Learning how to attribute words to people or things in a neutral sense for story writing or messages.
1. Paraphrasing and Quoting
2. Key Words Source - the person or people you interview and quote in stories Attribution - the source or sources of information in your stories accompanied by correct identification information Quote - to repeat exactly what a source said Paraphrase - a restatement or rewording of what a source said
3. Quotes Quotes from sources have several functions: 1. They move the story telling along. “I waited in the lunch line forever,” Jill Smith said. “Then this kid rudely jumped in front of me.” 2. They can add color or flavor to your story. “I wanted to throw my lunch on him,” Jill Smith said.
4. Quotes 3. They can legitimize the information you are presenting. “Lunch line skippers will earn themselves a detention,” discipline coordinator Carlo Sanchez said. 4. They can state or sum up information that just can’t be rephrased. For example, quote a source who uses an analogy. “Lunch line skippers are like bad drivers who cut you off and could care less,” Jane Smith said.
5. Quotes You want to keep your quotes fairly short, about 2 or 3 sentences maximum at one time. Break up a longer quote by putting the attribution in the “If I’m really hungry, I sneak in ahead of people,” said Billy Fandango, who claims he jumps the line once a week. “I try to find a friend in the line who will let me in. I know I won’t get caught.”
6. Quotes All punctuation goes INSIDE the quotes. All attribution words should be in PAST tense. Use the source’s name first then the attribution word, unless you are adding extra information. “I love pizza days,” Jane Smith said. “I love pizza days,” said Jane Smith, who eats cafeteria food three times a week.
7. Attribution Words Your attribution word should be neutral and in PAST tense. Use only SAID, TOLD, EXPLAINED Stay away from YELLED, EXCLAIMED, SMILED, FROWNED, HOLLERED You want a word that implies only that the person uttered the words, not how those words were uttered.
8. Paraphrasing 1. Paraphrases can move a story along and set up a story like a quote can. 2. Paraphrases can introduce a source before you quote him/her. 3. If you can take what a source said and explain it in better terms, then you should paraphrase the information and attribute it to the source.
9. Paraphrasing 4. Information that is factual but not common knowledge that is received from a source should be paraphrased and attributed to the source. A common knowledge fact, for example would be that George Washington was the first U.S. president.
10. Paraphrasing “The Girl Scouts sold $1,000 worth of cookies,” said Emma Smith, leader of Scout Troop No. 2. This is a matter of fact, and not an opinion, therefore the material should be paraphrased. Emma Smith, leader of Scout Troop No. 2, said the girls sold $1,000 worth of cookies.
11. Paraphrasing You may paraphrase the opinions of a source as along as you attribute them. Emma Smith said she believes Girl Scouts is an important organization that teaches values to young girls.
12. Partial Quotes A partial quote is a blend of the reporter’s words and the source’s words. Jane Smith said she sees lunch line skippers all the time but “doesn’t want to bother with turning in those rude kids.” The source’s exact words are what appears in
13. Questions? Remember that you are the reporter and need to exercise good judgement when deciding what’s worth quoting and what should be paraphrased. If the source said something interesting, it’s probably worth quoting. You should use an equal amount of quotes and paraphrases.