# Revision of All Types and Forms of Tenses

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Here, students will revise everything they learned about tenses in previous grades.
1. TENSES
Tenses denote the time of action. They show when the work is done. They are:
(1) Present Tense
(2) Past Tense
(3) Future Tense
They are further divided into:
(1) Simple Present- It is used to denote scientific facts, universal truths and work
done on daily basis.
ASSERTIVE RULE --- sub + V1 + s/es + object
Example – She writes a letter.
NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + does not + v1 + s/es + object
Example – She does not write a letter.
INTERROGATIVE RULE --- Does + sub + v1 + s/es + object
Example – Does she write a letter?
INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE ASSERTIVE --- Does + sub + not + v1 + s/es + object
=+ Example – Does she not write a letter?
(2) Present Continuous– It is used to express an action taking place at the time
of speaking.
ASSERTIVE RULE --- sub + is/am/are + v1 + ing + object
Example – she is writing a letter.
NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + is/am/are + not + v1 + ing + object
Example – She is not writing a letter.
INTERROGATIVE RULE --- is/am/are + sub + v1 + ing + object
Example – Is she writing a letter?
INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE --- is/am/are + sub + not + v1 + ing + object
2. Example – Is she not writing a letter?
(3) Present Perfect– It is used to show an action that started in the past and has
just finished.
ASSERTIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + v3 + object
Example- She has written a letter.
NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + not + v3 + object
Example – She has not written a letter.
INTERROGATIVE RULE --- has/have + sub + v3 + object
Example- Has she written a letter?
INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE ---has/have + sub + not + v3 + object
Example– Has she not written a letter?
(4) Present Perfect Continuous– This tense shows the action which started in
the past and is still continuing.
ASSERTIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + been + v1 + ing + object
Example – She has been writing a letter.
NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + not been + v1 + ing + object
Example– She has not been writing a letter.
INTERROGATIVE RULE ---has/have + sub + been + v1 + ing + object
Example – Has she been writing a letter?
INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE --- has/have + she + not + been + v1 + ing + object
Example – Has she not been writing a letter?
3. Past Tense
Tense symbolizes the ever moving, non-stop wheel of time which is forever busy
gathering moments of future and throwing them into the dustbin of past
Past (before
now)
Simple Past Past Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Continuous Continuous
Simple Past
Used to indicate an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverb of
time. Sometimes it is used without an adverb of time.
Used for past habits.
Eg. I played football when I was a child.
Rule: Subject + V2
Eg She wrote a letter
1. Assertive Sentences –
Subject + V2 + Object + (.)
She wrote a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + didn’t + V1 + Object + (.)
She didn’t.write a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Did + Subject + V1 + Object + (?)
Did she write a letter?
4. 4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Did + Subject + not + V1 + Object + (?)
Did she not write a letter?
Past Continuous Tense
Used to denote an action going on at some time in the past.
e.g. I was driving a car.
Rule: was/were + ing
1. Assertive Sentences –
Subject + was/were +V1+ ing + Object + (.)
She was writing a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + was/were + not + ing + Object + (.)
She was not writing a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Was/were + Subject + ing+ Object + (?)
Was she writing a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Was/were + Subject + not + ing+ Object + (?)
Was she not writing a letter?
Past Perfect Tense
Used to describe an action completed before a certain moment in the past, usually a
long time ago. If two actions happened in the past, past perfect is used to show the
action that took place earlier.
e.g. The patient had died before the doctor came.
1. Assertive Sentences –
Subject + had + V3 + Object + (.)
She had written a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + had + not + Object + (.)
She had not written a letter.
5. 3. Interrogative Sentences-
Had + Subject + V3 + Object + (?)
Had she written a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Had + Subject + not + V3 + Object + (?)
Had she not written a letter?
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Used to denote an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued
up to some time in past.
e.g. I had been learning English in this school for 20 days.
1. Assertive Sentences –
Subject + had been +V1 + ing + Object + (.)
She had been writing a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + had + not been + V1+ ing + Object + (.)
She had not been writing a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Had + Subject+ been+ V1 + ing + Object + (?)
Had she been writing a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Had + Subject +not + been + V1 + ing + Object + (?)
Had she not been writing a letter?
6. FUTURE TENSE
Time and tide wait for no man. So, a period of time following the moment of
speaking or writing is called as future tense.
For e.g- She will write a letter.
Tense
Past (before Future (After
Present (now)
now) now)
Future Future Perfect
Simple Future Future Perfect
Continuous Continuous
Simple Future
This tense tells us about an action which has not occurred yet and will occur after
saying or in future
Rule – Will/Shall + Verb (Ist form)
In Future Tense helping verb ‘Shall’ is used with ‘I’ and ‘We’. Helping verb ‘Will’
is used with all others. When you are to make a commitment or warn someone or
emphasize something, use of 'will/shall' is reversed. ‘Will’ is used with ‘I’ & ‘We’
and 'shall' is used with others.
7. In general speaking there is hardly any difference between 'shall & will' and
normally ‘Will’ is used with all.
Now, let us use this rule in various forms of sentences;
1. Positive / Affirmative Sentences –
Subject + Will/Shall + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.)
She will write a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + Will/Shall + Not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.)
She will not write a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)
Will she write a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)
Will she not write a letter?
Future Continuous Tense
It is used to express an ongoing or continued action in future.
e.g. He will be distributing sweets in temple tomorrow at 12 o'clock.
In the example, the action will start in future (tomorrow) and action is thought to
be continued till sometime in future.
We use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at or
around a time in the future.
Rule: Will/Shall + Be + Verb (Ist form) + Ing
Now, let us use this rule in various forms of sentences;
1. Positive / Affirmative Sentences –
Subject + Will/Shall + Be + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + (.)
She will be writing a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + Will/Shall + Not + Be + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + (.)
She will not be writing a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Be + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + (?)
8. Will she be writing a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Not + Be + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + (?)
Will she not be writing a letter?
Future Perfect Tense
It is used to express an action which will happen/occur in future and will be
completed by a certain time in future.
We use the future perfect to say that something will be finished by a particular time
in the future.
e.g. They will have shifted the house by Sunday morning.
Rule: Will/Shall + Have + Verb (3rd form)
Now, let us use this rule in various forms of sentences;
1. Positive / Affirmative Sentences –
Subject + Will/Shall + Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)
She will have written a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + Will/Shall + Not + Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)
She will not have written a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?)
Will she have written a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Not + Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?)
Will she not have written a letter?
9. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
It is used to talk about actions that will commence at a fix time in future and will
continue for some time in future.
If there is no time reference, then it is not a Future perfect continuous tense.
Without continued time reference, such sentences are Future Continuous Tense.
Continued time reference only differentiates between Future Continuous Tense and
Future Perfect Continuous Tense.
The future perfect progressive emphasize the duration of an activity that will be
in progress before another time or event in the future.
e.g. This time tomorrow, I will be enjoying the cricket match in the stadium.
It is also used to talk about planned actions or actions expected to happen.
e.g. They will be staying for a week’s
The future perfect progressive emphasize the duration of an activity that will be in
progress before another time or event in the future.
Rule: Will/Shall + Have been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing
Now, let us use this rule in various forms of sentences;
1. Positive / Affirmative Sentences –
Subject + Will/Shall + Have been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object + (.)
She will have been writing a letter.
2. Negative Sentences-
Subject + Will/Shall + Not + Have been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object+ (.)
She will not have been writing a letter.
3. Interrogative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Have been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object +(?)
Will she have been writing a letter?
4. Interrogative Negative Sentences-
Will/Shall + Subject + Not + Have been + Verb (Ist form) + Ing + Object +(?)
Will she not have been writing a letter?