This booklet highlights the Ancient Civilizations of Mesopotamia, describes its livelihood, land, agriculture, innovations. It also depicts the Sumerian region and its culture.
1. Mesopotamia-Land Between Two Rivers • Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) City-States in Mesopotamia PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
2. Mesopotamia Land Between Two Rivers Mesopotamia was known as the “Fertile Crescent” because of it’s crescent shape and availability of fertile or “rich” soil…good for planting. It was also known as the “Cradle of Civilization” because it was the birthplace of civilization. The first major civilization was Sumer. Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The country of Iraq is there
3. Mesopotamia…the Land A dry, hot desert-like climate. The rivers would flood unpredictably every spring, leaving silt behind to help create fertile, rich soil which was great for growing! Sumerians needed to control the river so they could prosper.
4. The Huge Invention… • Irrigation! • Sumerians developed a system for controlling the flow and direction of water from the rivers. • Canals and irrigation ditches were built to redirect the water to the fields.
6. Irrigation video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RP2Kf ewiJA
7. Development of Agriculture Important Inventions: Irrigation systems, the plow, the wheel/cart. These inventions helped crops to grow in the difficult climate which led to a surplus of food. The surplus let to a system of trading. Sumer had limited resources, so needed to barter with other lands.
8. Mesopotamian Trade
9. Mesopotamia – City-States There were many city-states that developed in Mesopotamia. They were independent of one another. They each had their own god, government and leaders. They would often go to war with each other over resources and land.
11. ZIGGURATS Located in the center of the city-state. Home of the city’s
12. Ziggurat at Ur Temple-Only priests could ziggurat so merchants could trade goods “Mountain of the Gods”
13. BABYLONIAN ZIGGURAT
14. Sumerian Homes Homes were usually windowless and made of sun dried mud bricks because there was little wood or stone available. Roofs were flat. Roofs provided a fourth living space. People cooked and slept on their roofs, when weather permitted. Some of the fancier roofs were designed with four walls for privacy. Some had grape arbors that provided food, privacy, and shelter from the sun.
15. A Sumerian City Sumerian houses faced away from crowded streets. Instead, they faced onto courtyards where families ate and children played. Narrow Streets Courtyard Area Sumerian city streets were so narrow that you could hardly get a cart through them. Narrow Streets
16. Social Classes and Division of Labor • People started specializing or becoming trained in different jobs. There were farmers, craftsmen, priests, merchants, soldiers, scribes, rulers and slaves. People had different jobs to do and contributed to the society. • Depending on their wealth and education, people were valued differently and were treated differently by the law. Slaves and peasants were at the bottom of the social pyramid and rulers, priests and the wealthy were at the top. The wealthier you were the closer to the ziggurat you lived!
17. Mesopotamian Bulls Eye
19. Sumerian Priests The early city-states were ruled by priests. The job of priests were to -control irrigation -settle arguments --store and distribute surplus -collect taxes in the form of goods -make sacrifices and pray to the unpredictable gods of Mesopotamia
21. Religion in Mesopotamia Belief in many gods - polytheism 4 main gods and around 3,000 lower gods -Gods had human qualities. They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable – similar to the natural environment around them.) -Sumerians believed their purpose on Earth was to serve the -The forces of nature and all the evils were under control of the gods so Sumerians offered food and animals to please the gods. -Only the priests of the city-state could speak with the gods. They controlled the city-states.
22. Sumerian Schools • Priests taught wealthy boys to become scribes. • Long days, harsh punishments and tedious work • Guaranteed a good life because few could read or write Edubbas-”Tablet Houses
23. Bullae • Started out as pictographs to keep track of trade • Merchants had a clay container called a bullae to put tokens of trade into • Started marking on outside of bulla to show contents.
24. Sumerian Scribes •Later the pictographs turned into wedge shaped forms known as cuneiform •Symbols were used for sounds • Reed called a stylus was used to press into soft clay tablets. •Now records, ideas, treaties and legends could be written
25. Cuneiform: “Wedge- Shaped” Writing
26. Cuneiform Writing
29. Gilgamesh The first legend written down. Story is a myth based on a real He is searching for immortality, but discovers everyone must die
30. EPIC OF GILGAMESH ONE OF THE OLDEST KNOWN WORKS OF LITERATURE, THE EPIC POEM OF GILGAMESH TELLS THE STORY OF GILGAMESH, THE KING OF URUK, AND HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH ENKIDU, A WILDMAN MADE BY THE GODS.
31. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet: Flood Story Similar to the story of Noah
33. Later Mesopotamia • Constant battles between city-states • Priest spent too much time handling conflicts so he would consult an assembly • Assembly elects a temporary king to lead battles until no longer needed • However, they were at war so often that the priest and king shared power.
34. Sargon of Akkad: “True King”
35. The First Empire Each city-state remained independent until King Sargon started invading and controlling Since he controlled all, Mesopotamia was now an empire Sargon was a cruel and harsh king. The city- states were constantly rebelling and struggling for independence.
36. Hammurabi, the Judge
37. Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.] Code
38. Development of Laws – The Code of Hammurabi A civilization needs laws. The first set of written laws that we know a lot about is called the “Code of Hammurabi.” King Hammurabi came up with a set of laws for his people to follow. The rules had very strict and harsh consequences. The laws became known as the “Eye for an Eye” laws because the consequence would often fit the crime.
39. Babylonian Reign of Hammurabi Famous Code of Law • He wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. • Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire. • Strict in nature – “the punishment fits the crime” / “eye for an eye” Such laws were adopted by neighbors – many similar found in Hebrew scriptures (Old • His act set an important precedent – idea that the government was responsible for what occurred in society. A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
40. Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, On whom Shamash has conferred the Law, am I. When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and in righteousness brought about the well-being of the oppressed. Below are situations Hammurabi faced. Then together we’ll view what Hammurabi actually declared. We’ll find out if Marduk, the supreme god, will be pleased with your decisions? 1. What should be done to the carpenter who builds a house that falls and kills the owner? 2. What should be done about a wife who ignores her duties and belittles her husband? 3. What should be done when a "sister of god" (or nun) enters the wine shop for a drink? 4. What should be done if a son is adopted and then the birth-parents want him back? 5. What happens if a man is unable to pay his debts? 6. What should happen to a boy who slaps his father? 7. What happens to the wine seller who fails to arrest bad characters gathered at her shop? 8. How is the truth determined when one man brings an accusation against another? 9. What should be done if a wild bull in his charge has gored a man and caused him to die and then run away?
41. Case #1 What should be done to the carpenter who builds a house that falls and kills the owner? If a builder builds a house for a man and does not make its construction sound, and the house which he has built collapses and causes the death of the owner of the house, the builder shall be put to death.
42. Case #2 What should be done about a wife who ignores her duties and belittles her husband? If the woman has not been careful but has gadded about, neglecting her house and belittling her husband, they shall throw that woman into the water.
43. Case #3 What should be done when a "sister of god" (or nun) enters the wine shop for a drink? If a "sister of god" (nun) who is not living in a convent opens a wine shop or enters a wine shop for a drink, they shall burn that woman.
44. Case #4 What should be done if a son is adopted and then the birth-parents want him back? If a man takes in his own home a young boy as a son and rears him, one may not bring claim for that adopted son.
45. Case #5 What happens if a man is unable to pay his debts? If a man be in debt and is unable to pay his creditors, he shall sell his wife, son, or daughter, or bind them over to service. For three years they shall work in the houses of their purchaser or master; in the fourth year they shall be given their freedom.
46. Case #6 What should happen to a boy who slaps his father? If a son strikes his father, they shall cut off his hand.
47. Case #7 What happens to the wine seller who fails to arrest bad characters gathered at her shop? If bad characters gather in the house of a wine seller and she does not arrest those characters and bring them to the palace, that wine seller shall be put to death.
48. Case #8 How is the truth determined when one man brings an accusation against another? If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.
49. Case #9 1.What should be done if a wild bull in his charge has gored a man and caused him to die and then run away? That case has no
50. Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur
51. Board Game From Ur
52. Mesopotamian Harp
53. The Royal Standard of Ur
54. Contributions of Mesopotamia 12 month calendar irrigation, canals, dams legal system / laws mathematics based on base 60 measuring and surveying metal working the sailboat wheel / wheeled carts writing (cuneiform)