epidemics of dangerous vector- 4 borne diseases, such as dengue and yellow fever, and newly emerging pathogens. and other vector-borne bacteria. • Conduct research to find more effective ways to • Train domestic and global public health workers in diagnose and prevent Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain the best methods for preventing, diagnosing, and spotted fever, and other tick-borne diseases. controlling vector-borne diseases. •D iscover better insecticides and repellents for http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dvbd/ mosquitoes and ticks. • Develop innovative vaccines to prevent dengue and other vector-borne viruses and therapies for plague Above, L-R: 1 CDC’s Dengue Branch in Puerto Rico focuses on dengue viruses, which infect an estimated 100 million people each year. In 2009, Florida reported dengue cases for the first time in 75 years. 2 Rash in the pattern of a bull’s-eye occurs in about 70% of patients who develop Lyme disease. 3 A Rocky Mountain wood tick, which spreads Rocky Mountain spotted fever. 4 After arriving in the United States in 1999, West Nile virus swept across the country in less than 10 years, causing more than 12,700 people to become severely ill.
12. Acinetobacter infection | Actinomycosis | Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) | Aerobic organisms | Al Kumrah virus | Anaplasmosis | Ani mportation regulations | Anthrax | Antimicrobial resistance | Arctic Investigations Program | Arenaviruses | Argentine hemorrhagic fever | Avip osafety Level 4 laboratory | Bioterrorism preparedness | Blood, organ, and other tissue safety | Bolivian hemorrhagic fever | Botulism | Bov ongiform encephalopathy | Brazilian hemorrhagic fever | Buffalopox | Bunyaviruses | Buruli ulcer | Campylobacter | Candidiasis | Carbapen The National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases oducing Klebsiella pneumoniae | CDC Drug Service | Central line bloodstream infection | Chikungunya fever | Cholera | Chronic fatigue syndrom is committed to protecting people from domestic and global health threats, including hronic wasting disease | Clostridium difficile infection | Community mitigation | Cowpox | Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease | Crimean-Congo hemorrha ver | Cryptococcus•|Foodborne Cryptosporidiumillness | Dengue fever | Diarrheal diseases | Eastern equine encephalitis | Ebola hemorrhagic fever | Ehrlichios • Infections Emerging Infections that spread Program | Emerging in hospitals Infectious Diseases journal | Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases Program | E. c • Infections fection | Equine morbillivirus that are |resistant | Flaviviruses Filoviruses |to antibiotics Foodborne diseases | FoodNet | Food safety | Giardia | Glanders | Global migration uarantine | Green •monkey Deadly diseases disease like anthrax | Guillain-Barré syndrome | Guanarito virus | Hansen’s disease (leprosy) | Hantavirus | Healthy travel | Hend • Diseases rus disease | Immigrant, caused refugee, by contact and migrant with animals health | Immunization safety | Japanese encephalitis | Junin virus | Kawasaki disease | Klebsie • Illnesses eumoniae in healthcare settingsthat affect | Korean immigrants, hemorrhagic migrants, fever | Kuru | Kyasanurrefugees, and forest disease travelers | Laboratory quality | Laboratory Response Netwo • Diseases Lassa fever | Leptospirosis spread | Listeriosis byvirus | Lujo mosquitoes, | Lyme diseaseticks, and fleas | Lymphocytic choriomeningitis | Machupo virus | Marburg hemorrhagic feve elioidosis | MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infection | Milker’s nodule | Molluscum contagiosum | Monkeypox | Mucormycos Front Cover, L-R: 1 CDC staff member in the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory decontamination shower. 2 Water is essential for life, but can also spread illness when contaminated by disease-causing abscessus 3 Vitalin healthcare Signs settings focuses on important | National public health Healthcare Safety issues like healthcare-associated infections. ANetwork serious type of|bloodstream Naegleria fowleri infection can cause| death National Antimicrobial in up to 25% of infected patients. Resistanc 4 CDC helps conduct health screenings of recent immigrants along the U.S.-Mexico border. 5 A blood-engorged female “Asian Tiger” mosquito, a carrier of chikungunya and dengue viruses. onitoring System (NARMS) | Nipah virus encephalitis | Nocardiosis | Omsk hemorrhagic fever | Orf virus | Parapox | Pasturella species | Plag ion diseases | Pseudocowpox | PulseNet For more information | Puumala please contact virus | Q fever | Quarantine stations | Rabies | Raccoonpox | Rat-bite fever | Recreational w National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases | 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333 nesses | Reye syndrome | Rickettsial Telephone: diseases(232-4636)/TTY: 1-800-CDC-INFO | Rift Valley fever | Rocky Mountain 1-888-232-6348 spotted | E-mail: fever | Sabia| Web: [email protected] virushttp://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/ | Safe Water System | Salmonella | Seal lect Agent Program | Shiga toxin-producing E. coli | Shigella | Skunkpox | Slow virus | Smallpox | Squirrelpox | Tanapox | Tickborne encephalitis | Tular Typhoid fever | Undulant fever (brucellosis) | Unexplained fatal illness | Urinary tract infection (catheter-associated) | Vaccinia | Vaccine Adver ent Reporting System (VAERS) | Vaccine safety | Vibrio vulnificus | Viral hemorrhagic fevers | Volepox | Waterborne diseases | West Nile virus CS225599-A 11/2011 estern equine encephalitis | Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus | The Yellow Book | Yellow fever | Yersiniosis | Zika virus | Zoonosis