This booklet discusses the British policies in colonialism that led to disagreements and depicts the various reasons, impacts, and consequences that resulted.
1. ary War
2. The American Revolution 1775-1783 • The revolutionary war is also known as the American Revolution • The war was fought between the British and the Colonists • The result of the American Revolution was a new nation called the United States of America
3. EVENTS LEADING TO REVOLUTION
4. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: WHICH BRITISH POLICIES IN THE COLONIES LED TO
5. Navigation Acts 1756 King George III used an old law to make the colonists pay taxes on goods shipped in English ships. The colonists responded by smuggling goods!
6. French and Indian War (1754-1763) The British won the French and Indian War but had a large debt because of it. They decide to tax the colonies for defending them in the war.
7. Writs of Assistance The king angered the colonists again by enacting the Writs of Assistance, which was another old law. This allowed the use of general search warrants, which let them search anyone, anytime, anywhere. The colonists were very angry and protested.
8. Proclamation of 1763 The Proclamation of 1763 was an act in which the king said NO! to settling west of Appalachian Mountains. The colonists disobeyed his orders.
9. By 1763, the colonists had enjoyed a great amount of freedom. They resented the new orders issued by the king and of being taxed without their
10. Sugar Act of 1764 The Sugar Act actually $$ lowered taxes from the Molasses Act, but was more strictly enforced than the Molasses Act.
11. The Stamp Act of 1765 placed taxes on any articles written on paper. This newspapers, wills, licenses, deeds, and pamphlets.
12. Steps to Revolution Each step moved us closer to war British Actions The Stamp Act The Proclamation The Sugar of 1763 Act 1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774 Colonial Responses The Stamp Act Congress & Sons of Liberty Colonists were Smuggling angry
13. The Stamp Act of 1765 The colonists responded by creating the Stamp Act Congress and refused to buy stamps or stamped paper. They also burned pictures of the King in effigy!
14. The Quartering Act 1765 said that colonists must provide for salaries, housing, and supplies for British soldiers. The colonists did not agree and did not obey!
15. Townshend Acts 1767 Another act, the Townshend Acts of 1767, placed taxes on glass, lead, paint and tea and was used to pay salaries of colonial officers – including governors & judges. In response, the colonists boycotted all British goods.
16. Steps to Revolution Each step moved us closer to war British Actions The Stamp Act & The The Proclamation Quartering Act Townshend Acts The Sugar of 1763 Act 1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774 Colonial Responses The Stamp Act More boycotts & Congress & Daughters of Liberty Sons of Liberty Colonists were Smuggling angry
17. The Daughters of Liberty organized themselves to teach each other how to make their own cloth and do other things to keep from buying British goods.
18. VIOLENCE! Violence erupts as British troops are sent to Boston 1768. This leads to the
19. The Boston Massacre • occurred on March 5, 1770 • It happened as tensions between colonists and redcoats peaked • Townspeople pushed to the customs house and the British guard called for help as colonists were crowding
20. • The crowd of colonists began to throw stones, wood, etc. at the soldiers, and several soldiers were knocked down. • They fired shots at the crowd, and several colonists were killed. • The riot was used as propaganda by the colonists.
21. The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street
22. Fallout from the Boston Massacre • Crispus Attucks was the first colonist killed. He was of African-American descent. • The British soldiers were put on trial in Boston. They were defended by John Adams. • Adams argued that the shootings occurred as a result of self-defense, and they were found to be innocent.
23. Steps to Revolution Each step moved us closer to war British Actions The Stamp Act Boston Massacre & The The Proclamation Townshend Acts The Sugar Quartering Act of 1763 Act 1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774 Colonial Responses The Stamp Act More boycotts & Congress & Daughters of Liberty Sons of Liberty Colonists were Smuggling angry
24. STUDENTS DO AN You will each need a •History Alive book and turn to pages 93-95 •The American Republic Book Pages 136-137 •Social Studies Book pgs 93-94
25. Boston Massacre • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iloGkp5f _Hk
26. • On July 9, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read for the first time in New York in front of George Washington and his troops. In reaction to what had been read, soldiers and citizens went to Bowling Green, a park in Manhattan, where a lead statue of King George III on horseback stood. The mob of people pulled down the statue, and later the lead was melted down to make musket balls, or bullets for use in the war for independence.
27. How are the people on the right reacting?
28. • About one fifth of the colonists were Loyalists who felt that British laws must be obeyed. • About two fifths of the colonists were Moderates who, in general, wanted Britain and the American colonies to resolve their differences peacefully. Moderates are not clearly depicted in the painting but could have been present at the scene.
29. • What percent left does that leave that are patriots? • Can you spot the patriots in the picture?
30. GROUP ACTIVITY • Each group will be assigned one of the four perspectives, patriots, loyalists, moderates or royals. • In your group, each person choose one of the characters from your packet and choose an excerpt explaining their stance on the revolt.
31. Committee of Correspondence • Founded in 1772 by Samuel Adams, James Warren, and Mercy Otis Warren • Wrote pamphlets and letters that were sent throughout the colonies to stir hatred of the British • Mercy Otis Warren also drafted the first American history of the Revolutionary War
32. The Tea Act of 1773 was passed by Parliament so that the British East India Tea Company could sell tea cheaper than the price of smuggled tea. This ignited the Boston Tea Party.
33. BOSTON TEA PARTY • On December 16, 1773, Sam Adams led a group of Patriots disguised as Indians on a raid of British ships docked in Boston’s harbor. • They dumped the cargos of tea overboard.
34. The Intolerable Acts of 1774 •punished Boston for the Tea Party. It closed the harbor until it was cleaned up, self-government was denied in Massachusetts, and the Quartering Act was enforced. •The colonists were appalled! •They set up the 1st Continental Congress to decide their plan of
35. The First Continental Congress September 5 – October 26, 1774 • in Philadelphia • 55 men met and represented the colonies • It was a political body to represent American interests
36. The first Continental Congress • http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=f6iIT HT8LJE
37. Representatives at the 1st Continental Congress • Massachusetts – Sam Adams & John Adams • New York – John Jay • Virginia – Patrick Henry & George Washington
38. “The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no more…I am not a Virginian, but an American” – Patrick Henry
39. Decisions of the Congress • The Congress wrote a Statement of Grievances which repealed the 13 acts of Parliament because they violated colonists’ rights • They boycotted ALL British goods and trade and vowed to arm themselves against British if necessary
40. Britain’s Soldiers Britain’s soldiers were trained and wore uniforms with bright red jackets. This earned them the nickname of
41. The Colonial Militia •Was a citizens army that consisted of ordinary citizens, farmers, craftspeople, and •They were prepared to drop everything at a moment’s notice, and were thus nicknamed the
42. Colonists Viewpoints • Wanted to fight for independence from the king • Loyalists: • Loyal to the king and the mother country
43. The Sons of Liberty • Were a Patriot group that was led by Sam Adams and John Hancock • They were involved in the Boston Tea Party • They constructed “liberty poles”, where they displayed pictures of the British tax collectors • They even had one tax collector tarred and feathered
45. The Battles of Lexington and Concord occurred in 1775 British troops planned to destroy military supplies in Concord and to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock
46. Battle of Lexington and Concord • http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=hiIF RCk1hxY
47. Messengers • Three men served as messengers to warn the colonists of the upcoming attacks. • They were Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Sam Prescott • They rode through the town and announced, “The British are coming!”
48. In the Battle of Lexington • the British soldiers marched all night from Boston • They were met by minutemen at the Old North Bridge
49. Battle of Lexington • The Americans were told, “Do not fire unless fired upon…but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here!” • WHO fired the 1st shot of the American Revolution????? No one knows for sure…but it is believed that the British fired the first shots. • When the fighting was over, 8 minutemen were dead.
50. To Concord… • The British arrived outside of Concord, where they were ambushed by the militia • The Americans had fired the “shot heard around the world” at the Battles of Lexington and Concord. • The British retreated to Boston
51. Steps to Revolution Each step moved us closer to war British Actions Intolerable Acts Tea Act The Stamp Act Boston Massacre & The The Proclamation Townshend Acts The Sugar Quartering Act WAR WAR of 1763 Act 1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774 Colonial Responses Continental Boston Congress Committee of Tea Party The Stamp Act More boycotts & Correspondence Congress & Daughters of Liberty Sons of Liberty Colonists were Smuggling angry
52. 2 Continental Congress nd • Met to decide what to do now • Initiated a last effort with King George III for peace – they extended an Olive Branch Petition, which he rejected
53. Patrick Henry • Was a passionate orator from Virginia • Famous for his immortal words of “Give me liberty or give me death!”
55. Continental Army • The 2nd Continental Congress established a Continental Army that was commanded by George Washington • This organized the militia into an official army
56. At the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775 • The militia waited for the redcoats at the top of Breed’s Hill • Because the militia was low on ammunition, they were told, “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” • The redcoats charged up the hill 3 times, before the colonists retreated ------but it proved that the militia could fight
57. Thomas Paine • Was a revolutionary writer & philosopher who wrote “Common Sense” • It said all Americans should support independence • He said it was crazy for an island to rule a continent! • Thomas Paine gave all profits from his booksto the war!
58. Benjamin Franklin was a Pennsylvanian who was sent to France to convince them to help the Americans in the revolution with soldiers, supplies, and
59. Abigail Adams – “Remember the Ladies” • Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, felt that the Founding Fathers should “remember the ladies” and extend rights to the women in America
60. Group Activity Each student is assigned as follows. •Student 1: Samuel Adams-Blue Paper •Student 2: Abigail Adams-Orange Paper •Student 3: Thomas Paine-Lime Paper •Student 4: Patrick Henry –Purple Paper You will read the article on your person from history and write 5-7 complete sentences explaining their relevance in the Revolutionary War.
61. The Declaration of Independence • was drafted by Ben Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson • The main author was Jefferson, and he actually wrote the 1st copy.
62. Declaring Independence 1776 • Declaring independence in 1776 was not easy for the colonists. They discussed it for 1 month • On July 2, 1776, 12 states decided to declare independence from Britain • Only New York did not vote
63. • The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776 • 13 states unanimously approved, and the United States of America was born! • This was treason in the eyes of the king!
65. D of I – Section I • The introduction to the Declaration of Independence explains why colonists want to separate from Britain • It is called the Preamble
66. D of I – Section II • The 2nd section of the D of I “We hold these truths… happiness” says that – governments are formed to protect the rights of the people & – that if the government ignores the rights of the people, then a new government can be created
67. D of I – Section II • Established the concept that “all men are created equal” and are given “certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
68. D of I – Section III • The 3rd section of the Declaration of Independence lists the grievances the colonists have with King George • They are upset with his actions and they call him a tyrant!
69. There were 27 grievances listed against King George III: • Changed how colonies governed when he closed colonial legislatures after the Boston Tea Party
70. • Had to quarter troops in homes
71. • No laws to help colonies (Proclamation of 1763)
73. • Wouldn’t allow them to trade with other countries (only the Mother Country)
74. • No jury trials (and he arrested people in Boston after the Tea Party if broke curfew)
75. • No protection from enemies (did nothing to stop Indian raids in the Ohio River Valley)
76. • Declared war on his own people (at Lexington and Concord)
77. D of I – Section IV • Section 4 of the Declaration of Independence pointed out that King George III ignored the colonists when they reached out to him with the Olive Branch Petition
78. D of I – Section V • Section 5 of the Declaration of Independence was the actual section in which the colonies declare INDEPENDENCE
79. Declaration of Independence
80. The militia had many strengths: (AKA – the Continental Army) • They were fighting on their home territory • They wanted INDEPENDENCE • They were excited about the war. • They had a large territory to hide in.
81. There were many weaknesses of the militia • They were untrained soldiers • They had no money and no Navy • They were low on supplies • John Adams said, “We will have a long and bloody war to go through!”
82. The USA was divided – there were • Loyalists – did not want independence (lots in the South) • Patriots – wanted independence (lots in the middle & north) • Neutralists – found all over
83. ON THE FRONT LINES Important participants on the battle fields
84. George Washington • Was a Colonel in French and Indian War • He became Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army • Despite his leadership, the Continental Army lost most early battles.
85. Women • Women played important roles in the Revolutionary War. They were – nurses – cooks – spies • One of the most famous was Molly Pitcher, whose real name was Mary Hayes McCauley
86. Nathan Hale • Was the hero at the Battle of Long Island • He was a teacher from Connecticut who volunteered to spy on the redcoats • He disguised himself as a Dutch schoolteacher and was hanged when he was captured by the British • He was quoted as saying, “I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country”
87. MAJOR BATTLEGROUNDS
89. The war continues… • Britain sends more troops to fight in the war • The Hessians begin to assist the British • They were German mercenaries who were trained to fight in the American Revolution
90. Students Complete Assignment • Revolutionary War Battles
91. The Battle of Trenton • Occurred on December 26, 1776 • Washington and his troops snuck across the Delaware River during the night of December 25th and attacked in the morning. • They staged a surprise attack on Hessian and British soldiers in Trenton, New Jersey
92. Washington crosses the Delaware
93. The Battle of Saratoga in 1777 • Occurred in New York • The Patriots destroyed bridges, cut trees for blocks, hid in trees etc… • The Americans defeated the larger British force and won the battle • IT WAS THE TURNING POINT OF THE WAR! WHY? BECAUSE FRANCE AGREES TO HELP THE AMERICANS!
94. Wentworth Cheswell • Wentworth Cheswell was a church leader and judge who fought at the Battle of Saratoga. • He is known as the first African- American elected to public office in America.
95. Valley Forge – Winter of 1777-78 • The Patriot troops traveled to Valley Forge during the winter of 1777-78 • It was a miserable winter, very cold and snowy • The troops had little food, clothing, and supplies • By spring, ¼ were dead • During this time, Washington read Thomas Paine’s books “Common Sense” and “The Crisis”
96. The Marquis de Lafayette • Was a French nobleman who was enthusiastic about helping the Americans defeat the British • He stayed at Valley Forge and trained American troops • He was a friend and advisor to George Washington, and he used his OWN money to pay troops!
97. War in the South • Bernardo de • Haym Solomon Galvez was a Polish Jew commanded who gave loans to Spanish troops in the American Louisiana to help government and to protect New revolutionary Orleans from leaders to pay for British attack the war.
98. • James Armistead was a freed African-American slave who acted as a spy on the British. • He worked closely with the Marquis de Lafayette.
99. John Paul Jones • Is known as the “Father of the American Navy” • He raided British ports, and a battle began • His ship was badly damaged, and the British commander asked him if he was ready to surrender • He famously replied, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
100. The Battle at Yorktown in 1781 • Was a big one for the Americans • They traveled over 200 miles in 15 days • They met General Cornwallis & the British troops in Virginia • 3 sets of troops were used to close in on the redcoats at Yorktown • The British were confused, low on supplies and many were sick
101. Surrender at Yorktown!! • The Americans trapped Cornwallis on the peninsula • He and his troops were surrounded on 3 sides by the Continental army • The French fleet arrives 6 hours before the British fleet and blocked his escape. • Cornwallis surrenders, and the war is OVER! OVER
102. General Cornwallis surrenders to General Washington
103. Abandonment • King George III abandons the idea of controlling the colonies GO HOME!
104. The Treaty of Paris 1783 • Ended the American Revolution • “The American colonies hereby recognize…all lands east of Mississippi...” – King George III Treaty of Paris 1783
105. UNDER #75, WRITE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION • John Adams was one of the American negotiators of the Treaty of Paris 1783
106. Treaty of Paris 1783
107. What did the U.S. gain? 1. INDEPENDENCE 2. Land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River and from Canada to Florida (Ohio River Valley) 3. All redcoats were forced to leave the U.S.
108. What did the British gain? • Merchants could collect debts owed by Americans • Patriots have to give back the items taken from the Loyalists
109. Patriots won…now what? • The Americans are free from the tyranny of King George III…so who gets to rule America? (But for you…you get to take a test! )