Ancient Rome and its History, Expansion and the End

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This booklet helps students to learn about the history of Ancient Rome, describes fun facts about Rome, its kingdoms and empires, the Augustan Age, the rise of Christianity.
1. Ancient Rome
2. In the Beginning…
 Ancient Rome
begin as a group of
villages along the
Tiber River in what
is now Italy.
 Around 750 B.C.
these villages
united to form the
city of Rome.
3. Formation of Roman Republic
 For more than 200 years, kings ruled
 In 509 B.C. Rome became a
 The Roman Senate was an assembly
of elected representatives. It was the
single most powerful ruling body of
the Roman Republic.
4. Patricians & Plebeians
 In the beginning most  Plebeians had the
of the people elected right to vote, but
to the Senate were could not hold public
patricians. office until 287 B.C,
 Patricians controlled when they gained
the law since they equality with
were the only citizens patricians.
allowed to be judges.
5. Roman Expansion
 Under the leadership of ambitious
generals, Rome’s highly trained
soldiers took over most of the land
surrounding the Mediterranean.
 The ancient Romans called the
Mediterranean mare nostrum,
meaning “our sea”.
6. Rome 117 A.D.
7. The End of the Roman Republic
 A successful Roman general and famous
speaker, Julius Caesar, was a governor of
the territory of Gaul and managed to take
control of many nearby territories.
 Fearing him the Roman Senate ordered
him to resign…but he had other ideas.
 Caesar fought for control and won,
becoming the dictator of the Roman world,
ending the Roman Republic.
8. The Roman Empire
 Less than a year after gaining power
a group of angered Senators stabbed
Caesar to death on the floor of the
Roman Senate. (March 15, 44 B.C.)
 This caused a civil war that lasted
several years.
 In 27 B.C., Caesar’s adopted son,
Octavian was named the first
emperor of Rome.
9. The Roman Empire
 An empire is a nation or group
of territories ruled by a single
powerful leader, or emperor.
 As emperor Octavian took the name
 Augustus ruled the Roman Empire
for more than 40 years, known as
the Augustan Age.
10. The Augustan Age
 During the rule of Augustus the
Roman empire continued to expand.
 Augustus kept soldiers along all the
borders to keep peace in the Roman
 During this time architects and
engineers built many new public
11. The Augustan Age
 During this time trade increased with
olive oil, wine, pottery, marble, and
grain being shipped all across the
 Lighthouses were constructed to
guide ships into port.
 This was also a time of great Roman
12. The Rise of Christianity
 After the death of Augustus in 14
A.D. a new religion begin to spread:
 At first it took hold in the eastern
half of the Roman Empire.
 By 200 A.D. this religion had spread
throughout the empire.
13. The Rise of Christianity
 Christians were viewed with
suspicion and suffered persecution
and many were punished or killed for
their beliefs.
 Things changed when Constantine
became emperor of Rome in 306
A.D. During his reign Christianity
became the official religion of the
Roman Empire.
14. The Fall of the Roman Empire
 Rome had quite a
run…First a monarchy,
then a republic, then
an empire – all roads
led to Rome for over
1200 years.
 In the Mediterranean,
Rome was in charge.
 Rome had some
wonderful emperors.
Rome also suffered
from a series of bad,
corrupt and just plain
crazy emperors.
15. The Fall of the Roman Empire
 The empire was too large to  The rich became lazy and
govern effectively. showed little interest in trying
 The army was not what it to solve Rome problems.
used to be. There was  The poor were overtaxed and
corruption in the military - overworked. They were very
dishonest generals and unhappy.
non-Roman soldiers.  Prices increased, trade
 Civil wars broke out decreased.
between different political  The population was shrinking
groups. due to starvation and disease.
 Emperors were often That made it difficult to
selected by violence, or by manage farms and
birth, so the head of government effectively.
government was not always  The Empire starting shrinking.
a capable leader. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks,
 The increased use of slaves Vandals, Saxons and other
put many Romans out of barbarian tribes overran the
work empire.
16. The Fall of the Roman Empire
 The ancient Romans tried to solve some of their problems
by splitting the Roman Empire in half, hoping that would
make the empire easier to manage.
 Each side had an emperor, but the emperor in charge was
the emperor of the western half, the half that included the
city of Rome.
 The Western Roman Empire did not do well. Instead of
getting stronger, they became weaker. By 400 AD, it was
pretty much over. The Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons,
Visigoths – any of these barbarian tribes might have been
the group that finally brought Rome down.
 They were all attacking various pieces of the Western
Roman Empire. In 476 AD, the Visigoths sacked Rome.
Europe entered the Dark Ages. The eastern half of the
Roman Empire received a new name – the Byzantine
Empire. The Byzantine Empire did fine. It lasted for another
1000 years!
17. Fun Facts About Rome
 One of the things the
Romans are most famous
for is their architecture.
 The Romans brought a
lot of new ideas to
architecture, of which the
three most important are
the arch, the baked
brick, and the use of
cement and concrete.
 Roman architecture
inspired the design of
the U.S. Capitol
18. Fun Facts About Rome
 The Romans built thousands of miles of
road to connect the entire empire.
 These roads were used up until about 100
years ago when technology advanced!
19. Fun Facts About Rome
 The Romans were the
first to build
 The running water,
indoor plumbing and
sewer system carrying
away disease from the
population within the
Empire wasn't
surpassed in capability
until very modern
20. Fun Facts About Rome
 In the times of Ancient  Bath houses were huge
Rome very few people had and housed much more
baths in their homes. than pools.
Adults enjoyed going to  Exercise grounds,
the public bathhouse. gymnastic apparatus,
Children were not allowed courts for games, libraries,
in. The bathhouse cost rooms for reading and
very little to get in, so conversation--all these
people used them often. things could be found in
The men and the women the Roman bath house.
both used the bathhouse,  The people made a point of
but at different times going to the bath to meet
during the day. Each group their friends and
had a scheduled time, associates.
although the women's
scheduled time was
21. Fun Facts About Rome
 The Romans didn't use soap. They cleaned
themselves by covering their bodies with oil. Then
they scraped the oil off with a special scraper
called a strigil. Strigils were make from bone or
metal. Next the Romans enjoyed several pools.
Each of these pools had water heated to different
temperatures. Bathers went from one bath to
 Caldarium, tepidarium, frigidarium
 Ancient Rome had as many as 900 public baths.
Small baths held about 300 people. The largest
bath held 1500 people. Bathhouses were built all
over the Roman Empire. The most impressive ones
were found in the city of Rome. They were
decorated with marble and statues.
22. Fun Facts About Rome