# Algebraic expressions Contributed by: This pdf includes the following topics:-
Expressions
Variables
Algebraic Expression
Expressions vs. Equations
Coefficients
Terms
1. Variables and Expressions,
Order of Operations
Notes 1.1Expressions
and 1.2 and Terms
2. I. Expressions
You are familiar with the following type of
numerical expressions:
12 + 6
3 (12)
6 (3 + 2)
15 - 4 (6)
3. II. Variables
In the expression 12 + B,
the letter “B” is a variable.
Definition:
A variable is a letter or symbol that
represents an unknown value.
4. III. Algebraic Expressions
When variables are used with other numbers,
parentheses, or operations, they create an
algebraic expression.
a + 2
(a) (b)
3m + 6n - 6
5. Expressions vs. Equations
Expressions Equations
No = sign = sign
Simplify Solve
6. IV. Coefficients
A coefficient is the number multiplied by the variable
in an algebraic expression.
Algebraic Coefficients
6m + 5 6
8r + 7m + 4 8, 7
14b - 8 14
7. IV. Terms
A term is the name given to a number, a
variable, or a number and a variable combined
by multiplication or division.
Algebraic Terms
a + 2 a, 2
3m + 6n - 6 3m, 6n, - 6
8. V. Constants
• A constant is a number that cannot change its
value.
In the expression: 5x + 7y + 2
the constant is 2
In the expression: x - 3
the constant is -3
9. VI. Factors and Products
(3)(5)  15
?
These are factors This is a product
 Factors: Quantities being multiplied
 Products: The result of multiplying factors
10. VII. Powers, Bases and Exponents
2 7
4 6 This is an
exponent
This is a Power This is a base
11. Let’s Practice!
Identify the terms, coefficients, and constants.
TERMS COEFFICIENTS CONSTANTS
12a – 6b + 4 12a, -6b, 4 12,-6 4
4x – 2y 4x, -2y 4, -2 0
C - 32
C, -32 1 -32
3x + 2 3x, 2 3 2
12. VIII. Writing Algebraic Expressions
• A. You can translate word phrases into variable
expressions.
– Examples:
1. Three more than a number = x + 3
2. The quotient of a number and 8 = y/8
3. Six times a number = 6 • n or 6n
4. 15 less than a number = z – 15
5. The quotient of 30 and a number plus 10 = 30/x
+ 10.
13. B. Key words to look for:
– Plus – Difference
– Sum – Subtract
– Total – Less than
– Increased by – Decreased by
– More than – less
14. Cont…
• Multiplication • Division
– Product – Quotient
– Times – Divide
– Multiply – Split Between
– per
15. C. Write algebraic expressions for these
word phrases
1. Four more than s
2. The product of 7 and c
3. Nine less than x
4. A number divided by the sum of 4 and 7.
5. Twice the sum of a number plus 4.
6. The sum of ¾ of a number and 7.
7. Ten times a number increased by 150.
16. D. Write an algebraic phrase for these
situations
1. A car was traveling 35 miles per hour
for a number of hours.
2. Bob ran 7 times a week for a number of
weeks.
3. The plumber added an extra \$35 to her
bill.
4. Thirty-five fewer people came than the
number expected.
17. IX. ORDER OF OPERATIONS
When an expression contains more than one
operation, the order of operations tells you
which operation to perform first.
18. Order of Operations
1. Grouping: Perform operations inside grouping symbols.
2. Powers: Evaluate all powers.
3. Mult/Div: Multiply and/or divide in order from left to right.
19. Grouping symbols include parentheses ( ),
brackets [ ], and braces { }. If an expression
contains more than one set of grouping symbols,
begin with the innermost set. Follow the order of
operations within that set of grouping symbols
and then work outward.
Fraction bars, radical symbols, and absolute-value
symbols can also be used as grouping symbols.
Remember that a fraction bar indicates division.
20. Ex 1: Simplifying Numerical Expressions
Simplify each expression.
A. 15 – 2  3 + 1
15 – 2  3 + 1 There are no grouping symbols.
15 – 6 + 1 Multiply.
9+1 Subtract.
B. 12 + 32 + 10 ÷ 2
12 + 32 + 10 ÷ 2 There are no grouping symbols.
12 + 9 + 10 ÷ 2 Evaluate powers. The exponent
applies only to the 3.
12 + 9 + 5 Divide.
21. Simplify each expression.
The fraction bar is a grouping
symbol.
Evaluate powers. The exponent
applies only to the 4.
Multiply above the bar and
subtract below the bar.
Add above the bar and then
divide.
22. Simplify the expression.
There are no grouping symbols.
Rewrite division as multiplication.
Multiply.
48
23. E. Simplify the expression.
The square root sign acts as a
grouping symbol.
Subtract.
37 Take the square root.
21 Multiply.
24. F. Simplify the expression.
The division bar acts as a grouping
symbol.
Multiply, subtract and simplify.
25. X. Evaluating Algebraic Expressions
Evaluate a2 – (b3-4c) if a = 7, b = 3, and c = 5.
• To evaluate an algebraic expression, replace
the variables with their values. Then, find
the value of the numerical expression using
order of operations.
26. A. Evaluate a2 – (b3 - 4c) if a = 7, b = 3, and c = 5.
a2 – (b3 - 4c) = 72 – (33 – 4 • 5) Replace a with 7, b
with 3, and c with 5.
= 49 – (27 – 4 • 5) Evaluate 72 and 33
Multiply 4 and 5
= 49 – (27 – 20)
Subtract 20 from 27
= 49 – 7
Subtract
= 42
27. B. • Evaluate x(y3 + 8) ÷ 12 if x = 3, and y = 4.
x(y3 + 8) ÷ 12 = 3(43 + 8) ÷ 12 Replace x with 3 and
y with 4.
= 3(64 + 8) ÷ 12 Evaluate 43
= 3(72) ÷ 12 Add 64 and 8
216 ÷ 12 Multiply 72 and 3
= 18 Divide