# What are the properties of electromagnetic waves?

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electromagnetic waves consist of two waves oscillating perpendicular to each other. One is the oscillating electric field and the other one is an oscillating magnetic field. They are transverse waves and do not require a material medium for propagation.
1. Chp. 12 Section 1
What are electromagnetic
2. Electromagnetic Waves
 Section 1 slides 3- 31
 What are electromagnetic waves?
 Section 2 slides 32-59
 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Section 3 slides 60-69
3. What are electromagnetic waves?
 How electromagnetic waves are formed
 How electric charges produce
electromagnetic waves
 Properties of electromagnetic waves
4. Electromagnetic Waves…
 Do not need matter to transfer energy.
5. Electromagnetic Waves…
 Do not need matter to transfer energy.
 Are made by vibrating electric charges and
can travel through space by transferring
energy between vibrating electric and
magnetic fields.
6. How do moving charges create
magnetic fields?
 Any moving electric charge is surrounded by an
electric field and a magnetic field.
7. What happens when electric and
magnetic fields change?
 A changing magnetic field creates a
changing electric field.
8. What happens when electric and
magnetic fields change?
 A changing magnetic field creates a
changing electric field.
 One example of this is a transformer which
transfers electric energy from one circuit to
another circuit.
9. What happens when electric and
magnetic fields change?
 A changing magnetic field creates a changing
electric field.
 One example of this is a transformer which
transfers electric energy from one circuit to
another circuit.
 Inthe main coil changing electric current produces a
changing magnetic field
 Which then creates a changing electric field in
another coil producing an electric current
 The reverse is also true.
10. This page was copied from Nick Strobel's Astronomy Notes. Go to
his site at www.astronomynotes.com for the updated and corrected
11. Making Electromagnetic Waves
 When an electric charge vibrates, the electric
field around it changes creating a changing
magnetic field.
12. Making Electromagnetic Waves
 The magnetic and electric fields create each
other again and again.
13. Making Electromagnetic Waves
 An EM wave travels in all directions. The figure
only shows a wave traveling in one direction.
14. Making Electromagnetic Waves
 The electric and magnetic fields vibrate at right
angles to the direction the wave travels so it is a
transverse wave.
15. Properties of EM Waves
 All matter contains charged particles that
are always moving; therefore, all objects
emit EM waves.
16. Properties of EM Waves
 All matter contains charged particles that
are always moving; therefore, all objects
emit EM waves.
 The wavelengths become shorter as the
temperature of the material increases.
17. Properties of EM Waves
 All matter contains charged particles that
are always moving; therefore, all objects
emit EM waves.
 The wavelengths become shorter as the
temperature of the material increases.
 EM waves carry radiant energy.
18. What is the speed of EM waves?
 All EM waves travel
300,000 km/sec in
space. (speed of light-
nature’s limit!)
19. What is the speed of EM waves?
 All EM waves travel Material Speed
300,000 km/sec in (km/s)
space. (speed of light- Vacuum 300,000
nature’s limit!)
Air <300,000
 EM waves usually
travel slowest in Water 226,000
solids and fastest in
Glass 200,000
gases.
Diamond 124,000
20. What is the wavelength &
frequency of an EM wave?
 Wavelength= distance from crest to crest.
21. What is the wavelength &
frequency of an EM wave?
 Wavelength= distance from crest to crest.
 Frequency= number of wavelengths that
pass a given point in 1 s.
22. What is the wavelength &
frequency of an EM wave?
 Wavelength= distance from crest to crest.
 Frequency= number of wavelengths that
pass a given point in 1 s.
 As frequency increases, wavelength
becomes….
23. What is the wavelength &
frequency of an EM wave?
 Wavelength= distance from crest to crest.
 Frequency= number of wavelengths that
pass a given point in 1 s.
 As frequency increases, wavelength
becomes smaller.
24. Can a wave be a particle?
 In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered that
shining light on a metal caused electrons
to be ejected.
25. Can a wave be a particle?
 In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered that
shining light on a metal caused electrons
to be ejected.
 Whether or not electrons were ejected
depended upon frequency not the
amplitude of the light! Remember energy
depends on amplitude.
26. Can a wave be a particle?
 Years later, Albert Einstein explained
Hertz’s discovery: EM waves can behave
as a particle called a photon whose
energy depends on the frequency of the
waves.
27. Can a particle be a wave?
 Electrons fired at two
slits actually form an
interference pattern
similar to patterns
28. Can a particle be a wave?
 Electrons fired at two
slits actually form an
interference pattern
similar to patterns
29. What did Young’s experiment
30. Electromagnetic Waves
How they are formed Kind of wave Sometimes behave as
31. Electromagnetic Waves
How they are formed Kind of wave Sometimes behave as
Waves made by Transverse with Waves or as
vibrating electric alternating electric
Particles (photons)
charges that can and magnetic fields
travel through space
where there is no
32. Section 2 The
Electromagnetic Spectrum
33. The whole range of EM wave…
 Frequencies is called the
electromagnetic spectrum.
34. The whole range of EM wave…
 Frequencies is called the
electromagnetic spectrum.
 Different parts interact with matter in
different ways.
35. The whole range of EM wave…
 Frequencies is called the
electromagnetic spectrum.
 Different parts interact with matter in
different ways.
 The ones humans can see are called
visible light, a small part of the whole
spectrum.
36. As wavelength decreases,
frequency increases…
37. Devices detect other frequencies:
38. Devices detect other frequencies:
 Radio waves are low frequency EM
waves with wavelengths longer than 1mm.
39. Devices detect other frequencies:
 Radio waves are low frequency EM
waves with wavelengths longer than 1mm.
 These waves must be turned into sound
waves by a radio before you can hear
them.
40. What are microwaves?
 Microwaves are radio waves with
wavelengths less than 30 cm and higher
frequency & shorter wavelength.
41. What are microwaves?
 Microwaves are radio waves with
wavelengths less than 30 cm and higher
frequency & shorter wavelength.
 Cell phones and satellites use microwaves
between 1 cm & 20 cm for communication.
42. What are microwaves?
 Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths
less than 30 cm and higher frequency & shorter
wavelength.
 Cell phones and satellites use microwaves
between 1 cm & 20 cm for communication.
 In microwave ovens, a vibrating electric field
causes water molecules to rotate billions of
times per second causing friction, creating TE
which heats the food.
used to find position and speed of objects
by bouncing radio waves off the object.
44. What is magnetic resonance
 MRI was developed in the 1980s to use
radio waves to diagnose illnesses with a
strong magnet and a radio wave emitter
and a receiver. Protons in H atoms of the
body act like magnets lining up with the
field. This releases energy which the
receiver detects and creates a map of the
body’s tissues.
45. Infrared Waves
 EM with wavelengths between 1mm & 750
billionths of a meter.
 Used daily in remote controls, to read CD-
ROMs
 Every objects gives off infrared waves;
hotter objects give off more than cooler
ones. Satellites can ID types of plants
growing in a region with infrared detectors
46. Visible Light
 Range of EM humans can see from 750
billionths to 00 billionths of a meter.
 You see different wavelengths as colors.
 Blue has shortest
 Red is the longest
 Light looks white if all colors are present
47. A range of frequencies
In order of increasing frequency and
decreasing wavelength, the EM
spectrum consists of: very long
communication with submarines;
long, medium and short wave
recorded in the Earth photographs
taken by survey satellites; visible
light; ultraviolet light, which, while
invisible, stimulates fluorescence
in some materials; x rays &
gamma rays used in medicine and
48. Ultraviolet Waves
 EM waves with wavelengths from about
400 billionths to 10 billionths of a meter.
 Have enough energy to enter skin cells
 Longer wavelengths – UVA
 Shorter wavelengths – UVB rays
 Both can cause skin cancer
49. Can UV radiation be useful?
 Helps body make vitamin D for healthy
bones and teeth
 Used to sterilize medical supplies & equip
 Detectives use fluorescent powder
(absorbs UV & glows) to find fingerprints
50.
51. What is the ozone layer?
 20-50 km above earth
 Molecule of 3 O atoms
 Absorbs Sun’s harmful
UV rays
 Ozone layer
decreasing due to
CFCs in AC,
refrigerators, &
cleaning fluids
52. What could happen to humans…
 And other life on Earth if the ozone layer is
destroyed?
53. X Rays and Gamma Rays
 EM waves with
shortest wavelength &
highest frequency
 High Energy- go
through skin & muscle
 High level exposure
causes cancer
54. X Rays and Gamma Rays
 EM with wavelengths  The composite image
shorter than 10 shows the all sky
trillionths of a meter. gamma ray
 Highest energy, can background.
travel through several
 Both can be used in
kill diseased cells.
55. Identify which statement is not true:
 A. Gamma rays are low frequency waves.
 B. X rays are high-energy waves.
 C. Gamma rays are used to treat
diseases.
56. Why do you think MRIs cause ...
 Less harm than X rays?
57. Fill in the
boxes with the
waves of the
EM spectrum.
58.
59.
60. Chp. 12 Section 3 Radio
change sound to EM
waves & then your
changes the EM
waves back to sound
waves again.
 Each station broadcasts at a certain
frequency which you tune in by choosing
their frequency.
 Carrier wave- the frequency of the EM
wave that a station uses
 Microphones convert sound waves to a
changing electric current or electronic
signal containing the words & music.
 Microphones convert sound waves to a
changing electric current or electronic
signal containing the words & music.
 The modified carrier wave vibrates
electrons in the station’s antennae
creating a radio wave that travels out in all
directions at the speed of light to your
 The modified carrier wave vibrates electrons in
the station’s antennae creating a radio wave that
travels out in all directions at the speed of light to
 The vibrating electrons produce a changing
carrier wave from the signal to make the
speakers vibrate creating sound waves….
In AM amplitude changes but frequency does
not. AM frequencies range from 540,000 Hz
to 1,6000,000 Hz usually listed in kHz.
changing the frequency of the carrier wave. The strength
of FM waves is always the same and is in megahertz.
Mega=million
67.  Uses radio waves to send electronic
signals in a carrier wave.
 Sound is sent by FM; color and brightness
is sent at the same time by AM signals.
68. What is a cathode-ray tube?
 Many TVs and computer monitors display
images on a CRT, a sealed vacuum tube
in which beams of electrons are produced.
 Color TV produces 3 electron beams
inside the CRT which strike the inside of
the screen that is covered with more than
100,000 rectangular spots.
69. What is a cathode-ray tube?
 There are 3 types of spots, red, green and
blue. The electron beams move back and
forth across the screen.
 The signal from the TV station controls
how bright each spot is. Three spots
together can form any color.
 You see a full color image on the TV.
70. Telephones
 Sound waves microphone electric signal
radio waves transmitted to and from
microwave tower  receiver electric signal 
speaker sound wave
Mobile Phone BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station
Controller MSC Mobile services Switching Centre VLR Visitor Location
Register HLR Home Location Register
71. How do cordless phones work?
 Cell phones and cordless telephones are
transceivers, device that transmits one
a base unit.
 You can talk and listen at the same time
because the two signals are at different
frequencies.
72. How do pagers work?
phone number. A caller leaves a message
at a terminal with a call-back number.
 At the terminal, the message is turned into
an electronic signal transmitted by radio
waves.
messages.
73. Communications Satellites
 Thousands of satellites
TV station sends
microwave signals to
the satellite which
amplifies the signal and
sends it back to a
different place on
Earth. Satellite uses dif