This booklet helps students to learn about the various important factors such as the reason for European explorations that led to the Columbian Exchange and an increase in international trade. It also discusses European nation and their economy.
1. Lesson 4 Impact of Exploration MAIN IDEAS Geography The Age of Exploration caused ideas, technology, plants, and animals to be exchanged around the world. Government Several European countries competed for colonies overseas, both in Asia and the Americas. Economics Developments during the Age of Exploration led to the origins of modern capitalism. The Exchange of Goods and Ideas ESSENTIAL QUESTION What did exploration help to spread? The Columbian Exchange • Columbian Exchange—movement of living things between hemispheres • Exchange began after Columbusʼ voyages to Americas - Europeans shipped corn, potatoes, pineapples from America - brought domestic animals (horses), diseases (smallpox, measles) • Native Americans had no resistance to diseases; 20 million died Changing International Trade Patterns • Columbian Exchange changed world trade patterns • Much world trade fueled by Spainʼs silver mining in South America - silver moved from Americas to Europe, then to China - Chinese goods (silk, porcelain), Indian spices returned to Europe • Triangular trade—Europe, Americas, Africa exchanged goods, slaves - enslaved Africans worked in West Indies; sugar cane sent to Europe The Spread of Culture • Ideas, culture exchanged between continents along with goods • Spain, Portugal spread Christianity; explorers converted natives - converted Christians blended new religion with traditional beliefs • Europeans blended cultural practices imported from other lands - Arabian coffee with American sugar became a popular drink REVIEW QUESTION How did the Columbian Exchange affect world trade patterns? Chapter 15: Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration World History: Medieval and Early Modern Times 1
2. Rivalry for Colonies ESSENTIAL QUESTION What European countries competed for colonies? Portugal and Spain • Colonies provided European nations with raw material, ready markets • Portugal had trade posts in Africa, India, East Asia; controlled Brazil • Spain claimed Pacific lands (Philippines), focused on western trade - silver, gold mining profitable in Peru and Mexico The Dutch Republic and France • Dutch had East Indies trade, New Netherland colony in America • In early 1600s France established Quebec, Canada as base of empire - empire stretched down Mississippi River to Caribbean English Colonies • England set up North America colonies; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 • In 1620, Pilgrims settled Massachusetts - wanted to escape religious persecution in England The Spanish Armada • English attacked Spanish gold ships returning from Americas • Spainʼs King Philip II sent 130 ships to invade England • Superior English navy destroyed Spanish forces • Weakened Spain still leading European power due to gold, silver trade REVIEW QUESTION Which countries had a strong presence in the Americas? Chapter 15: Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration World History: Medieval and Early Modern Times 2
3. Europe’s Economy Changes ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did events in the Age of Exploration lead to the development of modern capitalism? Capitalism • Capitalism—economic system based on private ownership of resources • Investor merchants made big profits from colonization, trade ventures • Governments gave chartered companies sole rights to trade in a region • Manufacturing was mainly through cottage industries - merchants provided raw goods to rural families who made products - merchants sold finished products in cities Mercantilism • Policy of mercantilism—a nationʼs power depended on its wealth • A nation could gain wealth in two ways - by finding large deposits of gold, silver - by obtaining gold, silver in favorable balance of trade • Ideal is for nation to sell more goods than it buys • Colonies provided gold, silver, raw materials, ready markets A Market Economy • By late 1700s, some felt government had too much control of economy • Economist Adam Smith felt economy should be free of government - put forth idea of free market economy in Wealth of Nations (1776) - felt free market would ensure economic prosperity if left unhindered - Smithʼs ideas are basis of modern U.S. economic system REVIEW QUESTION What economic developments took place in Europe after the Age of Ex- ploration? Chapter 15: Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration World History: Medieval and Early Modern Times 3
4. Lesson Summary • European explorations led to the Columbian Exchange and an increase in international trade. • European nations competed for colonies. • The European economy underwent major changes. Why It Matters Now . . . Today, as in the days of mercantilism, some groups want to restrict global trade to protect certain jobs and industries from competition. Chapter 15: Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration World History: Medieval and Early Modern Times 4