American Revolutionary War: Events leading to Revolution

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This booklet discusses the British policies in colonialism that led to disagreements and depicts the various reasons, impacts, and consequences that resulted.
1. ary War
2. The American Revolution
• The revolutionary war is also
known as the American
• The war was fought between
the British and the
• The result of the American
Revolution was a new
nation called the United
States of America
5. Navigation Acts 1756
King George III used
an old law to make
the colonists pay
taxes on goods
shipped in English
ships. The colonists
responded by
smuggling goods!
6. French and Indian War
The British won the
French and Indian War
but had a large debt
because of it. They
decide to tax the
colonies for defending
them in the war.
7. Writs of Assistance
The king angered the colonists
again by enacting the Writs of
Assistance, which was
another old law. This allowed
the use of general search
warrants, which let them
search anyone, anytime,
anywhere. The colonists were
very angry and protested.
8. Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of
1763 was an act in
which the king said
NO! to settling west
of Appalachian
Mountains. The
colonists disobeyed
his orders.
9. By 1763, the
colonists had
enjoyed a great
amount of freedom.
They resented the
new orders issued by
the king and of being
taxed without their
10. Sugar Act of 1764
The Sugar Act actually
$$ lowered
taxes from the
Molasses Act, but was
more strictly enforced
than the Molasses Act.
11. The Stamp Act of 1765
placed taxes on
any articles written
on paper. This
newspapers, wills,
licenses, deeds,
and pamphlets.
12. Steps to Revolution
Each step moved us closer to war
British Actions
The Stamp Act
The Proclamation
The Sugar
of 1763 Act
1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774
Colonial Responses
The Stamp Act
Congress &
Sons of Liberty
Colonists were
13. The Stamp Act of 1765
The colonists
responded by creating
the Stamp Act
Congress and refused
to buy stamps or
stamped paper. They
also burned pictures of
the King in effigy!
14. The Quartering Act 1765
said that colonists must provide
for salaries, housing, and
supplies for British soldiers.
The colonists did not agree and
did not obey!
15. Townshend Acts 1767
Another act, the
Townshend Acts of 1767,
placed taxes on glass,
lead, paint and tea and
was used to pay salaries
of colonial officers –
including governors &
judges. In response, the
colonists boycotted all
British goods.
16. Steps to Revolution
Each step moved us closer to war
British Actions
The Stamp Act
& The
The Proclamation Quartering Act
Townshend Acts
The Sugar
of 1763 Act
1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774
Colonial Responses
The Stamp Act More boycotts &
Congress & Daughters of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
Colonists were
17. The Daughters of Liberty
organized themselves to teach
each other how to make their own
cloth and do other things to keep
from buying British goods.
Violence erupts
as British troops
are sent to
Boston 1768.
This leads to the
19. The Boston Massacre
• occurred on March 5, 1770
• It happened as tensions between colonists
and redcoats peaked
• Townspeople pushed to the customs house
and the British guard called for help as
colonists were crowding
20. • The crowd of colonists began to
throw stones, wood, etc. at the
soldiers, and several soldiers were
knocked down.
• They fired shots at the crowd, and
several colonists were killed.
• The riot was used as
propaganda by the colonists.
21. The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street
22. Fallout from the Boston Massacre
• Crispus Attucks was the first colonist killed.
He was of African-American descent.
• The British soldiers were put on trial in
Boston. They were defended by John
• Adams argued that the shootings occurred
as a result of self-defense, and they were
found to be innocent.
23. Steps to Revolution
Each step moved us closer to war
British Actions
The Stamp Act Boston Massacre
& The
The Proclamation Townshend Acts
The Sugar Quartering Act
of 1763 Act
1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774
Colonial Responses
The Stamp Act More boycotts &
Congress & Daughters of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
Colonists were
You will each need a
•History Alive book and turn to
pages 93-95
•The American Republic Book
Pages 136-137
•Social Studies Book pgs 93-94
25. Boston Massacre
26. • On July 9, 1776, the Declaration of
Independence was read for the first time in
New York in front of George Washington
and his troops. In reaction to what had been
read, soldiers and citizens went to Bowling
Green, a park in Manhattan, where a lead
statue of King George III on horseback
stood. The mob of people pulled down the
statue, and later the lead was melted down
to make musket balls, or bullets for use in
the war for independence.
27. How are the people on the right
28. • About one fifth of the colonists were Loyalists who
felt that British laws must be obeyed.
• About two fifths of the colonists were Moderates
who, in general, wanted Britain and the American
colonies to resolve their differences peacefully.
Moderates are not clearly depicted in the painting but
could have been present at the scene.
29. • What percent left does that leave that are
• Can you spot the patriots in the picture?
• Each group will be assigned one of the
four perspectives, patriots, loyalists,
moderates or royals.
• In your group, each person choose one of
the characters from your packet and
choose an excerpt explaining their stance
on the revolt.
31. Committee of Correspondence
• Founded in 1772 by Samuel Adams,
James Warren, and Mercy Otis Warren
• Wrote pamphlets and letters that were
sent throughout the colonies to stir hatred
of the British
• Mercy Otis Warren also drafted the first
American history of the Revolutionary War
32. The Tea Act of 1773
was passed by
Parliament so that the
British East India Tea
Company could sell tea
cheaper than the price of
smuggled tea. This ignited
the Boston Tea Party.
• On December 16, 1773,
Sam Adams led a group
of Patriots disguised as
Indians on a raid of
British ships docked in
Boston’s harbor.
• They dumped the
cargos of tea overboard.
34. The Intolerable Acts of 1774
•punished Boston for the Tea
Party. It closed the harbor until it
was cleaned up, self-government
was denied in Massachusetts, and
the Quartering Act was enforced.
•The colonists were appalled!
•They set up the 1st Continental
Congress to decide their plan of
35. The First Continental Congress
September 5 – October 26, 1774
• in Philadelphia
• 55 men met and
represented the
• It was a political
body to represent
American interests
36. The first Continental Congress
37. Representatives at the 1st
Continental Congress
• Massachusetts –
Sam Adams &
John Adams
• New York – John
• Virginia – Patrick
Henry & George
38. “The distinctions between Virginians,
Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, and New
Englanders are no more…I am not a
Virginian, but an American”
– Patrick Henry
39. Decisions of the Congress
• The Congress wrote a Statement of
Grievances which repealed the 13 acts
of Parliament because they violated
colonists’ rights
• They boycotted ALL British goods and
trade and vowed to arm themselves
against British if necessary
40. Britain’s Soldiers
Britain’s soldiers
were trained and
wore uniforms with
bright red jackets.
This earned them
the nickname of
41. The Colonial Militia
•Was a citizens army that
consisted of ordinary citizens,
farmers, craftspeople, and
•They were prepared to drop
everything at a moment’s notice,
and were thus nicknamed the
42. Colonists Viewpoints
• Wanted to fight for
independence from the king
• Loyalists:
• Loyal to the king and the
mother country
43. The Sons of Liberty
• Were a Patriot group that was led by Sam
Adams and John Hancock
• They were involved in the Boston Tea Party
• They constructed “liberty poles”, where they
displayed pictures of the British tax collectors
• They even had one tax collector tarred and
45. The Battles of Lexington and
Concord occurred in 1775
British troops
planned to destroy
military supplies in
Concord and to
capture Sam Adams
and John Hancock
46. Battle of Lexington and Concord
47. Messengers
• Three men served as
messengers to warn the
colonists of the upcoming
• They were Paul Revere,
William Dawes, and Sam
• They rode through the town
and announced, “The British
are coming!”
48. In the Battle of Lexington
• the British soldiers marched all night
from Boston
• They were met by minutemen at the Old
North Bridge
49. Battle of Lexington
• The Americans were told, “Do not fire unless
fired upon…but if they mean to have a war,
let it begin here!”
• WHO fired the 1st shot of the American
Revolution????? No one knows for sure…but it is
believed that the British fired the first shots.
• When the fighting was over, 8 minutemen were dead.
50. To Concord…
• The British arrived outside of Concord,
where they were ambushed by the militia
• The Americans had fired the “shot
heard around the world” at the Battles
of Lexington and Concord.
• The British retreated to Boston
51. Steps to Revolution
Each step moved us closer to war
British Actions
Intolerable Acts
Tea Act
The Stamp Act Boston Massacre
& The
The Proclamation Townshend Acts
The Sugar Quartering Act
of 1763 Act
1763 1764 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774
Colonial Responses
Boston Congress
Committee of Tea Party
The Stamp Act More boycotts & Correspondence
Congress & Daughters of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
Colonists were
52. 2 Continental Congress
• Met to decide what
to do now
• Initiated a last effort
with King George III
for peace – they
extended an Olive
Branch Petition,
which he rejected
53. Patrick Henry
• Was a passionate
orator from
• Famous for his
immortal words of
“Give me liberty or
give me death!”
55. Continental Army
• The 2nd Continental
Congress established a
Continental Army that
was commanded by
George Washington
• This organized the
militia into an official
56. At the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775
• The militia waited for the
redcoats at the top of
Breed’s Hill
• Because the militia was low
on ammunition, they were
told, “Don’t fire until you see
the whites of their eyes”
• The redcoats charged up the
hill 3 times, before the
colonists retreated ------but it
proved that the militia could
57. Thomas Paine
• Was a revolutionary writer &
philosopher who wrote
“Common Sense”
• It said all Americans should
support independence
• He said it was crazy for an
island to rule a continent!
• Thomas Paine gave all profits
from his booksto the war!
58. Benjamin Franklin
was a Pennsylvanian
who was sent to
France to convince
them to help the
Americans in the
revolution with
soldiers, supplies, and
59. Abigail Adams – “Remember
the Ladies”
• Abigail Adams,
wife of John
Adams, felt that the
Founding Fathers
should “remember
the ladies” and
extend rights to the
women in America
60. Group Activity
Each student is assigned as follows.
•Student 1: Samuel Adams-Blue Paper
•Student 2: Abigail Adams-Orange Paper
•Student 3: Thomas Paine-Lime Paper
•Student 4: Patrick Henry –Purple Paper
You will read the article on your person from history and
write 5-7 complete sentences explaining their relevance
in the Revolutionary War.
61. The Declaration of Independence
• was drafted by Ben
Franklin, John
Adams and Thomas
• The main author
was Jefferson, and
he actually wrote
the 1st copy.
62. Declaring Independence 1776
• Declaring independence in
1776 was not easy for the
colonists. They discussed it
for 1 month
• On July 2, 1776, 12 states
decided to declare
independence from Britain
• Only New York did not vote
63. • The Declaration of
Independence was
signed on July 4, 1776
• 13 states unanimously
approved, and the
United States of
America was born!
• This was treason in the
eyes of the king!
65. D of I – Section I
• The introduction to the Declaration of
Independence explains why colonists
want to separate from Britain
• It is called the Preamble
66. D of I – Section II
• The 2nd section of the D of I “We
hold these truths… happiness”
says that
– governments are formed to
protect the rights of the people
– that if the government ignores
the rights of the people, then a
new government can be created
67. D of I – Section II
• Established the concept
that “all men are
created equal” and are
given “certain
unalienable rights,
that among these are
life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness”
68. D of I – Section III
• The 3rd section of the Declaration of
Independence lists the grievances
the colonists have with King George
• They are upset with his actions and
they call him a tyrant!
69. There were 27 grievances listed
against King George III:
• Changed how colonies governed
when he closed colonial legislatures
after the Boston Tea Party
70. • Had to quarter troops in homes
71. • No laws to help colonies
(Proclamation of 1763)
72. • Taxation without representation
(Sugar Tax, Stamp Tax,
Townshend Taxes, etc.)
73. • Wouldn’t allow them to trade
with other countries (only the
Mother Country)
74. • No jury trials (and he arrested
people in Boston after the Tea Party if
broke curfew)
75. • No protection from enemies
(did nothing to stop Indian
raids in the Ohio River Valley)
76. • Declared war on
his own people (at
Lexington and
77. D of I – Section IV
• Section 4 of the Declaration of
Independence pointed out that
King George III ignored the
colonists when they reached out
to him with the
Olive Branch Petition
78. D of I – Section V
• Section 5 of the Declaration of
Independence was the actual section
in which the colonies declare
79. Declaration of
80. The militia had many strengths:
(AKA – the Continental Army)
• They were fighting on their
home territory
• They wanted
• They were excited about the
• They had a large territory to
hide in.
81. There were many weaknesses
of the militia
• They were untrained
• They had no money and no
• They were low on supplies
• John Adams said, “We will
have a long and bloody war
to go through!”
82. The USA was divided – there were
• Loyalists – did not want
independence (lots in the South)
• Patriots – wanted independence
(lots in the middle & north)
• Neutralists – found all over
Important participants on the battle fields
84. George Washington
• Was a Colonel in
French and Indian War
• He became
of the Continental Army
• Despite his leadership,
the Continental Army
lost most early battles.
85. Women
• Women played important roles in the
Revolutionary War. They were
– nurses
– cooks
– spies
• One of the most famous was Molly
Pitcher, whose real name was Mary
Hayes McCauley
86. Nathan Hale
• Was the hero at the Battle of Long
• He was a teacher from Connecticut
who volunteered to spy on the redcoats
• He disguised himself as a Dutch
schoolteacher and was hanged when
he was captured by the British
• He was quoted as saying, “I regret that
I have but one life to lose for my
88. Battles
89. The war continues…
• Britain sends more
troops to fight in the war
• The Hessians begin to
assist the British
• They were German
mercenaries who were
trained to fight in the
American Revolution
90. Students Complete Assignment
• Revolutionary War
91. The Battle of Trenton
• Occurred on December 26, 1776
• Washington and his troops snuck across the
Delaware River during the night of
December 25th and attacked in the morning.
• They staged a surprise attack on Hessian
and British soldiers in Trenton, New Jersey
92. Washington crosses the Delaware
93. The Battle of Saratoga in 1777
• Occurred in New York
• The Patriots destroyed bridges, cut
trees for blocks, hid in trees etc…
• The Americans defeated the larger
British force and won the battle
94. Wentworth Cheswell
• Wentworth Cheswell was a
church leader and judge who
fought at the Battle of Saratoga.
• He is known as the first African-
American elected to public office
in America.
95. Valley Forge – Winter of 1777-78
• The Patriot troops traveled
to Valley Forge during the
winter of 1777-78
• It was a miserable winter,
very cold and snowy
• The troops had little food,
clothing, and supplies
• By spring, ¼ were dead
• During this time,
Washington read Thomas
Paine’s books “Common
Sense” and “The Crisis”
96. The Marquis de Lafayette
• Was a French nobleman who
was enthusiastic about
helping the Americans defeat
the British
• He stayed at Valley Forge
and trained American troops
• He was a friend and advisor
to George Washington, and
he used his OWN money to
pay troops!
97. War in the South
• Bernardo de • Haym Solomon
Galvez was a Polish Jew
commanded who gave loans to
Spanish troops in the American
Louisiana to help government and to
protect New revolutionary
Orleans from leaders to pay for
British attack the war.
98. • James Armistead was a
freed African-American slave
who acted as a spy on the
• He worked closely with the
Marquis de Lafayette.
99. John Paul Jones
• Is known as the “Father of the American Navy”
• He raided British ports, and a battle began
• His ship was badly damaged, and the British
commander asked him if he was ready to
• He famously replied, “I have not yet begun to
100. The Battle at Yorktown in 1781
• Was a big one for the Americans
• They traveled over 200 miles in 15 days
• They met General Cornwallis & the British troops in
• 3 sets of troops were used to close in on the redcoats
at Yorktown
• The British were confused, low on supplies and many
were sick
101. Surrender at
• The Americans trapped Cornwallis on
the peninsula
• He and his troops were surrounded
on 3 sides by the Continental army
• The French fleet arrives 6 hours before
the British fleet and blocked his
• Cornwallis surrenders, and the war is
102. General Cornwallis surrenders
to General Washington
103. Abandonment
• King George III abandons the
idea of controlling the colonies
104. The Treaty of Paris 1783
• Ended the American
• “The American
colonies hereby
recognize…all lands
east of Mississippi...”
– King George III
Treaty of Paris 1783
• John Adams was
one of the
negotiators of the
Treaty of Paris 1783
106. Treaty of Paris 1783
107. What did the U.S. gain?
2. Land from the Atlantic
Ocean to the
Mississippi River and
from Canada to Florida
(Ohio River Valley)
3. All redcoats were forced
to leave the U.S.
108. What did the British gain?
• Merchants could
collect debts owed by
• Patriots have to give
back the items taken
from the Loyalists
109. Patriots won…now what?
• The Americans
are free from
the tyranny of
King George
III…so who
gets to rule
(But for you…you get to take a test! )