This booklet reminds us of the prehistory of the First Civilizations, history about Early people, their way of living, settlements, culture, and different aspects.
1. Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel Each civilization that you will study in this unit made important contributions to history. • The Mesopotamians developed the world’s first law codes. • Egyptians built the pyramids and invented papyrus—the world’s first paper. • Israelite scripture influenced religions in Europe and Asia. 8000 B.C. 5000 B.C. 2000 B.C. First c. 8000 B.C. c. 3200 B.C. c. 1790 B.C. Civilizations Farming begins in Sumerians in Hammurabi intro- southwest Asia Mesopotamia duces code of laws Cha p ter 1 develop writing Hammurabi stands before a god Ancient c. 5000 B.C. c. 2540 B.C. c. 1500 B.C. Egypt & Kush Hunter-gatherers settle Egyptians complete Queen Nile River valley building of Great Hatshepsut C ha p ter 2 Pyramid becomes pharaoh Pyramids at Giza, Egypt c. 2540 B.C. Ancient c. 1800 B.C. Israelites Abraham enters Canaan Chap te r 3 Abraham leads Israelites to Canaan 114
2. (tl)Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York/Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund/Bridgeman Art Library, (bl)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (others)SuperStock 0° 0 1,000 mi. 30°E 60°E 90°E Caspian Sea 0 1,000 km ASIA Mercator projection Black Sea Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Ti gri s Eu us ph nd R. R. at I r es R. 30°N N Persian W E Chapter 2 Gulf Nile R. S Red Sea Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 AFRICA EQUATOR INDIAN OCEAN 1000 B.C. 750 B.C. 500 B.C. 250 B.C. A.D. 1 c. 744 B.C. c. 612 B.C. Assyria expands Chaldeans capture into Babylon Assyrian capital Hanging Gardens of Babylon c. 600 B.C. c. 1000 B.C. 728 B.C. Kush breaks Kush free of Egypt conquers Egypt Kushite king Taharqa c. 680 B.C. c. 1000 B.C. 586 B.C. 168 B.C. A.D. 70 King David rules Israel Chaldeans Maccabean revolt Romans capture destroy temple Jerusalem in Jerusalem Solomon’s temple, Ancient Jerusalem built c. 950 B.C. 115
3. 1 Ishtar Gate Mediterranean Sea 5 See First Civilizations 3 Chapter 1 AFRICA Sumerian figures Red See First Civilizations Sea Chapter 1 4 c. 3300 B.C . Iceman found in Ruled c. 1792–1750 B.C . Ruled c. 1473–1458 B.C . the Alps Babylonian king Egyptian pharaoh Chapter 1, page 129 Chapter 1, page 138 Chapter 2, page 182 116
4. ASIA 3 Egyptian sphinx Caspian Sea See Ancient Egypt and Kush Chapter 2 4 Kushite pyramids 1 2 See Ancient Egypt and Kush Chapter 2 Persian Gulf 5 Western Wall See Ancient Israelites Chapter 3 Ruled c. 1279–1213 B.C . c. 1100 B.C . Ruled c. 1000–970 B.C . Egyptian ruler Israelite women King of Israel Chapter 2, page 185 Chapter 3, page 219 Chapter 3, page 208 117 (t to b)Sylvain Grandadam/Getty Images, Timothy Kendall/Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Gary Cralle/Getty Images, (l to r)O. Louis Mazzatenta/National Geographic Society Image Collection, SuperStock, Bettmann/CORBIS
5. The First Civilizations Ruins of a ziggurat in Iraq 3000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 1000 B.C. c. 3000 B.C. c. 1792 B.C. 612 B.C. Bronze Age Hammurabi Nineveh captured; begins rules Assyrian Empire Mesopotamia crumbles
6. Chapter Overview Visit ca.hss.glencoe.com for a preview of Chapter 1. Early Humans Studying the past helps to understand the present. Scientists who study the past have learned that the earliest humans hunted animals and gathered plants for food. When farming developed, people settled in villages and towns. Mesopotamian Civilization Religion shapes how culture develops, just as culture shapes how religion develops. In early Mesopotamian civilizations, religion and government were closely linked. Kings created strict laws to govern people. New Empires Conflict often brings about great change. New empires arose in Mesopotamia around 900 B.C. These civilizations included the Assyrians and the Chaldeans. They used powerful armies and iron weapons to conquer the region. View the Chapter 1 video in the Glencoe Video Program. Compare and Contrast Make this foldable to help you compare and contrast the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper Reading and Writing Step 2 Turn the paper and in half from side to side. As you read the chapter, fold it into thirds. write notes under each appropriate tab of your Fold it so the left foldable. Keep in mind edge lies about that you are trying to 1 2 inch from the compare these right edge. civilizations. Step 4 Label as shown. The First Civilizations Step 3 Unfold and cut the top layer only along Early Mesopo- New Humans tamia Empires both folds. This will make three tabs. 119
7. Previewing Before you read, take time to preview the chapter. This will give you a head start on what you are about to learn. Follow the steps below to help you quickly read, or skim, Section 1 on page 123. 2–The 1–Read under each main Early Humans the main headings head tells you the main point of Paleolithic people adapted to in large red what you are their environment and invented many tools type. They about to read. to help them survive. show the Reading Connection What do you view as the main topics greatest human achievement—sending people to covered in 3–The Reading the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? the section Connection helps Read to learn about the accomplishments of or chapter. you to link what people during the Paleolithic Age. you might already know to what you History is the story of humans . . . are about to read. Tools of Discovery 4–Under each main head, read the sub- look yo u s k im, also nd heads in blue type. As , maps, a c t u r e s Subheads break down at pi each main topic into char ts. smaller topics.
8. Read to Write Use each main head, the main ideas, and the subheads in Section 2 of this chapter to create a study outline. New Empires Skim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3 starting on page 142. Then, in small groups, discuss the answers to these questions. • Which part of this section do you think will be most interesting to you? • What do you think will be covered in Section 3 that was not covered in Section 2? • Are there any words in the Main Ideas that you do not know how to pronounce? • Choose one of the Reading Connection questions to discuss in your group. Hanging Gardens of Babylon Skim Section 2 on your own. Write one thing in your notebook that you want to learn by reading this chapter. 121
9. Early Humans Looking Back, Looking Ahead Content Vocabulary Today people live in towns and anthropologist History cities of various sizes. Early humans (AN • thruh • PAH • luh • jihst) Social Science lived by moving from place to place, archaeologist Standards forming settlements, and exploring (AHR • kee • AH • luh • jihst) WH6.1 Students different ways to provide for artifact (AHR • tih • FAKT) describe what is known themselves and their families. through archaeological fossil (FAH • suhl) studies of the early nomad (NOH • MAD) physical and cultural Focusing on the technology (tehk • NAH • luh • jee) development of • Paleolithic people adapted to their humankind from the domesticate (duh • MEHS • tih • KAYT) Paleolithic era to the environment and invented many tools agricultural revolution. to help them survive. specialization (page 123) (SPEH • shuh • luh • ZAY • shuhn) • In the Neolithic Age, people started Academic Vocabulary farming, building communities, task producing goods, and trading. revolution (REH • vuh • LOO • shuhn) (page 127) Reading Strategy Locating Places Determine Cause and Effect Draw Jericho (JEHR • ih • KOH) a diagram like the one below. Use it Çatal Hüyük to explain how early humans adapted (chah • TAHL hoo • YOOK) to their environment. Cause: Effect: Cause: Effect: 8000 B.C. 6000 B.C. 4000 B.C. 2000 B.C. ¸Catal H¨uy¨uk c. 8000 B.C. c. 6700 B.C. c. 3000 B.C. Jericho Çatal Hüyük Bronze Age founded settled begins Jericho 122 CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations
10. WH6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution. WH6.1.1 Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire. WH6.1.2 Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments. WH6.2.9 Trace the evolution of language and its written forms. Early Humans Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them Reading Connection What do you view as the great- est human achievement—sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. History is the story of humans in the past. It tells what people did and what hap- pened to them. Historians are people who study and write about the human past. They define history as the period of time Dr. Donald Johanson is shown here in 1982 with the skeletal remains of Lucy, that began after people learned to write, a 3-million-year-old hominid about 5,500 years ago. But the story of peo- ple really begins in prehistory—the time before people developed writing. In the 1930s, Louis and Mary Leakey began digging for fossils in the Olduvai Tools of Discovery What we know about Gorge in Tanzania. Archaeologists know the earliest people comes from the things that in certain areas of the world, layers of they left behind. Scientists have worked dirt and rock have been piled up slowly to uncover clues about early human life. over time by the action of wind and water. Anthropologists (AN • thruh • PAH • luh • jihsts) If you dig in those places, the deeper you focus on human society. They study how find things, the older they are, because they humans developed and how they related were buried further back in time. The to one another. Archaeologists (AHR • kee • Olduvai Gorge is very deep, and along its AH • luh • jihsts) hunt for evidence buried in walls are layers of dirt from as far back as 2 the ground where settlements might once million years ago. This made it a very good have been. They dig up and study artifacts location to look for fossils. (AHR • tih • FAKTS)—weapons, tools, and other In the 1940s and 1950s, Louis and Mary things made by humans. They also look for found many fossils of hominids. Hominids fossils (FAH • suhls)—traces of plants or ani- are creatures that walk on two legs. Human mals that have been preserved in rock. beings are the only type of hominid still British archaeologists Louis and Mary alive today. All the others are extinct. Leakey and their son Richard are probably Anthropologists think that human beings the most-famous fossil hunters. Their find- developed from earlier types of hominids. ings convinced many scientists and anthro- In 1959 Mary Leakey discovered the pologists that the ancestors of human skull of a creature nearly 2 million years beings first appeared somewhere in East old. This showed that hominids lived at Africa millions of years ago. least that long ago. In 1974 Donald CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 123
11. Johanson, an American anthropologist from hominids had begun walking on two legs Chicago, made an even more amazing dis- while living in Africa’s rain forests, before covery. He unearthed nearly an entire skele- they moved out onto Africa’s plains. ton of a female hominid in Ethiopia. The Based on the work of these and other hominid was nicknamed Lucy and was anthropologists, many scientists today think nearly 3 million years old. that the first human beings developed in Before Lucy was found, anthropologists East Africa. Slowly, over thousands of years, thought hominids lived in the open on human beings spread out of Africa, probably Africa’s plains and used tools to hunt other in search of food and new places to live as animals. They thought hominids had begun their population increased. Gradually, they walking on two legs so they could carry settled throughout the world. their tools while they hunted. Lucy’s remains showed that hominids began walk- Who Were the Hunter-Gatherers? ing on two legs long before they used tools. Historians call the prehistoric period of Scientists’ ideas about hominids were human history the Stone Age. The name changed again in 1992. That year Tim comes from the fact that people during this White, an anthropologist from California, time used stone to make tools and weapons. uncovered a hominid that was 4.4 million The earliest part of the period is the years old. Its teeth and bones showed that Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Paleolithic Archaeological Dig Archaeologists use special techniques and tools when carrying out a dig. Artifacts are photographed or sketched, and their locations are mapped and noted. Soil is passed through a mesh screen to collect small fragments of tools or bone. What types of artifacts do archaeologists look for? PRESERVING Archaeologists may use plaster LOOKING FOR FRAGMENTS to make a form or an imprint of This scientist uses a wire mesh something they have found. screen to sift the soil to BELOW THE SURFACE discover small fragments Layers of soil are of artifacts. deposited one on top of another. In gen- eral, the further the layer is below the sur- face, the older its soil and artifacts are. GRIDS CLEANING Grids like these help archaeologists Artifacts must be handled and record and map any artifacts found. cleaned carefully, often with soft Michael Holford brushes or other instruments.
12. means “old stone” in the Greek language. American Museum of Natural History Paleolithic times began roughly 2.5 million years ago and lasted until around 8000 B.C. Paleolithic Try to imagine the world during the Stone Age, long before any roadways, farms, Cave Paintings or villages existed. Early humans spent most The oldest examples of Paleolithic art are cave paintings found in Spain and France. of their time searching for food. They hunted Most of the paintings are of animals. animals, caught fish, ate insects, and gath- The paintings show that Paleolithic artists ered nuts, berries, fruits, grains, and plants. often used several colors and techniques. Because they hunted and gathered food, They sometimes used the uneven surface of Paleolithic people were always on the the rock to create a three-dimensional effect. move. They were nomads (NOH • MADS), or people who regularly move from place to place without fixed homes. They traveled in bands or groups of 30 or so members because it was safer and made the search for food easier. Men and women did different tasks within the group. Women stayed close to the campsite, which was typically near a stream or other water source. They cared for the children and searched nearby woods and Painting of bison in Spanish cave meadows for berries, nuts, and grains. Men hunted animals—an activity that sometimes took them far from camp. They had to learn the habits of animals and make Why do you think Paleolithic artists tools for hunting. At first, they used clubs painted what they did? or drove the animals off cliffs. Over time, Paleolithic people invented spears, traps, and bows and arrows. animals. Food cooked over the fire tasted better and was easier to digest. In addition, Adapting to the Environment The way cooked meat could be kept longer. that Paleolithic people lived depended on Archaeologists believe that early humans where they lived. Those in warm climates started fires by rubbing two pieces of wood needed little clothing or shelter. People in together. Paleolithic people later made drill- cold climates sought protection from the like wooden tools to start fires. weather in caves. Over time, Paleolithic people created new kinds of shelter. The What Were the Ice Ages? Paleolithic peo- most common was probably made of ani- ple needed fire in order to survive the Ice mal hides held up by wooden poles. Ages. These were long periods of extreme Paleolithic people made a life-changing cold. The last Ice Age began about 100,000 discovery when they learned to tame fire. B.C. From then until about 8000 B.C., thick Fire gave warmth to those gathered around ice sheets covered parts of Europe, Asia, it. It lit the darkness and scared away wild and North America. CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 125
13. The Ice Age was a threat to human life. verse. Early people also might have People risked death from the cold and also thought that painting an animal would from hunger. Early humans had to adapt bring good luck in the hunt. by changing their diet, building sturdier shelters, and using animal furs to make The Invention of Tools Paleolithic people were the first to use technology (tehk • NAH • warm clothing. The mastery of fire helped luh • jee)—tools and methods that help people live in this environment. humans perform tasks. People often used a Language, Art, and Religion Another stone called flint to make tools. By hitting advance during Paleolithic times was the flint with a hard stone, they could make it development of spoken language. Language flake into pieces with very sharp edges. To made it far easier for people to work make hand axes or hunting spears, they together and to pass on knowledge. tied wooden poles to pieces of flint that Early people expressed themselves not were the right shape for the tool. only in words but in art. They crushed yel- Over time, early people grew more low, black, and red rocks to make powders skilled at making tools. They crafted smaller for paint. Then they dabbed this on cave and sharper tools, such as fishhooks and walls, creating scenes of lions, oxen, pan- needles made from animal bones. They thers, and other animals. Historians are not used needles to make nets and baskets and sure why cave paintings were created. They to sew animal hides together for clothing. may have had religious meaning or been Contrast What is the dif- used to explain people’s role in the uni- ference between a fossil and an artifact? learned that grinding, breaking, and shaping stones to create sharp edges made them more useful. As technology advanced, people began making specific tools such as food choppers, meat scrapers, and spear points. In time, people learned that hitting a stone in a particular way would produce a flake— Tools One of the most important a long, sharp chip. Flakes were similar to advances of prehistoric people was knives in the way they were used. the creation of stone tools. Tools made hunting, gathering, building shelter, and making clothing much Connecting to the Past easier. 1. Why do you think early people chose stones to make their first tools? The first tools were made of 2. How were flakes created? stones. Early humans quickly
14. WH6.1.2 Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments. WH6.1.3 Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter. The Agricultural Revolution their herds. They also continued to gather seeds, fruits, and vegetables to eat. In the Neolithic Age, people started The Mesolithic Age came to an end farming, building communities, producing goods, when people made another important dis- and trading. covery. They realized that they could plant Reading Connection Did you know that, today, more seeds and grow their own food. They may than a third of the world’s people work in agriculture? have learned this from the seeds they had Read to learn how farming began and how it changed stored in dirt pits. Some of the seeds might the world. have sprouted and shown people that if they put seeds in dirt and waited long After the last Ice Age ended, people enough, they could grow plants. entered the Mesolithic Age. Mesolithic With this new knowledge, people could means “middle stone” in Greek. At this stay in one place and grow grains and veg- time, people changed from hunting to herd- etables. Gradually, farming began to ing animals. They began to domesticate (duh replace hunting and gathering for many • MEHS • tih • KAYT), or tame animals for human people. They began to build villages and use. Animals provided meat, milk, and claim land for their farms. This changed the wool. They also carried goods and people way people lived and marked the begin- and pulled carts. Even so, most Mesolithic ning of the Neolithic Age, or New Stone people remained nomadic. They moved Age, which began about 8000 B.C. and from place to place in search of grass to feed lasted until about 4000 B.C. Why Was Farming Important? Historians call the changes in the Neolithic Age the agricultural rev- olution. The word revolution Stone refers to changes that greatly affect tools many areas of life. Some his- torians consider the farming revo- lution the most important event in human history. Farming did not begin in one region and spread. People in differ- ent parts of the world discovered how to grow crops at about the same time. In Asia, people grew wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, and a grain called millet. In Mexico, farmers grew corn, squash, and potatoes. In Africa, they grew mil- let and a grain called sorghum. Flaking tools from Farming greatly increased the a larger stone number of calories that could be 127
15. produced from an area of land. This made it garbage near their farms. This too helped possible to feed more people and led to an the spread of disease. increase in the world’s population. Farming People had to work harder and for much regions also had a higher population den- longer hours when farming. People had to sity. People lived closer together and did till the soil in order to plant seeds. They had not have to spread out as much as they used to weed the fields by hand. Then they had to to when they hunted and gathered food. gather the crops by hand when they were Farming also changed the kind of food peo- ready. There were no machines to make the ple ate. Instead of a diet rich in meat and veg- work quick and easy. People had to walk etables, people now ate a lot of grain—usually through their fields, often bent over at the in the form of bread. Anthropologists think that waist, gathering the crops they had grown. people in the early days of farming were not as Despite the problems of diet and disease healthy as hunter-gatherers because they did and the hard work people had to do, the not have enough variety in their diet. farming revolution greatly improved the Farming required people to stay in one lives of most people. Fewer people starved place for a long time. This made it easier for to death, and more children lived to adult- diseases to spread and infect many people. hood. Settling in one place to farm also led Because people stayed in one place, they to a much more organized society and also tended to pollute their environment. made possible the world’s first towns and Their water became dirty, and they left cities. The Rise of Farming Communities 7000–2000 B.C. 90°W 30°W 30°E 90°E 150°E TS E OA RY 60°N NORTH AMERICA EUROPE ASIA PACIFIC ATLANTIC PACIFIC OCEAN OCEAN OCEAN 30°N TROPIC OF CANCER AFRICA EQUATOR SOUTH N EQUATOR 0° AMERICA W E TROPIC OF CAPRICORN S AUSTRALIA 30°S 0 2,000 mi. INDIAN OCEAN 0 2,000 km Mercator projection KEY 60°S Barley Maize Potatoes Sweet potatoes 1. Human/Environment Interaction According to Beans Millet Rice Tea the map, what crops were grown in North Cocoa OA TS Oats RY E Rye Tomatoes America? Coffee Olives Soybeans Vanilla 2. Region What are the major regions of the Cotton Onions Squash Wheat world where farming communities appeared? Emmer Peanuts Sugarcane Yams Find NGS online map resources @ www.nationalgeographic.com/maps Flax Peppers Sunflowers 128 CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations (tr)Giansanti Gianni/CORBIS Sygma, (bl)Kenneth Garrett
16. 6.4.6. Compare and contrast life in Athens WH6.1.2 Identify the locations of human and Sparta, with emphasis on their rules in communities that populated the major regions of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments. WH6.1.3 Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter. ÖTZI THE ICEMAN c. 3300 B.C. How do archaeologists and historians know so much about how people lived in the Stone Age? In addition to studying fossils, they have had the chance to study an actual person from the Neolithic Age and his tools. In A.D. 1991 two hikers discovered the frozen body of a man near the border between Austria and Italy. The man was called “Ötzi” after the Ötztal Alps, the mountains where he was found. Scientists studied Ötzi’s body, his clothes, and the items found with him and learned that he lived 5,300 years ago, during the Neolithic Age. Ötzi was dressed warmly because of the cold climate. He was wearing a fur hat and a long grass cloak. Under the cloak was a leather jacket that was Scientists created this well-made but had been repaired several times. To keep reproduction to show what his feet warm, he had stuffed grass in the bottom of his Ötzi may have looked like. leather shoes. Ötzi was carrying a bow and arrows, a copper ax, and a backpack. Experts believe Ötzi was a shepherd who traveled with his herd. He probably returned to his village only twice a year. From recent tests, scientists have learned more about the last hours of Ötzi’s life. Shortly before he died, Ötzi ate a type of flat bread that is similar to a cracker, an herb or other green plant, and meat. Pollen found in Ötzi’s stomach showed that he ate his last meal in the valley, south of where he was found. When Ötzi finished eating, he headed up into the mountains. Eight hours later, he died. Scientists believe that Ötzi’s last hours were violent ones. When found, he had a knife clutched in his right hand. Wounds on his right hand suggest that he tried to fight off an attacker. His left shoulder had been deeply pierced by an arrow. Some scientists think Ötzi may have wandered into another tribe’s territory. Ötzi is now displayed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy. If scientists 5,300 years from now discovered the remains of someone from our time, what might they conclude about our society? 129
17. Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age Description Paleolithic people painted cave Neolithic people made pottery and of Art and walls. They usually painted carved objects out of wood. They Crafts animals. also built shelters and tombs. How Humans People hunted animals and People began to farm in permanent Obtained Food gathered nuts, berries, and grains. villages. They continued to raise and herd animals. How Humans People learned to make fire, People built mud-brick houses and Adapted created a language, and places of worship. They specialized made simple tools and in certain jobs and used copper and shelters. bronze to create more useful tools. Work of Women Women gathered food and cared Women cared for children and and Men for children. Men hunted. performed household tasks. Men herded, farmed, and protected the village. Humans made great advances from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age. 1. How did the work of men change from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age? Mexico. Some of the earliest known commu- 2. Describe What advances were made in nities have been found in the Middle East. toolmaking between the Paleolithic and One of the oldest is Jericho (JEHR • ih • KOH) in Neolithic Ages? the West Bank between what are now Israel and Jordan. It dates back to about 8000 B.C. Another well-known Neolithic commu- The Growth of Villages People who nity is Çatal Hüyük (chah • TAHL hoo • farmed could settle in one place. Herders YOOK) in present-day Turkey. Little of the remained nomadic and drove their animals community remains, but it was home to wherever they could find grazing land. some 6,000 people between about 6700 B.C. Farmers, however, had to stay close to their and 5700 B.C. These people lived in simple fields to water the plants, keep hungry ani- mud-brick houses that were packed tightly mals away, and harvest their crops. They together and decorated inside with wall began to live in villages, where they built paintings. They used other buildings as permanent homes. places of worship. Along with farming, the During the Neolithic Age, villages were people hunted, raised sheep and goats, and started in Europe, India, Egypt, China, and ate fish and bird eggs from nearby marshes. 130 CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations (l)Michael Holford, (r)Ron Sheridan/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection
18. The Benefits of a Settled Life Neolithic use wool and other fabrics for clothes as well. people found greater security by living in These craftspeople, like farmers, also took settled communities. Steady food supplies part in trade. They exchanged the things they led to healthy, growing populations. Soon made for goods they did not have. villagers produced a food surplus. That is, In late Neolithic times, people contin- they grew more food than they needed. ued to make advances. Toolmakers created They were able to trade their extra food for better farming tools, such as the sickle for other goods made by people in their com- cutting grain. In some places, people began munity or who lived nearby. to work with metals. At first they used cop- The food surplus made it possible for per. They heated rocks to melt the copper people to practice specialization (SPEH • shuh • inside and then poured the melted copper luh • ZAY • shuhn), or the development of differ- into molds for tools and weapons. ent kinds of jobs. Because not everyone was After 4000 B.C., craftspeople in western needed for farming, some people had the Asia mixed copper and tin to form a metal time to develop other types of skills. They called bronze. Bronze was harder and made pottery from clay to store their grain longer lasting than copper. It became and other foods. Others used plant fibers to widely used between 3000 B.C. and 1200 make mats and to weave cloth. This led to a B.C., the period known as the Bronze Age. new type of clothing. Early humans had Compare How did the worn only animal skins. Now people could Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages differ? Study Central Need help understanding the lives of early humans? Visit ca.hss.glencoe.com and click on Study Central. What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. Who are archaeologists, and what do they study? 5. Compare Compare the tech- nology of the Paleolithic Age Review the 2. How did domesticating animals with that of the Neolithic Age. • Early humans were nomads who help the Neolithic people? CA CS1. moved around to hunt animals 6. Analyze Why was the ability and gather food. They built Critical Thinking to make a fire so important? shelters and used fire to survive. 3. Determine Cause and CA HI2. In time, they developed language Effect Draw a diagram like the and art. one below. List some of the 7. Previewing effects that farming had on Create a three-column chart. • During the farming revolution, people’s lives. CA HI2. In the first column, write what people began to grow crops Effect: you knew about early humans and domesticate animals, Cause: before you read this section. which allowed them to settle Farming Effect: In the second column, write in villages. begins what you learned after reading. Effect: In the third, write what you 4. How do changes still would like to know. in the Neolithic Age still affect CA 6RC2.4 people today? CA HI2. CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 131
19. Mesopotamian Civilization Looking Back, Looking Ahead Meeting People In Section 1, you learned how Sargon (SAHR • GAHN) History farming allowed people to settle in Hammurabi (HA • muh • RAH • bee) Social Science one place. Some people settled in an Standards area called Mesopotamia. Content Vocabulary WH6.2 Students civilization analyze the geographic, Focusing on the (SIH • vuh • luh • ZAY • shuhn) political, economic, religious, and social • Civilization in Mesopotamia began irrigation (IHR • uh • GAY • shuhn) structures of the early in the valleys of the Tigris and city-state civilizations of Meso- Euphrates Rivers. (page 133) artisan (AHR • tuh • zuhn) potamia, Egypt, and Kush. • Sumerians invented writing and cuneiform (kyoo • NEE • uh • FAWRM) made other important contributions scribe (SKRYB) to later peoples. (page 136) empire (EHM • PYR) • Sumerian city-states lost power Academic Vocabulary when they were conquered by complex (kahm • PLEHKS) outsiders. (page 139) consist (kuhn • SIHST) Locating Places code (KOHD) Tigris River (TY • gruhs) Reading Strategy Euphrates River (yu • FRAY • teez) Sequencing Information Use a Mesopotamia diagram to show how the first empire (MEH • suh • puh • TAY • mee • uh) in Mesopotamia came about. Sumer (SOO • muhr) Babylon (BA • buh • luhn) city-states formed 3000 B.C. 2250 B.C. 1500 B.C. 3000 B.C. c. 2340 B.C. c. 1792 B.C. City-states Sargon conquers Hammurabi rules arise in Sumer Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Babylon Uruk 132 CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations
20. WH6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations. WH6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. WH6.2.3 Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia and Egypt. easy to feed large numbers of people. The Mesopotamia’s Civilization rivers also provided fish and freshwater to Civilization in Mesopotamia began in drink, and made it easy to get from one place the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. to another and to trade. Trade enabled Reading Connection Do you live in a region that goods and ideas to move from place to receives plenty of rain or in a region that is dry? Think place. It was no accident, then, that cities about how that affects you as you read how the grew up in these valleys and became the Sumerians’ environment affected them. centers of civilizations. As cities took shape, so did the need for Over thousands of years, some of the organization. Someone had to make plans early farming villages developed into civi- and decisions about matters of common lizations. Civilizations (SIH • vuh • luh • ZAY • concern. People formed governments to do shuhns) are complex societies. They have just that. Their leaders took charge of food cities, organized governments, art, religion, supplies and building projects. They made class divisions, and a writing system. laws to keep order and assembled armies to defend themselves from enemies. Why Were River Valleys Important? The With fewer worries about meeting their first civilizations arose in river valleys basic needs, people in the river valleys had because good farming conditions made it more time to think about other things. They Ancient Mesopotamia 30°E 40°E 50°E C asp KEY Fertile Crescent 40°N A S IA M I NO R ian Se a M Me ES dit Eu O Nineveh err ph PO e s R r ane at Tigr i an S Byblos TA ea A S I A MI . Sidon sR NILE A Tyre . SYRIAN DELTA DESERT Jerusalem Jordan R. Babylon Susa 30°N EGYPT Dead Uruk Giza Sea Ur Persian Eridu Gulf N W Ancient E Shoreline Ni le S R. Red 1. Location Into what body of water ARABIAN do the Tigris and the Euphrates DESERT Sea Rivers flow? 0 500 mi. 2. Place Why do you think the region 0 500 km of Mesopotamia was so well Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection suited for the growth of civilization? Sculpture of chariot from Mesopotamia CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 133 Hirmer Verlag
21. placed emphasis, or special importance, on extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the religions and the arts. They also invented Persian Gulf. ways of writing and created calendars to Mesopotamia had a hot, dry climate. tell time. In the spring, the rivers often flooded, Early civilizations shared another fea- leaving behind rich soil for farming. The ture—they had a class structure. That is, problem was that the flooding was very people held different ranks in society unpredictable. It might flood one year, but depending on what work they did and how not the next. Every year, farmers worried much wealth or power they had. about their crops. Over time, the farmers learned to build The Rise of Sumer The earliest-known civ- dams and channels to control the seasonal ilization arose in what is now southern Iraq, floods. They also built walls, waterways, on a flat plain bounded by the Tigris River and ditches to bring water to their fields. This (TY • gruhs) and the Euphrates River (yu•FRAY• way of watering crops is called irrigation teez). Later, the Greeks called this area (IHR • uh • GAY • shuhn). Irrigation allowed the Mesopotamia (MEH • suh • puh • TAY • mee • uh), farmers to grow plenty of food and support which means “the land between the rivers.” a large population. By 3000 B.C., many cities Mesopotamia lay in the eastern part of the had formed in southern Mesopotamia in a Fertile Crescent, a curving strip of land that region known as Sumer (SOO • muhr). Sumerian Ziggurat The top of the ziggurat was considered to be a holy place, and the area around the ziggurat contained palaces and royal storehouses. The surrounding walls had only one entrance because the ziggurat also served as the city’s treasury. How did people reach the upper levels of the ziggurat? Statues of Sumerians Scala/Art Resource, NY
22. What Were City-States? Geography waterproof bricks were used for walls, as helped to isolate Sumerian cities from each well as homes, temples, and other buildings. other. Beyond the areas of settlement lay Gods and Rulers The Sumerians believed mudflats and patches of scorching desert. in many gods. Each was thought to have This terrain made travel and communica- power over a natural force or a human activ- tion difficult. Each Sumerian city and the ity—flooding, for example, or basket weav- land around it became a separate city-state. ing. The Sumerians tried hard to please their Each city-state had its own government and gods. Each city-state built a grand temple was not part of any larger unit. called a ziggurat (ZIH • guh • RAT) to its chief Sumerian city-states often went to war god. The word ziggurat means “mountain of with one another. They fought to gain glory god” or “hill of heaven.” and to control more territory. For protec- With tiers like a giant square wedding tion, each city-state surrounded itself with a cake, the ziggurat dominated the city. At wall. Because stone and wood were in short the top was a shrine, or special place of supply, the Sumerians used river mud as worship that only priests and priestesses their main building material. They mixed could enter. The priests and priestesses the mud with crushed reeds, formed bricks, were powerful and controlled much of the and left them in the sun to dry. The hard land. They may even have ruled at one time. A portion of the Royal Standard of Ur, a deco- rated box that shows scenes of Sumerian life These ruins are from the Sumerian city-state of Uruk. What was a city-state? CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 135 (l)Nik Wheeler/CORBIS, (r)Michael Holford
23. WH6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. WH6.2.3 Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia and Egypt. WH6.2.9 Trace the evolution of language and its written forms. Later, kings ran the government. They led armies and organized building projects. The A Skilled People first kings were probably war heroes. Their Sumerians invented writing and made position became hereditary, which meant other important contributions to later peoples. that after a king died, his son took over. Reading Connection Do you like to read? If so, you owe a debt to the Sumerians, because they were the first What Was Life Like in Sumer? While to invent writing. Read about this achievement and others. Sumerian kings lived in large palaces, ordinary people lived in small mud-brick The Sumerians left a lasting mark on houses. Most people in Sumer farmed. Some, world history. Their ideas and inventions however, were artisans (AHR • tuh • zuhns), or were copied and improved upon by other skilled workers who made metal products, peoples. As a result, Mesopotamia has been cloth, or pottery. Other people in Sumer called the “cradle of civilization.” worked as merchants or traders. They trav- eled to other cities and towns and traded Why Was Writing Important? The people tools, wheat, and barley for copper, tin, and of Sumer created many things that still affect timber—things that Sumer did not have. our lives today. Probably their greatest People in Sumer were divided into three invention was writing. Writing is important social classes. Generally, a person had to stay because it helps people keep records and in the social class into which he or she was pass on their ideas to others. born. Only rarely could someone move up. People in Sumer developed writing to The upper class included kings, priests, war- keep track of business deals and other riors, and government officials. In the middle events. Their writing was called cuneiform class were artisans, merchants, farmers, and (kyoo • NEE • uh • FAWRM). It consisted of hun- fishers. These people made up the largest dreds of wedge-shaped marks cut into damp group. The lower class were enslaved people clay tablets with a sharp-ended reed. who worked on farms or in the temples. Archaeologists have found thousands of Enslaved people were forced to serve these cuneiform tablets, telling us much others. Slaveholders thought of them as about Mesopotamian life. property. Some slaves were prisoners of Only a few people—mostly boys from war. Others were criminals. Still others wealthy families—learned how to write. were enslaved because they had to pay off After years of training, they became scribes their debts. Debts are money or goods (SKRYBS), or record keepers. Scribes held owed to others. honored positions in society, often going on In Sumer, women and men had separate to become judges and political leaders. roles. Men headed the households. They also Sumerian Literature The Sumerians also could decide whom their children would produced works of literature. The world’s marry. Only males could go to school. oldest known story comes from Sumer. It is Women, however, did have some rights. called the Epic of Gilgamesh (GIHL • guh • They could buy and sell property and run MEHSH). An epic is a long poem that tells the businesses. story of a hero. The hero Gilgamesh is a Explain How did Mesopo- king who travels around the world with a tamian control of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers friend and performs great deeds. When his benefit their society? friend dies, Gilgamesh searches for a way to 136 CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations Scala/Art Resource, NY
24. live forever. He learns that this is possible Sumerians developed many mathemati- only for the gods. This epic poem is still cal ideas. They used geometry to measure studied today. fields and put up buildings. They also created a number system based on 60. We Advances in Science and Math The have them to thank for our 60-minute hour, Mesopotamians’ creativity also extended to 60-second minute, and 360-degree circle. technology. You read earlier about Sumerian In addition, Sumerian people watched irrigation systems. Sumerians also invented the skies to learn the best times to plant the wagon wheel to help carry people and crops and to hold religious festivals. They goods from place to place. Another break- recorded the positions of the planets and through was the plow, which made farming stars and developed a 12-month calendar easier. Still another invention was the sail- based on the cycles of the moon. boat, which replaced muscle power with Identify How did the use wind power. of mathematics benefit the Sumerians? Education Students today In ancient Mesopotamia, only boys from wealthy and high-ranking families went to the edubba, which means “tablet house.” At the edubba—the world’s first school—boys studied reading, writing, and mathematics and trained to be scribes. For hours every day, they copied the signs of the cuneiform script, trying to master hundreds of words and phrases. Today, both boys and girls go to school. They study reading, writing, mathematics, and many other subjects. As students advance in their education, they have a great number of career choices and are able to choose the career that fits their talents. In what way is education different today than it was in Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet Mesopotamia? CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations 137 (l)Mesopotamian Iraq Museum, Baghdad, Iraq/Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)Will Hart/PhotoEdit
25. WH6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. WH6.2.4 Know the significance of Hammurabi's Code. HAMMURABI Reigned c. 1792–1750 B.C. Hammurabi was a young man when he succeeded his father, Sinmuballit, as king of Babylon. When Hammurabi became king, Babylon was already a strong kingdom in Mesopotamia. During his reign, however, Hammurabi transformed Babylon from a small city- state into a large, powerful state. He also united the other city-states of Mesopotamia under one rule. Hammurabi was directly involved in the ruling of his kingdom. He personally directed projects, such as building city walls, restoring temples, and digging and cleaning irrigation canals. A great deal of planning went into his projects. City streets, for example, were arranged in straight lines and intersected at right angles, much like the way our cities are planned today. One of Hammurabi’s goals was to control the Euphrates River because it provided water for Babylon’s farms and trade routes for cargo ships. He also needed to control the river’s annual flooding Hammurabi so that villages and crops would not be washed away. Hammurabi did this by issuing laws controlling the use of irrigation ditches. His laws protected the area and helped bring water to the fields. That was one reason he developed a strict law code, or collection of laws: damaged irrigation channels could cause many people to be injured or even killed. Hammurabi fought for many years against his enemies to control the river. He even used water to defeat them. Sometimes he would dam the river to withhold water needed for drinking and for crops, and then release a sudden damaging flood. Because of Hammurabi’s efforts, the Find a copy of the Code of Hammurabi, either on- center of power in Mesopotamia shifted line or in a reference book. Notice the kinds of from Sumer in the south to Babylon in situations and the punishments that are described. the north where it remained for the next How do these compare with current laws and 1,000 years. punishments that exist in the United States?