What is mendelian principle of heredity?

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Units of inheritance usually occur at specific locations, or loci, on a chromosome. Physically, a gene is a sequence of DNA bases that specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
1. Mendelian
principles of
Dr. Pratibha Bisen
Dept. Plant Breeding & Genetics
College of Agriculture, Balaghat
JNKVV Jabalpur (M.P.)
2. Father of Genetics
Gregor Johann Mendel
 Austrian monk
 Born in 1822 near Brunn in Austria, in
a poor family.
 Studied the inheritance of traits in the
garden pea
 Published his theory in 1866
“Experiments on Plant Hybrids”
 In 1900, the work of Mendel was
independently rediscovered by
Hugo de Vries (Holland)
Carl Correns (Germeny)
Erich Tschermak (Austria).
3. White flower Purple flower
Purple flower
4. The friar who grew peas
Pea are easy to
They reproduce
pea? Emasculation and
pollination quite easy
They are capable of self
5. Statistical
Testing by Mathematical
experiment Experimental Probability
7. Mendel's 1. Law of dominance
2. Law of segregation
Laws of
3.Law of independent
Inheritance assortment
8. Important Term
 Gene: Units of inheritance usually occurring at specific locations, or loci, on
a chromosome. Physically, a gene is a sequence of DNA bases that specify the
order of amino acids in an protein. Genes are responsible for the hereditary traits
in plants and animals.
 Allele: An alternative form of a gene that occurs at the same locus on
homologous chromosomes
9.  Dominant allele: An allele that masks the presence of a recessive allele in
the phenotype. Dominant alleles for a trait are usually expressed if an individual
is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
Recessive alleles: An allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence
of a dominant allele. Recessive alleles are expressed in the phenotype when
the genotype is homozygous recessive
The uppercase letters are used to denote dominant alleles, whereas the
lowercase letters are used to denote recessive alleles.
10.  Homozygous: Having the same allele at the same locus on pair
of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous also refers to a genotype consisting
of two identical alleles of a gene for a particular trait. Individuals who are
homozygous for a trait are referred to as homozygotes.
11.  Heterozygous : A genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a
particular trait (Bb). Individuals who are heterozygous for a trait are referred to
as heterozygotes.
12. Genotype refers to an individual's the "genetic potential": what kind of genes
s/he carries.
Phenotype (from the Greek "pheno" meaning "to show") refers to the traits an
individual actually shows.
13. Hybrid offspring that are the result of mating between two genetically
different kinds of parents
 F1 generation the first offspring (or filial) generation. The next and
subsequent generations are referred to as F2, F3 etc.
Monohybrid cross is a cross between parents differing in only one trait or in
which only one trait is being considered.
Dihybrid cross is a cross between parents in which two pairs of contrasting
characters are studied simultaneously for the inheritance pattern.
14. Law of Dominance
In a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of
the trait will appear in the next generation. All offspring will be hybrid for a trait
and will have only the dominant trait express the phenotype. The phenotype trait
that is NOT expressed in the hybrid is called recessive.
15. Law of Dominance
Genotypic ratio 1:2:1
Phynotypic ratio 3:1
16. The Law of Segregation
 Mendel's law of segregation states that the two alleles of a gene that are
found on a chromosome pair separate, with the offspring receiving one from the
mother and one from the father. According to Mendel's law, the two alleles act in
a segregated fashion and do not mix or change each other.
 Mendel's second law, the law of segregation, states that these two alleles will
be separated from each other during meiosis. Specifically, in the second of the
two cell divisions of meiosis the two copies of each chromosome will be
separated from each other, causing the two distinct alleles located on those
chromosomes to segregate from one another.
 This law is also referred to as law of purity of gametes.
17. The Law of Segregation
18. The Law of Independent Assortment
 It states that inheritance of one character is always independent of the
inheritance of other characters within the same individual.
Law of independent assortment is based on dihybrid cross.
The alleles of two more genes get sorted into gametes independent of each
other. The allele received for one gene does not influence the allele received
for another gene.
Genes linked on a chromosome can rearrange themselves through the
process of crossing-over. Therefore, each gene is inherited independently.
19. The Law of Independent Assortment
20. Thank You