# Transformations: Reflections Contributed by: This pdf includes the following topics:-
Introduction to transformations
Translations
Reflections
Rotations
Dilations
Compositions
1. Chapter 7 Transformations NOTES
7.1 Introduction to transformations
• Identify the 4 basic transformations (reflection, rotation, translation, dilation)
• Use correct notation to identify and label preimage and image points. (ex. A and A’)
• Demonstrate congruence of preimage and image shapes using distance formula on the
coordinate plane.
• Identify missing segment length or angle measure in preimage or image.
7.4 Translations
• Identify a translation and use coordinate notation to write correctly (see example 2
page 422)
• Use Theorem 7.5 (page 421-422, see example 1) on composition of reflections
• Perform a translation given the coordinate notation.
7.2 Reflections
• Identify a reflection and the line of reflection.
• Use coordinate notation to identify preimage and image points of a reflection on the
coordinate plane.
• Give the equation of a line of reflection on the coordinate plane.
• Find reflective lines of symmetry, and determine if a shape has reflective symmetry.
7.3 Rotations
• Identify a rotation and the angle of rotation.
• Use a compass to perform rotations on a coordinate plane.
• Use Theorem 7.3 (2 reflections over intersecting lines is equal to one rotation)
• Identify and find the angles of rotational symmetry.
8.7 Dilations
• Perform a dilation given a scale factor and center point.
• Identify the scale factor and center point of a dilation.
• Write a dilation using coordinate notation.
7.5 Compositions
• Sketch a composition following 2 or more transformations in the correct order.
• Identify the transformations used in the composition and write correctly using
coordinate notation.
2. Guide to Describing Transformations
A translation is a shift or slide.
To describe you need:
• direction  (left/right/up/down)
• magnitude  (number  of  units)
Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)
A rotation is a turn.
To describe you need:
• direction  (clockwise  or  counterclockwise)
• degree
• center  point  of  rotation  (this  is  where  compass  point  goes)
A reflection is a flip.
To describe you need:
• the  equation  of  a  line
A dilation is an enlargement or reduction.
To describe you need:
• Center  point  of  the  dilation
• Scale  factor
Coordinate Notation (if centered at the origin): (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑎𝑥, 𝑏𝑦)
3. 7.1 Introduction to Tranformations
Rigid transformations or _____________________ preserve length and angle
measures, perimeter, and area. The image and preimage are CONGRUENT.
These transformations include:
• Rotations
• Reflections
• Translations
Non-Rigid tranformations preserve angle measure only. The side lengths and
perimeter are not equal, but are in proportion. The image and preimage are
SIMILAR. This transformation is a:
• Dilation
4. a. Name and describe the transformation.
Example 1:
b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.
c. What quadrants are the triangles in?
d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .
Example 2:
a. Name and describe the transformation.
b. Name the coordinates of the preimage and the image.
c. What quadrants are the triangles in?
d. Is ∆𝐴𝐵𝐶 congruent to ∆𝐴! 𝐵 ! 𝐶 ! .
Example 3:
a. Name and describe the transformation.
b. Find the length of 𝑁𝑃.
c. Find 𝑚∠𝑀.
5. 7.4 Translations – A slide
Translation: A translation is a transformation that moves all points of a figure the same
distance in the same direction.
A translation may also be called a _______________, _______________, or _______________.
A translation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.
To describe a translation you need:
• direction  (left/right/up/down)   Coordinate Notation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 ± 𝑎, 𝑦 ± 𝑏)
• magnitude  (number  of  units)
I. Describing a Translation
Example 1: Describe the following translation in words and in coordinate notation.
Example 2:
6. II. Performing a Translation
Example 3: A triangle is shown on the coordinate grid. Draw the transformation following the
rule (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥 + 4, 𝑦 − 5).
III. Translations by Repeated Reflections
The diagram on the left shows 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 reflected twice over ________ lines.
Successive reflections in parallel lines are called a composition of
reflections.
2 reflections back-to-back over parallel lines = 1 __________________.
Example 4: In the diagram, 𝑘 ∥ 𝑚, Δ𝑋𝑌𝑍  is reflected in line 𝑘, and Δ𝑋′𝑌′𝑍′ is reflected in line 𝑚.
If the length of 𝑍𝑍" is 6 cm, what is the distance between 𝑘 and 𝑚.
Example 5: In each figure, 𝑎 ∥ 𝑏. Determine whether the red figure is a translation image of the
(a) (b) (c)
7. 7.2 Reflections - the “flip” of a figure
A transformation which uses a line that acts like a mirror, with an image reflected in the line, is
called a reflection. The line which acts like a mirror in a reflection is called the line of
A reflection is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.
To describe a reflection you need the equation of the line of reflection.
Common Reflections in the Coordinate Plane:
1. If  (x,  y)  is  reflected  in  the  x-­‐axis,  its  image  is  the  point  (                      ,                  ).
2. If  (x,  y)  is  reflected  in  the  y-­‐axis,  its  image  is  the  point  (                      ,                  ).
3. If  (x,  y)  is  reflected  in  the  line  y  =  x,  its  image  is  the  point  (                            ,                          ).
4. If  (x,  y)  is  reflected  in  the  line  y  =  -­‐x,  its  image  is  the  point  (                            ,                          ).
I. Basic Reflections
Example 1: Graph the given reflections in the coordinate plane. Label each image.
J( 3, 7) in the y- axis
K (7, 4) in the line x = 3
L (4, 1) in the line y = 1
M( -1, -3) in the line y = x
II. Performing Reflections
Example 2: Reflect ABCD in the line 𝑦 = −𝑥.
8. Example 3:
Draw 𝑀′𝑁′, the image of 𝑀𝑁 after a reflection over the line 𝑦 = −𝑥 + 1.
M(2, 4) N(7, 6)
III. Describing Reflections
Example 4: Describe the reflections shown below.
Example 5: Triangle 𝐴𝐵𝐶 is reflected across the line 𝑦 = 2𝑥 to form triangle 𝑅𝑆𝑇.
Select all of the true statements.
9. IV. Reflective Symmetry
A figure in the plane has a line of symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a
reflection in the line.
Example 6: Determine if the following shapes have reflective symmetry. If so, draw in the
line(s) of reflection.
Example 7:
10. 7.3 Rotations - The “turning” of a figure
Rotation: A rotation is a transformation that turns every point of a figure through a specified
angle and direction about a fixed point.
The fixed point is called the center of rotation.
A rotation is an isometry, which means the image and preimage are congruent.
To describe a rotation you need:
• direction  (clockwise  or  counterclockwise)
• degree
• center  point  of  rotation  (this  is  where  compass  point  goes)
180° (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑥, −𝑦)
90°    𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒    (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑦, −𝑥)
90°    𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒    (𝑥, 𝑦) → (−𝑦, 𝑥)
I. Describing a Rotation
Example 1: Describe the rotations shown below. Include a direction, degree, and center point.
(a) (b)
11. II. Performing a Rotation
Example 2:
The right triangle in the coordinate plane is rotated 270° clockwise about the point (2, 1).
Perform the rotation and draw the new image. Then identify the new coordinates of the image.
Example 3:
Example 4: Use polygon EQFRGSHP shown below. Lena transforms EQFRGSHP so that the
image of E is at (2, 0) and the image of R is at (6, -7). Which transformation could Lena have
used to show that EQFRGSHP and its image are congruent?
12. III. Rotation by Repeated Reflections
The diagram above shows quadrilateral 𝐴 reflected twice over __________________________ lines.
Successive reflections in intersecting lines are called a composition of reflections.
2 reflections back-to-back over intersecting lines = 1 __________________.
Example 5:
Example 6:
Determine whether the indicated composition of reflections is a rotation. Explain.
13. IV. Rotational Symmetry
A figure in the plane has rotational symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a
rotation of 180° or less.
mapping onto itself
means it looks the same
as the original preimage.
The diagram above shows a pentagon with a rotational symmetry of order 5 because there are
five rotations that can be performed mapping the pentagon onto itself. The rotational symmetry
has a magnitude of 72° because 360° ÷ 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟  5 = 72°.
Example 7:
Identify if the shape can be mapped onto itself using rotational symmetry. If yes, identify the
order and magnitude of the symmetry.
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Example 8: A square is rotated about its center. Select all of the angles of rotation that will map
the square onto itself.
o 45  degress
o 60  degrees
o 90  degrees
o 120  degrees
o 180  degrees
o 270  degrees
14. 8.7 Dilations - The reduction or enlarging of a figure
Dilations are either a _________________________ or an ___________________________.
It is a ________________________ if the scale factor is between 0 and one. 0 < 𝑘 < 1
It is an _______________________ if the scale factor is greater than one. 𝑘 > 1
Note: A scale factor equal to one will mean the image and preimage are congruent. 𝑘 = 1
In dilations, the image and the preimage of a figure are ______________________.
This means:
Ø the same ___________________
Ø proportional ________________
The center of dilation is _________________ to the point of the preimage and image. This is a good way
to check!
To describe a dilation you need:
• Center  point  of  the  dilation
• Scale  factor
I. Identifying a Scale Factor
𝑪𝑷!
The scale factor k is a positive number such that 𝒌 = 𝑪𝑷
, 𝒌 ≠ 𝟏.
C = center point of dilation
P = preimage point
P’ = image point
k = the scale factor
Example 1: Identify the dilation and find its scale factor.
a. b.
15. II. Describing Dilations
• Center point of the dilation
• Scale factor (k > 1 enlargement; 0 < k < 1 reduction)
Example 2: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.
Example 3: Describe the dilation shown using a center point and a scale factor.
16. III. Performing a Dilation with the center point at the origin.
Example 4: Draw a dilation of △ 𝑋𝑌𝑍. Use the origin as a center and a scale factor of 2.
X (1,4) à X’ ( __ , __ )
Y (1,1) à Y’ ( __ , ___ )
Z (5,1) à Z’ ( __ , __ )
Because the center of the dilation is the origin, you can find the image of each
vertex by multiplying the coordinate by the ____________________.
Note, this doesn’t work if the center is not the origin.
a) In a dilation, the preimage point, image point, and the center point of dilation should all be collinear.
Verify this above.
b) In a dilation, the slope of each segment is maintained after the dilation. The segments will be closer/farther
from the center of dilation, but the slope is still the same. Check above.
Slope of 𝑋𝑌 = Slope of 𝑋′𝑌′ =
Slope of 𝑌𝑍 = Slope of 𝑌′𝑍′ =
Slope of 𝑋𝑍    = Slope of 𝑋′𝑍′ =
c) Compare the perimeters of the preimage to the image. To find the perimeters of the preimage and image, you
need to first find XZ and X’Z’.
d) Compare the areas of the preimage to the image. More on this later…
17. IV. Performing a Dilation with the center point NOT at the origin.
Example 5: Draw a dilation of rectangle ABCD.
Preimage Coordinates:
A (-4,3)
B (2,3)
C (2,-1)
D (-4,-1)
Center of Dilation
is A (-4,3)
Scale Factor = 1.5
YOU CAN NOT SIMPLY MULTIPLY THE COORDINATES THIS TIME!
We will start at point A (the center point of the dilation) and find the distances of the horizontal
and vertical points from point A.
• If point B is 6 units from the center of dilation, then point B’ will be 6(1.5) = ________
units from the center point.
• If point D is 4 units from the center of dilation, then point D’ will be 4(1.5)= _________
units from the center point.
• Connect dots to find point C’ and make a rectangle.
A’( ) B’( ) C’( ) D’( )
Perimeter of preimage ABCD =
Perimeter of image A’B’C’D’ =
18. V. Other questions about dilations
Example 6:
Example 7:
19. 7.5 Compositions of Transformations
A composition of transformations is performing more than transformation, one after the other.
I. Performing a composition.
Example 1: Sketch the following composition of tranformations.
Translation: (𝑥, 𝑦) → (𝑥, 𝑦 + 8)
Reflection: In the y-axis
II. Describing a composition of transformations.
Example 2: Describe the composition of transformations shown below.
(a) (b)
20. III. Other questions about Compositions.
Example 3:
In what quadrant will the final image be located?
Example 4: