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This pdf includes the following topics:-

Introduction to transformations

Translations

Reflections

Rotations

Dilations

Compositions

Introduction to transformations

Translations

Reflections

Rotations

Dilations

Compositions

1.
Chapter 7 Transformations NOTES

7.1 Introduction to transformations

• Identify the 4 basic transformations (reflection, rotation, translation, dilation)

• Use correct notation to identify and label preimage and image points. (ex. A and A’)

• Demonstrate congruence of preimage and image shapes using distance formula on the

coordinate plane.

• Identify missing segment length or angle measure in preimage or image.

7.4 Translations

• Identify a translation and use coordinate notation to write correctly (see example 2

page 422)

• Use Theorem 7.5 (page 421-422, see example 1) on composition of reflections

• Perform a translation given the coordinate notation.

7.2 Reflections

• Identify a reflection and the line of reflection.

• Use coordinate notation to identify preimage and image points of a reflection on the

coordinate plane.

• Give the equation of a line of reflection on the coordinate plane.

• Find reflective lines of symmetry, and determine if a shape has reflective symmetry.

7.3 Rotations

• Identify a rotation and the angle of rotation.

• Use a compass to perform rotations on a coordinate plane.

• Use Theorem 7.3 (2 reflections over intersecting lines is equal to one rotation)

• Identify and find the angles of rotational symmetry.

8.7 Dilations

• Perform a dilation given a scale factor and center point.

• Identify the scale factor and center point of a dilation.

• Write a dilation using coordinate notation.

7.5 Compositions

• Sketch a composition following 2 or more transformations in the correct order.

• Identify the transformations used in the composition and write correctly using

coordinate notation.

7.1 Introduction to transformations

• Identify the 4 basic transformations (reflection, rotation, translation, dilation)

• Use correct notation to identify and label preimage and image points. (ex. A and A’)

• Demonstrate congruence of preimage and image shapes using distance formula on the

coordinate plane.

• Identify missing segment length or angle measure in preimage or image.

7.4 Translations

• Identify a translation and use coordinate notation to write correctly (see example 2

page 422)

• Use Theorem 7.5 (page 421-422, see example 1) on composition of reflections

• Perform a translation given the coordinate notation.

7.2 Reflections

• Identify a reflection and the line of reflection.

• Use coordinate notation to identify preimage and image points of a reflection on the

coordinate plane.

• Give the equation of a line of reflection on the coordinate plane.

• Find reflective lines of symmetry, and determine if a shape has reflective symmetry.

7.3 Rotations

• Identify a rotation and the angle of rotation.

• Use a compass to perform rotations on a coordinate plane.

• Use Theorem 7.3 (2 reflections over intersecting lines is equal to one rotation)

• Identify and find the angles of rotational symmetry.

8.7 Dilations

• Perform a dilation given a scale factor and center point.

• Identify the scale factor and center point of a dilation.

• Write a dilation using coordinate notation.

7.5 Compositions

• Sketch a composition following 2 or more transformations in the correct order.

• Identify the transformations used in the composition and write correctly using

coordinate notation.

2.
Guide to Describing Transformations

A translation is a shift or slide.

To describe you need:

• direction (left/right/up/down)

• magnitude (number of units)

Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)

A rotation is a turn.

To describe you need:

• direction (clockwise or counterclockwise)

• degree

• center point of rotation (this is where compass point goes)

A reflection is a flip.

To describe you need:

• the equation of a line

A dilation is an enlargement or reduction.

To describe you need:

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor

Coordinate Notation (if centered at the origin): (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑎𝑥, 𝑏𝑦)

A translation is a shift or slide.

To describe you need:

• direction (left/right/up/down)

• magnitude (number of units)

Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)

A rotation is a turn.

To describe you need:

• direction (clockwise or counterclockwise)

• degree

• center point of rotation (this is where compass point goes)

A reflection is a flip.

To describe you need:

• the equation of a line

A dilation is an enlargement or reduction.

To describe you need:

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor

Coordinate Notation (if centered at the origin): (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑎𝑥, 𝑏𝑦)

3.
7.1 Introduction to Tranformations

Rigid transformations or _____________________ preserve length and angle

measures, perimeter, and area. The image and preimage are CONGRUENT.

These transformations include:

• Rotations

• Reflections

• Translations

Non-Rigid tranformations preserve angle measure only. The side lengths and

perimeter are not equal, but are in proportion. The image and preimage are

SIMILAR. This transformation is a:

• Dilation

Rigid transformations or _____________________ preserve length and angle

measures, perimeter, and area. The image and preimage are CONGRUENT.

These transformations include:

• Rotations

• Reflections

• Translations

Non-Rigid tranformations preserve angle measure only. The side lengths and

perimeter are not equal, but are in proportion. The image and preimage are

SIMILAR. This transformation is a:

• Dilation

4.
a. Name and describe the transformation.

Example 1:

b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.

c. What quadrants are the triangles in?

d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .

Example 2:

a. Name and describe the transformation.

b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.

c. What quadrants are the triangles in?

d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .

Example 3:

a. Name and describe the transformation.

b. Find the length of 𝑁𝑃.

c. Find 𝑚∠𝑀.

Example 1:

b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.

c. What quadrants are the triangles in?

d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .

Example 2:

a. Name and describe the transformation.

b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.

c. What quadrants are the triangles in?

d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .

Example 3:

a. Name and describe the transformation.

b. Find the length of 𝑁𝑃.

c. Find 𝑚∠𝑀.

5.
7.4 Translations – A slide

Translation: A translation is a transformation that moves all points of a figure the same

distance in the same direction.

A translation may also be called a _______________, _______________, or _______________.

A translation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a translation you need:

• direction (left/right/up/down) Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)

• magnitude (number of units)

I. Describing a Translation

Example 1: Describe the following translation in words and in coordinate notation.

Example 2:

Translation: A translation is a transformation that moves all points of a figure the same

distance in the same direction.

A translation may also be called a _______________, _______________, or _______________.

A translation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a translation you need:

• direction (left/right/up/down) Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)

• magnitude (number of units)

I. Describing a Translation

Example 1: Describe the following translation in words and in coordinate notation.

Example 2:

6.
II. Performing a Translation

Example 3: A triangle is shown on the coordinate grid. Draw the transformation following the

rule (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 + 4, 𝑦 − 5).

III. Translations by Repeated Reflections

The diagram on the left shows 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 reflected twice over ________ lines.

Successive reflections in parallel lines are called a composition of

reflections.

2 reflections back-to-back over parallel lines = 1 __________________.

Example 4: In the diagram, 𝑘 ∥ 𝑚, Δ𝑋𝑌𝑍 is reflected in line 𝑘, and Δ𝑋′𝑌′𝑍′ is reflected in line 𝑚.

If the length of 𝑍𝑍" is 6 cm, what is the distance between 𝑘 and 𝑚.

Example 5: In each figure, 𝑎 ∥ 𝑏. Determine whether the red figure is a translation image of the

blue figure. Write yes or no. Explain your answer.

(a) (b) (c)

Example 3: A triangle is shown on the coordinate grid. Draw the transformation following the

rule (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 + 4, 𝑦 − 5).

III. Translations by Repeated Reflections

The diagram on the left shows 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 reflected twice over ________ lines.

Successive reflections in parallel lines are called a composition of

reflections.

2 reflections back-to-back over parallel lines = 1 __________________.

Example 4: In the diagram, 𝑘 ∥ 𝑚, Δ𝑋𝑌𝑍 is reflected in line 𝑘, and Δ𝑋′𝑌′𝑍′ is reflected in line 𝑚.

If the length of 𝑍𝑍" is 6 cm, what is the distance between 𝑘 and 𝑚.

Example 5: In each figure, 𝑎 ∥ 𝑏. Determine whether the red figure is a translation image of the

blue figure. Write yes or no. Explain your answer.

(a) (b) (c)

7.
7.2 Reflections - the “flip” of a figure

A transformation which uses a line that acts like a mirror, with an image reflected in the line, is

called a reflection. The line which acts like a mirror in a reflection is called the line of

A reflection is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a reflection you need the equation of the line of reflection.

Common Reflections in the Coordinate Plane:

1. If (x, y) is reflected in the x-‐axis, its image is the point ( , ).

2. If (x, y) is reflected in the y-‐axis, its image is the point ( , ).

3. If (x, y) is reflected in the line y = x, its image is the point ( , ).

4. If (x, y) is reflected in the line y = -‐x, its image is the point ( , ).

I. Basic Reflections

Example 1: Graph the given reflections in the coordinate plane. Label each image.

J( 3, 7) in the y- axis

K (7, 4) in the line x = 3

L (4, 1) in the line y = 1

M( -1, -3) in the line y = x

II. Performing Reflections

Example 2: Reflect ABCD in the line 𝑦 = −𝑥.

A transformation which uses a line that acts like a mirror, with an image reflected in the line, is

called a reflection. The line which acts like a mirror in a reflection is called the line of

A reflection is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a reflection you need the equation of the line of reflection.

Common Reflections in the Coordinate Plane:

1. If (x, y) is reflected in the x-‐axis, its image is the point ( , ).

2. If (x, y) is reflected in the y-‐axis, its image is the point ( , ).

3. If (x, y) is reflected in the line y = x, its image is the point ( , ).

4. If (x, y) is reflected in the line y = -‐x, its image is the point ( , ).

I. Basic Reflections

Example 1: Graph the given reflections in the coordinate plane. Label each image.

J( 3, 7) in the y- axis

K (7, 4) in the line x = 3

L (4, 1) in the line y = 1

M( -1, -3) in the line y = x

II. Performing Reflections

Example 2: Reflect ABCD in the line 𝑦 = −𝑥.

8.
Example 3:

Draw 𝑀′𝑁′, the image of 𝑀𝑁 after a reflection over the line 𝑦 = −𝑥 + 1.

M(2, 4) N(7, 6)

III. Describing Reflections

Example 4: Describe the reflections shown below.

Example 5: Triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is reflected across the line 𝑦 = 2𝑥 to form triangle 𝑅𝑆𝑇.

Select all of the true statements.

Draw 𝑀′𝑁′, the image of 𝑀𝑁 after a reflection over the line 𝑦 = −𝑥 + 1.

M(2, 4) N(7, 6)

III. Describing Reflections

Example 4: Describe the reflections shown below.

Example 5: Triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is reflected across the line 𝑦 = 2𝑥 to form triangle 𝑅𝑆𝑇.

Select all of the true statements.

9.
IV. Reflective Symmetry

A figure in the plane has a line of symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a

reflection in the line.

Example 6: Determine if the following shapes have reflective symmetry. If so, draw in the

line(s) of reflection.

Example 7:

A figure in the plane has a line of symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a

reflection in the line.

Example 6: Determine if the following shapes have reflective symmetry. If so, draw in the

line(s) of reflection.

Example 7:

10.
7.3 Rotations - The “turning” of a figure

Rotation: A rotation is a transformation that turns every point of a figure through a specified

angle and direction about a fixed point.

The fixed point is called the center of rotation.

A rotation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a rotation you need:

• direction (clockwise or counterclockwise)

• degree

• center point of rotation (this is where compass point goes)

Common Rotations (about the origin):

180° (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑥, −𝑦)

90° 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒 (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑦, −𝑥)

90° 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒 (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑦, 𝑥)

I. Describing a Rotation

Example 1: Describe the rotations shown below. Include a direction, degree, and center point.

(a) (b)

Rotation: A rotation is a transformation that turns every point of a figure through a specified

angle and direction about a fixed point.

The fixed point is called the center of rotation.

A rotation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.

To describe a rotation you need:

• direction (clockwise or counterclockwise)

• degree

• center point of rotation (this is where compass point goes)

Common Rotations (about the origin):

180° (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑥, −𝑦)

90° 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒 (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑦, −𝑥)

90° 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒 (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑦, 𝑥)

I. Describing a Rotation

Example 1: Describe the rotations shown below. Include a direction, degree, and center point.

(a) (b)

11.
II. Performing a Rotation

Example 2:

The right triangle in the coordinate plane is rotated 270° clockwise about the point (2, 1).

Perform the rotation and draw the new image. Then identify the new coordinates of the image.

Example 3:

Example 4: Use polygon EQFRGSHP shown below. Lena transforms EQFRGSHP so that the

image of E is at (2, 0) and the image of R is at (6, -7). Which transformation could Lena have

used to show that EQFRGSHP and its image are congruent?

Example 2:

The right triangle in the coordinate plane is rotated 270° clockwise about the point (2, 1).

Perform the rotation and draw the new image. Then identify the new coordinates of the image.

Example 3:

Example 4: Use polygon EQFRGSHP shown below. Lena transforms EQFRGSHP so that the

image of E is at (2, 0) and the image of R is at (6, -7). Which transformation could Lena have

used to show that EQFRGSHP and its image are congruent?

12.
III. Rotation by Repeated Reflections

The diagram above shows quadrilateral 𝐴 reflected twice over __________________________ lines.

Successive reflections in intersecting lines are called a composition of reflections.

2 reflections back-to-back over intersecting lines = 1 __________________.

Example 5:

Example 6:

Determine whether the indicated composition of reflections is a rotation. Explain.

The diagram above shows quadrilateral 𝐴 reflected twice over __________________________ lines.

Successive reflections in intersecting lines are called a composition of reflections.

2 reflections back-to-back over intersecting lines = 1 __________________.

Example 5:

Example 6:

Determine whether the indicated composition of reflections is a rotation. Explain.

13.
IV. Rotational Symmetry

A figure in the plane has rotational symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a

rotation of 180° or less.

mapping onto itself

means it looks the same

as the original preimage.

The diagram above shows a pentagon with a rotational symmetry of order 5 because there are

five rotations that can be performed mapping the pentagon onto itself. The rotational symmetry

has a magnitude of 72° because 360° ÷ 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 5 = 72°.

Example 7:

Identify if the shape can be mapped onto itself using rotational symmetry. If yes, identify the

order and magnitude of the symmetry.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Example 8: A square is rotated about its center. Select all of the angles of rotation that will map

the square onto itself.

o 45 degress

o 60 degrees

o 90 degrees

o 120 degrees

o 180 degrees

o 270 degrees

A figure in the plane has rotational symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a

rotation of 180° or less.

mapping onto itself

means it looks the same

as the original preimage.

The diagram above shows a pentagon with a rotational symmetry of order 5 because there are

five rotations that can be performed mapping the pentagon onto itself. The rotational symmetry

has a magnitude of 72° because 360° ÷ 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 5 = 72°.

Example 7:

Identify if the shape can be mapped onto itself using rotational symmetry. If yes, identify the

order and magnitude of the symmetry.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Example 8: A square is rotated about its center. Select all of the angles of rotation that will map

the square onto itself.

o 45 degress

o 60 degrees

o 90 degrees

o 120 degrees

o 180 degrees

o 270 degrees

14.
8.7 Dilations - The reduction or enlarging of a figure

Dilations are either a _________________________ or an ___________________________.

It is a ________________________ if the scale factor is between 0 and one. 0 < 𝑘 < 1

It is an _______________________ if the scale factor is greater than one. 𝑘 > 1

Note: A scale factor equal to one will mean the image and preimage are congruent. 𝑘 = 1

In dilations, the image and the preimage of a figure are ______________________.

This means:

Ø the same ___________________

Ø proportional ________________

The center of dilation is _________________ to the point of the preimage and image. This is a good way

to check!

To describe a dilation you need:

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor

I. Identifying a Scale Factor

𝑪𝑷!

The scale factor k is a positive number such that 𝒌 = 𝑪𝑷

, 𝒌 ≠ 𝟏.

C = center point of dilation

P = preimage point

P’ = image point

k = the scale factor

Example 1: Identify the dilation and find its scale factor.

a. b.

Dilations are either a _________________________ or an ___________________________.

It is a ________________________ if the scale factor is between 0 and one. 0 < 𝑘 < 1

It is an _______________________ if the scale factor is greater than one. 𝑘 > 1

Note: A scale factor equal to one will mean the image and preimage are congruent. 𝑘 = 1

In dilations, the image and the preimage of a figure are ______________________.

This means:

Ø the same ___________________

Ø proportional ________________

The center of dilation is _________________ to the point of the preimage and image. This is a good way

to check!

To describe a dilation you need:

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor

I. Identifying a Scale Factor

𝑪𝑷!

The scale factor k is a positive number such that 𝒌 = 𝑪𝑷

, 𝒌 ≠ 𝟏.

C = center point of dilation

P = preimage point

P’ = image point

k = the scale factor

Example 1: Identify the dilation and find its scale factor.

a. b.

15.
II. Describing Dilations

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor (k > 1 enlargement; 0 < k < 1 reduction)

Example 2: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.

Example 3: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.

• Center point of the dilation

• Scale factor (k > 1 enlargement; 0 < k < 1 reduction)

Example 2: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.

Example 3: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.

16.
III. Performing a Dilation with the center point at the origin.

Example 4: Draw a dilation of △ 𝑋𝑌𝑍. Use the origin as a center and a scale factor of 2.

X (1,4) à X’ ( __ , __ )

Y (1,1) à Y’ ( __ , ___ )

Z (5,1) à Z’ ( __ , __ )

Because the center of the dilation is the origin, you can find the image of each

vertex by multiplying the coordinate by the ____________________.

Note, this doesn’t work if the center is not the origin.

a) In a dilation, the preimage point, image point, and the center point of dilation should all be collinear.

Verify this above.

b) In a dilation, the slope of each segment is maintained after the dilation. The segments will be closer/farther

from the center of dilation, but the slope is still the same. Check above.

Slope of 𝑋𝑌 = Slope of 𝑋′𝑌′ =

Slope of 𝑌𝑍 = Slope of 𝑌′𝑍′ =

Slope of 𝑋𝑍 = Slope of 𝑋′𝑍′ =

c) Compare the perimeters of the preimage to the image. To find the perimeters of the preimage and image, you

need to first find XZ and X’Z’.

d) Compare the areas of the preimage to the image. More on this later…

Example 4: Draw a dilation of △ 𝑋𝑌𝑍. Use the origin as a center and a scale factor of 2.

X (1,4) à X’ ( __ , __ )

Y (1,1) à Y’ ( __ , ___ )

Z (5,1) à Z’ ( __ , __ )

Because the center of the dilation is the origin, you can find the image of each

vertex by multiplying the coordinate by the ____________________.

Note, this doesn’t work if the center is not the origin.

a) In a dilation, the preimage point, image point, and the center point of dilation should all be collinear.

Verify this above.

b) In a dilation, the slope of each segment is maintained after the dilation. The segments will be closer/farther

from the center of dilation, but the slope is still the same. Check above.

Slope of 𝑋𝑌 = Slope of 𝑋′𝑌′ =

Slope of 𝑌𝑍 = Slope of 𝑌′𝑍′ =

Slope of 𝑋𝑍 = Slope of 𝑋′𝑍′ =

c) Compare the perimeters of the preimage to the image. To find the perimeters of the preimage and image, you

need to first find XZ and X’Z’.

d) Compare the areas of the preimage to the image. More on this later…

17.
IV. Performing a Dilation with the center point NOT at the origin.

Example 5: Draw a dilation of rectangle ABCD.

Preimage Coordinates:

A (-4,3)

B (2,3)

C (2,-1)

D (-4,-1)

Center of Dilation

is A (-4,3)

Scale Factor = 1.5

YOU CAN NOT SIMPLY MULTIPLY THE COORDINATES THIS TIME!

We will start at point A (the center point of the dilation) and find the distances of the horizontal

and vertical points from point A.

• If point B is 6 units from the center of dilation, then point B’ will be 6(1.5) = ________

units from the center point.

• If point D is 4 units from the center of dilation, then point D’ will be 4(1.5)= _________

units from the center point.

• Connect dots to find point C’ and make a rectangle.

A’( ) B’( ) C’( ) D’( )

Perimeter of preimage ABCD =

Perimeter of image A’B’C’D’ =

Example 5: Draw a dilation of rectangle ABCD.

Preimage Coordinates:

A (-4,3)

B (2,3)

C (2,-1)

D (-4,-1)

Center of Dilation

is A (-4,3)

Scale Factor = 1.5

YOU CAN NOT SIMPLY MULTIPLY THE COORDINATES THIS TIME!

We will start at point A (the center point of the dilation) and find the distances of the horizontal

and vertical points from point A.

• If point B is 6 units from the center of dilation, then point B’ will be 6(1.5) = ________

units from the center point.

• If point D is 4 units from the center of dilation, then point D’ will be 4(1.5)= _________

units from the center point.

• Connect dots to find point C’ and make a rectangle.

A’( ) B’( ) C’( ) D’( )

Perimeter of preimage ABCD =

Perimeter of image A’B’C’D’ =

18.
V. Other questions about dilations

Example 6:

Example 7:

Example 6:

Example 7:

19.
7.5 Compositions of Transformations

A composition of transformations is performing more than transformation, one after the other.

I. Performing a composition.

Example 1: Sketch the following composition of tranformations.

Translation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥, 𝑦 + 8)

Reflection: In the y-axis

II. Describing a composition of transformations.

Example 2: Describe the composition of transformations shown below.

(a) (b)

A composition of transformations is performing more than transformation, one after the other.

I. Performing a composition.

Example 1: Sketch the following composition of tranformations.

Translation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥, 𝑦 + 8)

Reflection: In the y-axis

II. Describing a composition of transformations.

Example 2: Describe the composition of transformations shown below.

(a) (b)

20.
III. Other questions about Compositions.

Example 3:

In what quadrant will the final image be located?

Example 4:

Example 3:

In what quadrant will the final image be located?

Example 4: