Contributed by:

In this section, we will learn that:

We get the same special type of limit in trying to find the area under a curve or a distance traveled.

We get the same special type of limit in trying to find the area under a curve or a distance traveled.

1.
5

2.
In Chapter 2, we used the tangent

and velocity problems to introduce

the derivative—the central idea in

differential calculus.

and velocity problems to introduce

the derivative—the central idea in

differential calculus.

3.
In much the same way, this chapter starts

with the area and distance problems and

uses them to formulate the idea of

a definite integral—the basic concept of

integral calculus.

with the area and distance problems and

uses them to formulate the idea of

a definite integral—the basic concept of

integral calculus.

4.
In Chapters 6 and 8, we will see how to use

the integral to solve problems concerning:

Volumes

Lengths of curves

Population predictions

Cardiac output

Forces on a dam

Work

Consumer surplus

Baseball

the integral to solve problems concerning:

Volumes

Lengths of curves

Population predictions

Cardiac output

Forces on a dam

Work

Consumer surplus

Baseball

5.
There is a connection between integral

calculus and differential calculus.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC)

relates the integral to the derivative.

We will see in this chapter that it greatly simplifies

the solution of many problems.

calculus and differential calculus.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC)

relates the integral to the derivative.

We will see in this chapter that it greatly simplifies

the solution of many problems.

6.
5.1

Areas and Distances

In this section, we will learn that:

We get the same special type of limit in trying to find

the area under a curve or a distance traveled.

Areas and Distances

In this section, we will learn that:

We get the same special type of limit in trying to find

the area under a curve or a distance traveled.

7.
AREA PROBLEM

We begin by attempting to solve

the area problem:

Find the area of the region S that lies

under the curve y = f(x) from a to b.

We begin by attempting to solve

the area problem:

Find the area of the region S that lies

under the curve y = f(x) from a to b.

8.
AREA PROBLEM

This means that S,

illustrated here,

is bounded by:

The graph of a continuous

function f [where f(x) ≥ 0]

The vertical lines x = a and x

=b

The x-axis

This means that S,

illustrated here,

is bounded by:

The graph of a continuous

function f [where f(x) ≥ 0]

The vertical lines x = a and x

=b

The x-axis

9.
AREA PROBLEM

In trying to solve the area problem,

we have to ask ourselves:

What is the meaning of the word area?

In trying to solve the area problem,

we have to ask ourselves:

What is the meaning of the word area?

10.
AREA PROBLEM

The question is easy to answer

for regions with straight sides.

The question is easy to answer

for regions with straight sides.

11.
For a rectangle, the

area is defined as:

The product of the

length and the width

area is defined as:

The product of the

length and the width

12.
The area of a

triangle is:

Half the base times the

height

triangle is:

Half the base times the

height

13.
The area of a polygon

is found by:

Dividing it into triangles

and adding the areas

of the triangles

is found by:

Dividing it into triangles

and adding the areas

of the triangles

14.
AREA PROBLEM

However, it isn’t so easy to find the area

of a region with curved sides.

We all have an intuitive idea of what the area

of a region is.

Part of the area problem, though, is to make this

intuitive idea precise by giving an exact definition

of area.

However, it isn’t so easy to find the area

of a region with curved sides.

We all have an intuitive idea of what the area

of a region is.

Part of the area problem, though, is to make this

intuitive idea precise by giving an exact definition

of area.

15.
AREA PROBLEM

Recall that, in defining a tangent, we first

approximated the slope of the tangent line

by slopes of secant lines and then we took

the limit of these approximations.

We pursue a similar idea for areas.

Recall that, in defining a tangent, we first

approximated the slope of the tangent line

by slopes of secant lines and then we took

the limit of these approximations.

We pursue a similar idea for areas.

16.
AREA PROBLEM

We first approximate the region S by

rectangles and then we take the limit of

the areas of these rectangles as we increase

the number of rectangles.

The following example illustrates the procedure.

We first approximate the region S by

rectangles and then we take the limit of

the areas of these rectangles as we increase

the number of rectangles.

The following example illustrates the procedure.

17.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

Use rectangles to

estimate the area under

the parabola y = x2 from

0 to 1, the parabolic

region S illustrated here.

Use rectangles to

estimate the area under

the parabola y = x2 from

0 to 1, the parabolic

region S illustrated here.

18.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We first notice that the

area of S must be

somewhere between 0

and 1, because S

is contained in a square

with side length 1.

However, we can

certainly do better

than that.

We first notice that the

area of S must be

somewhere between 0

and 1, because S

is contained in a square

with side length 1.

However, we can

certainly do better

than that.

19.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

Suppose we divide S into

four strips

S1, S2, S3, and S4 by

drawing the vertical lines

x = ¼, x = ½, and x = ¾.

Suppose we divide S into

four strips

S1, S2, S3, and S4 by

drawing the vertical lines

x = ¼, x = ½, and x = ¾.

20.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We can approximate

each strip by a rectangle

whose base is the same

as the strip and whose

height is the same as the

right edge

of the strip.

We can approximate

each strip by a rectangle

whose base is the same

as the strip and whose

height is the same as the

right edge

of the strip.

21.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

In other words, the

heights of these

rectangles are the values

of the function f(x) = x2

at the right endpoints of

the subintervals

[0, ¼],[¼, ½], [½, ¾],

and [¾, 1].

In other words, the

heights of these

rectangles are the values

of the function f(x) = x2

at the right endpoints of

the subintervals

[0, ¼],[¼, ½], [½, ¾],

and [¾, 1].

22.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

Each rectangle has

width ¼ and

the heights are (¼)2,

(½)2, (¾)2, and 12.

Each rectangle has

width ¼ and

the heights are (¼)2,

(½)2, (¾)2, and 12.

23.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

If we let R4 be the sum of the areas

of these approximating rectangles,

we get:

1 2 1 2 3 2 2

R4 1

4 4 1

4 2

1

4 4 1

1

4

15

32

0.46875

If we let R4 be the sum of the areas

of these approximating rectangles,

we get:

1 2 1 2 3 2 2

R4 1

4 4 1

4 2

1

4 4 1

1

4

15

32

0.46875

24.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We see the area A of

S is less than R4.

So, A < 0.46875

We see the area A of

S is less than R4.

So, A < 0.46875

25.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

Instead of using the

rectangles in this figure,

we could use the

smaller rectangles in

the next figure.

Instead of using the

rectangles in this figure,

we could use the

smaller rectangles in

the next figure.

26.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

Here, the heights are

the values of f at

the left endpoints of the

The leftmost rectangle

has collapsed because

its height is 0.

Here, the heights are

the values of f at

the left endpoints of the

The leftmost rectangle

has collapsed because

its height is 0.

27.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

The sum of the areas of these approximating

rectangles is:

2 1 2 1 2 3 2

L4 0

1

4

1

4 4 1

4 2 1

4 4

327

0.21875

The sum of the areas of these approximating

rectangles is:

2 1 2 1 2 3 2

L4 0

1

4

1

4 4 1

4 2 1

4 4

327

0.21875

28.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We see the area of S is

larger than L4.

So, we have lower and

upper estimates for A:

0.21875 < A < 0.46875

We see the area of S is

larger than L4.

So, we have lower and

upper estimates for A:

0.21875 < A < 0.46875

29.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We can repeat this

procedure with a larger

number of strips.

We can repeat this

procedure with a larger

number of strips.

30.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

The figure shows what

happens when

we divide the region S

into eight strips of equal

The figure shows what

happens when

we divide the region S

into eight strips of equal

31.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

By computing the sum of the areas of

the smaller rectangles (L8) and the sum of

the areas of the larger rectangles (R8),

we obtain better lower and upper estimates

for A:

0.2734375 < A < 0.3984375

By computing the sum of the areas of

the smaller rectangles (L8) and the sum of

the areas of the larger rectangles (R8),

we obtain better lower and upper estimates

for A:

0.2734375 < A < 0.3984375

32.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

So, one possible answer to the

question is to say that:

The true area of S lies somewhere

between 0.2734375 and 0.3984375

So, one possible answer to the

question is to say that:

The true area of S lies somewhere

between 0.2734375 and 0.3984375

33.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

We could obtain better

estimates by increasing

the number of strips.

We could obtain better

estimates by increasing

the number of strips.

34.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

The table shows the

results of similar

calculations (with a

computer) using n

rectangles, whose

heights are found with

left endpoints (Ln)

or right endpoints

The table shows the

results of similar

calculations (with a

computer) using n

rectangles, whose

heights are found with

left endpoints (Ln)

or right endpoints

35.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

In particular, we see

that by using:

50 strips, the area lies

between 0.3234 and 0.3434

1000 strips, we narrow it

down even more—A lies

between 0.3328335 and

0.3338335

In particular, we see

that by using:

50 strips, the area lies

between 0.3234 and 0.3434

1000 strips, we narrow it

down even more—A lies

between 0.3328335 and

0.3338335

36.
AREA PROBLEM Example 1

A good estimate is

obtained by averaging

these numbers:

A≈

A good estimate is

obtained by averaging

these numbers:

A≈

37.
AREA PROBLEM

From the values in the

table, it looks as if Rn

is approaching 1/3 as n

We confirm this in

the next example.

From the values in the

table, it looks as if Rn

is approaching 1/3 as n

We confirm this in

the next example.

38.
AREA PROBLEM Example 2

For the region S in Example 1, show that

the sum of the areas of the upper

approximating rectangles approaches 1/3,

that is,

lim Rn 13

n

For the region S in Example 1, show that

the sum of the areas of the upper

approximating rectangles approaches 1/3,

that is,

lim Rn 13

n

39.
AREA PROBLEM Example 2

Rn is the sum of the

areas of the n rectangles.

Each rectangle has width

1/n and the heights are

the values of the function

f(x) = x2 at the points

1/n, 2/n, 3/n, …, n/n.

That is, the heights are

(1/n)2, (2/n)2, (3/n)2, …,

(n/n)2.

Rn is the sum of the

areas of the n rectangles.

Each rectangle has width

1/n and the heights are

the values of the function

f(x) = x2 at the points

1/n, 2/n, 3/n, …, n/n.

That is, the heights are

(1/n)2, (2/n)2, (3/n)2, …,

(n/n)2.

40.
AREA PROBLEM Example 2

2 2 2 2

11 1 2 1 3 1 n

Rn ...

n n n n n n n n

1 1 2 2 2 2

2 (1 2 3 ... n )

n n

1 2 2 2 2

3 (1 2 3 ... n )

n

2 2 2 2

11 1 2 1 3 1 n

Rn ...

n n n n n n n n

1 1 2 2 2 2

2 (1 2 3 ... n )

n n

1 2 2 2 2

3 (1 2 3 ... n )

n

41.
AREA PROBLEM E. g. 2—Formula 1

Here, we need the formula for the sum of

the squares of the first n positive integers:

2 2 2 n(n 1)(2n 1)

2

1 2 3 ... n

6

Perhaps you have seen this formula before.

It is proved in Example 5 in Appendix E.

Here, we need the formula for the sum of

the squares of the first n positive integers:

2 2 2 n(n 1)(2n 1)

2

1 2 3 ... n

6

Perhaps you have seen this formula before.

It is proved in Example 5 in Appendix E.

42.
AREA PROBLEM Example 2

Putting Formula 1 into our expression

for Rn, we get:

1 n(n 1)(2n 1)

Rn 3

n 6

(n 1)(2n 1)

2

6n

Putting Formula 1 into our expression

for Rn, we get:

1 n(n 1)(2n 1)

Rn 3

n 6

(n 1)(2n 1)

2

6n

43.
AREA PROBLEM Example 2

(n 1)(2n 1)

So, we have: lim Rn lim

n n 6n 2

1 n 1 2n 1

lim

n 6

n n

1 1 1

lim 1 2

n 6

n n

1

12

6

1

3

(n 1)(2n 1)

So, we have: lim Rn lim

n n 6n 2

1 n 1 2n 1

lim

n 6

n n

1 1 1

lim 1 2

n 6

n n

1

12

6

1

3

44.
AREA PROBLEM

It can be shown that the lower

approximating sums also approach 1/3,

that is,

lim Ln 1

3

n

It can be shown that the lower

approximating sums also approach 1/3,

that is,

lim Ln 1

3

n

45.
AREA PROBLEM

From this figure, it

appears that, as n

increases, Rn becomes a

better and better

approximation to the

area of S.

From this figure, it

appears that, as n

increases, Rn becomes a

better and better

approximation to the

area of S.

46.
AREA PROBLEM

From this figure too, it

appears that, as n

increases, Ln becomes a

better and better

approximations to the

area of S.

From this figure too, it

appears that, as n

increases, Ln becomes a

better and better

approximations to the

area of S.

47.
AREA PROBLEM

Thus, we define the area A to be the limit of

the sums of the areas of the approximating

rectangles, that is,

A lim Rn lim Ln 13

n n

Thus, we define the area A to be the limit of

the sums of the areas of the approximating

rectangles, that is,

A lim Rn lim Ln 13

n n

48.
AREA PROBLEM

Let’s apply the idea of

Examples 1 and 2

to the more general

region S of the earlier

Let’s apply the idea of

Examples 1 and 2

to the more general

region S of the earlier

49.
AREA PROBLEM

We start by

subdividing S into n

S1, S2, …., Sn of equal

We start by

subdividing S into n

S1, S2, …., Sn of equal

50.
AREA PROBLEM

The width of the interval [a, b] is b – a.

So, the width of each of the n strips is:

b a

x

n

The width of the interval [a, b] is b – a.

So, the width of each of the n strips is:

b a

x

n

51.
AREA PROBLEM

These strips divide the interval [a, b] into n

[x0, x1], [x1, x2], [x2, x3], . . . , [xn-1, xn]

where x0 = a and xn = b.

These strips divide the interval [a, b] into n

[x0, x1], [x1, x2], [x2, x3], . . . , [xn-1, xn]

where x0 = a and xn = b.

52.
AREA PROBLEM

The right endpoints of the subintervals are:

x1 = a + ∆x,

x2 = a + 2 ∆x,

x3 = a + 3 ∆x,

.

.

.

The right endpoints of the subintervals are:

x1 = a + ∆x,

x2 = a + 2 ∆x,

x3 = a + 3 ∆x,

.

.

.

53.
AREA PROBLEM

Let’s approximate the i th

strip Si by

a rectangle with width ∆x

and height f(xi), which is

the value of f at the right

Then, the area of the i th

rectangle is f(xi)∆x.

Let’s approximate the i th

strip Si by

a rectangle with width ∆x

and height f(xi), which is

the value of f at the right

Then, the area of the i th

rectangle is f(xi)∆x.

54.
AREA PROBLEM

What we think of

intuitively as the area of

is approximated by the

sum of the areas of these

rectangles: Rn = f(x1) ∆x

+ f(x2) ∆x + … + f(xn) ∆x

What we think of

intuitively as the area of

is approximated by the

sum of the areas of these

rectangles: Rn = f(x1) ∆x

+ f(x2) ∆x + … + f(xn) ∆x

55.
AREA PROBLEM

Here, we show this

approximation for

n = 2, 4, 8, and 12.

Here, we show this

approximation for

n = 2, 4, 8, and 12.

56.
AREA PROBLEM

Notice that this

approximation appears to

become better and better

as the number of strips

that is, as n → ∞.

Notice that this

approximation appears to

become better and better

as the number of strips

that is, as n → ∞.

57.
AREA PROBLEM

Therefore, we define

the area A of the region S

as follows.

Therefore, we define

the area A of the region S

as follows.

58.
AREA PROBLEM Definition 2

The area A of the region S that lies

under the graph of the continuous function f

is the limit of the sum of the areas of

approximating rectangles:

A lim Rn

n

lim[ f ( x1 )x f ( x2 )x ... f ( xn )x]

n

The area A of the region S that lies

under the graph of the continuous function f

is the limit of the sum of the areas of

approximating rectangles:

A lim Rn

n

lim[ f ( x1 )x f ( x2 )x ... f ( xn )x]

n

59.
AREA PROBLEM

It can be proved that the limit in

Definition 2 always exists—since

we are assuming that f is continuous.

It can be proved that the limit in

Definition 2 always exists—since

we are assuming that f is continuous.

60.
AREA PROBLEM Equation 3

It can also be shown that we get the same

value if we use left endpoints:

A lim Ln

n

lim[ f ( x0 )x f ( x1 )x ... f ( xn 1 )x]

n

It can also be shown that we get the same

value if we use left endpoints:

A lim Ln

n

lim[ f ( x0 )x f ( x1 )x ... f ( xn 1 )x]

n

61.
SAMPLE POINTS

In fact, instead of using left endpoints or right

endpoints, we could take the height of the i th

rectangle to be the value of f at any number xi*

in the i th subinterval [xi - 1, xi].

We call the numbers xi*, x2*, . . ., xn*

the sample points.

In fact, instead of using left endpoints or right

endpoints, we could take the height of the i th

rectangle to be the value of f at any number xi*

in the i th subinterval [xi - 1, xi].

We call the numbers xi*, x2*, . . ., xn*

the sample points.

62.
AREA PROBLEM

The figure shows

approximating rectangles

when the sample points

are not chosen to be

The figure shows

approximating rectangles

when the sample points

are not chosen to be

63.
AREA PROBLEM Equation 4

Thus, a more general expression for

the area of S is:

A lim[ f ( x1*) x f ( x2 *)x ... f ( xn *) x]

n

Thus, a more general expression for

the area of S is:

A lim[ f ( x1*) x f ( x2 *)x ... f ( xn *) x]

n

64.
SIGMA NOTATION

We often use sigma notation to write sums

with many terms more compactly.

For instance,

n

f ( x )x f ( x )x f ( x )x ... f ( x )x

i 1

i 1 2 n

We often use sigma notation to write sums

with many terms more compactly.

For instance,

n

f ( x )x f ( x )x f ( x )x ... f ( x )x

i 1

i 1 2 n

65.
AREA PROBLEM

Hence, the expressions for area

in Equations 2, 3, and 4 can be written

as follows: n

A lim f ( xi )x

n

i 1

n

A lim f ( xi 1 )x

n

i 1

n

A lim f ( xi *) x

n

i 1

Hence, the expressions for area

in Equations 2, 3, and 4 can be written

as follows: n

A lim f ( xi )x

n

i 1

n

A lim f ( xi 1 )x

n

i 1

n

A lim f ( xi *) x

n

i 1

66.
AREA PROBLEM

We can also rewrite Formula 1 in

the following way:

n

2 n(n 1)(2n 1)

i

i 1 6

We can also rewrite Formula 1 in

the following way:

n

2 n(n 1)(2n 1)

i

i 1 6

67.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3

Let A be the area of the region that lies under

the graph of f(x) = e-x between x = 0 and x = 2.

a. Using right endpoints, find an expression for A

as a limit. Do not evaluate the limit.

b. Estimate the area by taking the sample points

to be midpoints and using four subintervals

and then ten subintervals.

Let A be the area of the region that lies under

the graph of f(x) = e-x between x = 0 and x = 2.

a. Using right endpoints, find an expression for A

as a limit. Do not evaluate the limit.

b. Estimate the area by taking the sample points

to be midpoints and using four subintervals

and then ten subintervals.

68.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 a

Since a = 0 and b = 2, the width of

a subinterval is:

2 0 2

x

n n

So, x1 = 2/n, x2 = 4/n, x3 = 6/n, xi = 2i/n,

xn = 2n/n.

Since a = 0 and b = 2, the width of

a subinterval is:

2 0 2

x

n n

So, x1 = 2/n, x2 = 4/n, x3 = 6/n, xi = 2i/n,

xn = 2n/n.

69.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 a

The sum of the areas of the approximating

rectangles is:

Rn f ( x1 )x f ( x2 )x ... f ( xn )x

x1 x2 xn

e x e x ... e x

2/ n 2 4/ n 2 2n / n 2

e e ... e

n n n

The sum of the areas of the approximating

rectangles is:

Rn f ( x1 )x f ( x2 )x ... f ( xn )x

x1 x2 xn

e x e x ... e x

2/ n 2 4/ n 2 2n / n 2

e e ... e

n n n

70.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 a

According to Definition 2, the area is:

A lim Rn

n

2 2/ n 4/ n 6/ n 2n / n

lim (e e e ... e )

n n

Using sigma notation, we could write:

2 n 2i / n

A lim e

n n

i 1

According to Definition 2, the area is:

A lim Rn

n

2 2/ n 4/ n 6/ n 2n / n

lim (e e e ... e )

n n

Using sigma notation, we could write:

2 n 2i / n

A lim e

n n

i 1

71.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 a

It is difficult to evaluate this limit directly

by hand.

However, with the aid of a computer algebra

system (CAS), it isn’t hard.

In Section 5.3, we will be able to find A

more easily using a different method.

It is difficult to evaluate this limit directly

by hand.

However, with the aid of a computer algebra

system (CAS), it isn’t hard.

In Section 5.3, we will be able to find A

more easily using a different method.

72.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 b

With n = 4, the subintervals of equal width

∆x = 0.5 are:

[0, 0.5], [0.5, 1], [1, 1.5], [1.5, 2]

The midpoints of these subintervals are:

x1* = 0.25, x2* = 0.75, x3* = 1.25, x4* = 1.75

With n = 4, the subintervals of equal width

∆x = 0.5 are:

[0, 0.5], [0.5, 1], [1, 1.5], [1.5, 2]

The midpoints of these subintervals are:

x1* = 0.25, x2* = 0.75, x3* = 1.25, x4* = 1.75

73.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 b

The sum of the areas

of the four rectangles

4

M 4 f ( xi *)x

i 1

f (0.25)x f (0.75)x f (1.25)x f (1.75)x

0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75

e (0.5) e (0.5) e (0.5) e (0.5)

0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75

(e

1

2 e e e ) 0.8557

The sum of the areas

of the four rectangles

4

M 4 f ( xi *)x

i 1

f (0.25)x f (0.75)x f (1.25)x f (1.75)x

0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75

e (0.5) e (0.5) e (0.5) e (0.5)

0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75

(e

1

2 e e e ) 0.8557

74.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 b

With n = 10, the subintervals are:

[0, 0.2], [0.2, 0.4], . . . , [1.8, 2]

The midpoints are:

x1* = 0.1, x2* = 0.3, x3* = 0.5, …, x10* = 1.9

With n = 10, the subintervals are:

[0, 0.2], [0.2, 0.4], . . . , [1.8, 2]

The midpoints are:

x1* = 0.1, x2* = 0.3, x3* = 0.5, …, x10* = 1.9

75.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 b

A M 10

f (0.1)x f (0.3)x f (0.5)x ... f (1.9) x

0.2(e 0.1 e 0.3 e 0.5 ... e 1.9 )

0.8632

A M 10

f (0.1)x f (0.3)x f (0.5)x ... f (1.9) x

0.2(e 0.1 e 0.3 e 0.5 ... e 1.9 )

0.8632

76.
AREA PROBLEM Example 3 b

From the figure, it

appears that

this estimate is better

than the estimate with n

= 4.

From the figure, it

appears that

this estimate is better

than the estimate with n

= 4.

77.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

Now, let’s consider the distance problem:

Find the distance traveled by an object during

a certain time period if the velocity of the

object is known at all times.

In a sense, this is the inverse problem of the velocity

problem that we discussed in Section 2.1

Now, let’s consider the distance problem:

Find the distance traveled by an object during

a certain time period if the velocity of the

object is known at all times.

In a sense, this is the inverse problem of the velocity

problem that we discussed in Section 2.1

78.
CONSTANT VELOCITY

If the velocity remains constant, then

the distance problem is easy to solve

by means of the formula

distance = velocity x time

If the velocity remains constant, then

the distance problem is easy to solve

by means of the formula

distance = velocity x time

79.
VARYING VELOCITY

However, if the velocity varies,

it’s not so easy to find the distance

We investigate the problem in the following

example.

However, if the velocity varies,

it’s not so easy to find the distance

We investigate the problem in the following

example.

80.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

Suppose the odometer on our car is

broken and we want to estimate the

distance driven over a 30-second time

Suppose the odometer on our car is

broken and we want to estimate the

distance driven over a 30-second time

81.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

We take speedometer

every five seconds

and record them

in this table.

We take speedometer

every five seconds

and record them

in this table.

82.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

In order to have the time and the velocity

in consistent units, let’s convert the velocity

readings to feet per second

(1 mi/h = 5280/3600 ft/s)

In order to have the time and the velocity

in consistent units, let’s convert the velocity

readings to feet per second

(1 mi/h = 5280/3600 ft/s)

83.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

During the first five seconds, the velocity

doesn’t change very much.

So, we can estimate the distance traveled during that

time by assuming that the velocity is constant.

During the first five seconds, the velocity

doesn’t change very much.

So, we can estimate the distance traveled during that

time by assuming that the velocity is constant.

84.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

If we take the velocity during that time interval

to be the initial velocity (25 ft/s), then we

obtain the approximate distance traveled

during the first five seconds:

25 ft/s x 5 s = 125 ft

If we take the velocity during that time interval

to be the initial velocity (25 ft/s), then we

obtain the approximate distance traveled

during the first five seconds:

25 ft/s x 5 s = 125 ft

85.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

Similarly, during the second time interval,

the velocity is approximately constant, and

we take it to be the velocity when t = 5 s.

So, our estimate for the distance traveled

from t = 5 s to t = 10 s is:

31 ft/s x 5 s = 155 ft

Similarly, during the second time interval,

the velocity is approximately constant, and

we take it to be the velocity when t = 5 s.

So, our estimate for the distance traveled

from t = 5 s to t = 10 s is:

31 ft/s x 5 s = 155 ft

86.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

If we add similar estimates for the other time

intervals, we obtain an estimate for the total

distance traveled:

(25 x 5) + (31 x 5) + (35 x 5)

+ (43 x 5) + (47 x 5) + (46 x 5)

= 1135 ft

If we add similar estimates for the other time

intervals, we obtain an estimate for the total

distance traveled:

(25 x 5) + (31 x 5) + (35 x 5)

+ (43 x 5) + (47 x 5) + (46 x 5)

= 1135 ft

87.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

We could just as well have used the velocity

at the end of each time period instead of

the velocity at the beginning as our assumed

constant velocity.

Then, our estimate becomes:

(31 x 5) + (35 x 5) + (43 x 5)

+ (47 x 5) + (46 x 5) + (41 x 5)

= 1215 ft

We could just as well have used the velocity

at the end of each time period instead of

the velocity at the beginning as our assumed

constant velocity.

Then, our estimate becomes:

(31 x 5) + (35 x 5) + (43 x 5)

+ (47 x 5) + (46 x 5) + (41 x 5)

= 1215 ft

88.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Example 4

If we had wanted a more accurate

estimate, we could have taken velocity

readings every two seconds, or even

every second.

If we had wanted a more accurate

estimate, we could have taken velocity

readings every two seconds, or even

every second.

89.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

Perhaps the calculations in Example 4

remind you of the sums we used earlier

to estimate areas.

Perhaps the calculations in Example 4

remind you of the sums we used earlier

to estimate areas.

90.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

The similarity is

explained when we

a graph of the velocity

function of the car

and draw rectangles

whose heights are

the initial velocities for

each time interval.

The similarity is

explained when we

a graph of the velocity

function of the car

and draw rectangles

whose heights are

the initial velocities for

each time interval.

91.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

The area of the first

rectangle is 25 x 5 = 125,

which is also our

estimate for the distance

traveled in the first five

In fact, the area of each

rectangle can be

interpreted as a distance,

because the height

represents velocity and

the width represents time.

The area of the first

rectangle is 25 x 5 = 125,

which is also our

estimate for the distance

traveled in the first five

In fact, the area of each

rectangle can be

interpreted as a distance,

because the height

represents velocity and

the width represents time.

92.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

The sum of the areas of

the rectangles is L6 =

1135, which is our initial

estimate for

the total distance

The sum of the areas of

the rectangles is L6 =

1135, which is our initial

estimate for

the total distance

93.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

In general, suppose an object moves

with velocity

v = f(t)

where a ≤ t ≤ b and f(t) ≥ 0.

So, the object always moves in the positive

direction.

In general, suppose an object moves

with velocity

v = f(t)

where a ≤ t ≤ b and f(t) ≥ 0.

So, the object always moves in the positive

direction.

94.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

We take velocity readings at times

t0(= a), t1, t2, …., tn(= b)

so that the velocity is approximately constant

on each subinterval.

If these times are equally spaced, then

the time between consecutive readings is:

∆t = (b – a)/n

We take velocity readings at times

t0(= a), t1, t2, …., tn(= b)

so that the velocity is approximately constant

on each subinterval.

If these times are equally spaced, then

the time between consecutive readings is:

∆t = (b – a)/n

95.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

During the first time interval, the velocity

is approximately f(t0).

Hence, the distance traveled is

approximately f(t0)∆t.

During the first time interval, the velocity

is approximately f(t0).

Hence, the distance traveled is

approximately f(t0)∆t.

96.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

Similarly, the distance traveled during

the second time interval is about f(t1)∆t

and the total distance traveled during

the time interval [a, b] is approximately

f (t0 )t f (t1 )t ... f (tn 1 ) t

n

f (ti 1 )t

i 1

Similarly, the distance traveled during

the second time interval is about f(t1)∆t

and the total distance traveled during

the time interval [a, b] is approximately

f (t0 )t f (t1 )t ... f (tn 1 ) t

n

f (ti 1 )t

i 1

97.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

If we use the velocity at right endpoints

instead of left endpoints, our estimate for

the total distance becomes:

f (t1 ) t f (t2 )t ... f (tn )t

n

f (ti )t

i 1

If we use the velocity at right endpoints

instead of left endpoints, our estimate for

the total distance becomes:

f (t1 ) t f (t2 )t ... f (tn )t

n

f (ti )t

i 1

98.
DISTANCE PROBLEM

The more frequently we measure

the velocity, the more accurate our

estimates become.

The more frequently we measure

the velocity, the more accurate our

estimates become.

99.
DISTANCE PROBLEM Equation 5

So, it seems plausible that the exact distance

d traveled is the limit of such expressions:

n n

d lim f (ti 1 )t lim f (ti ) t

n n

i 1 i 1

We will see in Section 5.4 that this is indeed true.

So, it seems plausible that the exact distance

d traveled is the limit of such expressions:

n n

d lim f (ti 1 )t lim f (ti ) t

n n

i 1 i 1

We will see in Section 5.4 that this is indeed true.

100.
Equation 5 has the same form as our

expressions for area in Equations 2 and 3.

So, it follows that the distance traveled

is equal to the area under the graph of

the velocity function.

expressions for area in Equations 2 and 3.

So, it follows that the distance traveled

is equal to the area under the graph of

the velocity function.

101.
In Chapters 6 and 8, we will see that other

quantities of interest in the natural and social

sciences can also be interpreted as the area

under a curve.

Examples include:

Work done by a variable force

Cardiac output of the heart

quantities of interest in the natural and social

sciences can also be interpreted as the area

under a curve.

Examples include:

Work done by a variable force

Cardiac output of the heart

102.
So, when we compute areas in this

chapter, bear in mind that they can

be interpreted in a variety of practical

chapter, bear in mind that they can

be interpreted in a variety of practical