Teaching method of English

Contributed by:
The book under reference is one of the seventeen books which have been prepared and being published at a time for the students of B.Ed. first year. These books are basically for the students of distance mode of Education. However, the students of on-campus mode might also consult these books. Moreover, these books are available for general students, teachers, and readers.
Pedagogy of English - 1
Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.)
First Year
Directorate of Translation & Publications
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
2. © Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad
Publication No. 17
ISBN: 978-93-80322-23-0
Edition: June-2018
Publisher : Registrar, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad
Publication : July-2018
Copies : 1800
Price : Rs. 165/-
(For the students of Distance Mode, the price of the book is included in the fee)
Printer : M/s. Print Time and Business Enterprises, Hyderabad
Pedagogy of English
Edited by:
Dr. D. Vishwa Prasad
Assistant Professor, CTE Bidar,
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
On behalf of the Registrar, Published by:
Directorate of Distance Education
In collaboration with
Directorate of Translation and Publications
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500032 (TS)
E-mail: [email protected]
3. The students of distance learning can get more information from the following address:
Directorate of Distance Education
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500032
Phone No.: 1800-425-2958, website: www.manuu.ac.in
Message Vice Chancellor 5
Foreword Director, DTP 6
Introduction of the Course Editor 7
Unit Writer
1. Introduction to ELT Mr. Sayyad Aman Ubed 9
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Edu & Training
MANUU, Hyderabad
2. Different Approaches / Dr. D. Vishwa Prasad 37
Theories to Language Assistant Professor CTE MANUU, Bidar
Learning and Teaching
3. Acquisition of Mr. Bhanu Pratap Pritam 73
Language Skills Assistant Professor, Dept. of Edu & Training
MANUU, Hyderabad
4. Developing Integrated Skills Dr. Akhtar Parveen 102
and Use of ICT in ELT Assistant Professor, Dept. of Edu & Training
MANUU, Hyderabad
5. Planning for Dr. Akhtar Parveen 137
Teaching English Assistant Professor, Dept. of Edu & Training
MANUU, Hyderabad
Editor: Language Editor:
Dr. D. Vishwa Prasad Prof. Gulfishaan Habeeb
Assistant Professor, CTE Bidar Professor, DDE
Maulana Azad National Urdu University Maulana Azad National Urdu University
5. M e s s a g e:
The Vice Chancellor
The basic mandate of the Act whereby Maulana Azad National Urdu University
(MANUU) was established by the Parliament of our beloved country is the promotion of higher
education through Urdu language. This is the point that distinguishes MANUU from all other
central universities and gives it a unique feature, an honour which is not granted to any other
institutions of higher learning. The very objective of promotion of knowledge through Urdu is
meant to facilitate the accessibility of contemporary knowledge and disciplines to Urdu knowing
community. For a long time, Urdu has remained devoid of scientific and scholarly materials. A
cursory glance over a library or shelves of a book seller substantiates the fact that Urdu language
is diminished to only a few “literary” genres. The same is true vis-à-vis most of the Urdu papers
and magazines. It is a reality that our writings sometimes make us to cruise through the sinuous
ways of love and passion and sometimes involve us in the political issues imbued with
emotionalism. Sometimes they interpret the religions in the backdrops of different schools of
thoughts and sometimes make the mind burdened and tensed with complaints and grievances.
However, the Urdu reader/ community is unaware of the today’s most important areas of
knowledge whether it is related to his own health and life or related to the financial and
commercial systems, whether it is related to machines and gadgets around him or the issues
related to his environment or vicinity. The unavailability of these genres to general public has
created an atmosphere of apathy towards attaining knowledge that exhibits the lack of
intellectual abilities in Urdu community. These are the challenges that Urdu University is
confronted with. The scenario of course material is also not very different. The unavailability of
Urdu course books at school level comes under discussion at the commencement of every
academic year. Since the medium of instruction of Urdu University is only Urdu and it offers
almost all the courses of important discipline, the preparation of books of all these subjects in
Urdu is the most important responsibility of the University. This very objective has led to the
establishment of Directorate of Translation and Publications. My humble self feels very happy
that it bore fruits only in a short span of a year. As a result of the hard work of the concerned
officials and full cooperation of the writers, the process of publications of books has begun well.
I believe that after completing the job of publishing course books and co-curricular books in a
minimum possible time, the officials will initiate publishing knowledge enhancing materials in
easy to understand language in the form of books and magazines so that we may justify the
existence of this University and our presence herein.
Dr. Mohammad Aslam Parvaiz
First Servant,
MANUU, Hyderabad.
6. Foreword
One of the important reasons that hampered the desirable progress of Urdu medium of
instruction in India is the scarcity of text books in Urdu. Although there may be various factors
responsible for this yet it is a reality that the issue could never be addressed in proper manner and
the complaints regarding unavailability of text books and co-curricular books continued
unabated. In 1998, when Maulana Azad National Urdu University was established by the Central
Government, it intensified the feeling of insufficiency of text and reference books in Urdu at
higher levels.
When the present Vice Chancellor, Dr. Mohd. Aslam Parvaiz, assumed office, while
keeping in view the necessities of books for different disciplines in Urdu, established the
Directorate of Translation and Publications. Now, the Directorate has already started the
preparation of text books/ materials and a range of other books related to different streams.
Efforts are being made to get all the course books written directly by the experts of the
concerned subjects. Directorate is also endeavoring to get the important and famous books of
other languages translated into Urdu. Hope that the said Directorate will prove to be a significant
hub in the area of publishing at national level given its plans to publish a large number of books.
The Directorate has already started its activities with the publication of its first book “The
Glossary of Zoology and Entomology” in February 2018.
The book under reference is one of the seventeen books which have been prepared and
being published at a time for the students of B.Ed. first year. These books are basically for the
students of distance mode of Education. However, the students of on-campus mode might also
consult these books. Moreover, these books are available for general students, teachers and
It is also reasonable to acknowledge that we have received direct guidance and
supervision of the Hon’ble Vice Chancellor in preparation of these books. Without his special
attention, the publication of the said books couldn’t have been made possible. In this regard,
teachers and officials of DDE and SE&T also extended their cooperation for which they are too
entitled for thanks.
Constructive comments and suggestions of the experts and readers in relation to the book
shall be highly appreciated.
Prof. Mohd. Zafaruddin
Directorate of Translation and Publications
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
The course "Pedagogy of English "is an endeavor to develop an understanding of the
nature of English language and the importance of teaching of English. The course will enable
the teachers to comprehend the theory & practices of teaching of English and critically reflect on
their practices in order to make teaching more effective and innovative.
The course comprises of five units.
Unit 1 discusses the characteristics and functions of language. It gives an insight into the aims
and objectives of teaching English. This unit also touches upon the status and scope of English in
the global and Indian context.
Unit 2 deals with the historical background of language teaching. Different approaches, methods
and techniques used in language teaching are also discussed in this unit.
Unit 3 focuses on the development of linguistic skills used for communication, such as listening,
speaking, reading and writing.
Unit 4 describes the objectives and methods of teaching prose and poetry. This unit also sheds
light on the use of multimedia, online resources and social networking sites in teaching of
English language.
The last unit discusses the importance of planning in teaching English. The unit focuses on the
preparation of year plan, unit plan and lesson plan. The unit also deals with the concept and
important core skills of microteaching.
8. Pedagogy of English
9. Unit 1 Introduction to ELT
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Meaning, Characteristics, Functions of Language
1.3.1 Meaning of Language
1.3.2 Characteristics of Language
1.3.3 Functions of Language
1.4 Principles of Language Teaching
1.5 Nature of English Language
1.6 Aims and Objectives of Teaching English in India
1.6.1 Aims of Teaching English
1.6.2 General Objectives of Teaching English
1.6.3 Objectives of Teaching English at Different Levels of Education
1.6.4 Objectives of Teaching English Related to Language Forms
1.7 Status of English Language in the global and Indian context – Scope of English
1.8 Teaching English in Bilingual/Multilingual Contexts - Teaching English as a Second
1.9 Language and Educational Policy in India; Constitutional Provisions and Policies of
Language Education
1.10 Points to remember
1.11 Glossary
1.12 Unit End Exercise
1.13 Suggested Reading
10. 1.1 Introduction
Mankind in the early ages observed other living creatures making noises to communicate their
feelings. Gradually, human beings also acquired the skill of communicating a large number of
things through what we now call language. Human beings alone have the complex skill of using
language through speech and writing. We use our vocal organs to make different sounds, sound
clusters, words, phrases and sentences.
Language is the result of evolution and convention. No language was created in a day or by a
single person. It is mutually created by a group of humans to communicate. Languages also
change and die, grow and expand, unlike human institutions. Every language is a convention of a
community that passes down from generation to generation.
Language plays an important role in human life. We try learning and using language as a mean
of communication as well as a social symbol of humanity. By using the language, one can make
statements, convey facts or information, explain or report something and maintain social
English is considered to be an international link language. It is very popular and is widely used
by most people in the world. English is available to us as a historical heritage of British Empire
in addition to our own languages. We should make the best use of English to develop ourselves
culturally, scientifically, technologically and materially so that we can compete with the rest of
the world (Kumari, 2014).
1.2 Objectives
This unit will enable you to:
a. understand meaning, characteristics and functions of language;
b. know principles of language learning ;
c. realize nature and scope of English language in India;
d. get some insight into different types of aims and objectives of Teaching English;
e. realize the objectives of teaching different skills of English;
f. recognize objectives of teaching prose and poetry; and
g. understand objectives of teaching English at different levels of education.
11. 1.3 Meaning, Characteristics & Functions of Language
1.3.1 Meaning of Language
Before studying the nature and scope of English language, let’s try to understand, ‘What
Language is?’ Write your response to the question in the following box;
Activity 1
What is Language?
The word ‘Language’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Lingue’ which means ‘produced with the
tongue’. Hence language means a thing which is produced with the tongue. Let’s see some of the
definitions by linguistic.
Edward Sapir:
"Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas,
emotions and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols."
Block and Tragers :
“Language is a set of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group
Otto Jespersen :
“Language is a set of human habits, the purpose of which is to give expression to human
thoughts and feelings especially to impart them to others.”
Bernard Bloch & George L. Trager:
“A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group
If we analyze all these definitions, we get a comprehensive definition of language, that is;
“Language is a set of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group
operates, communicates and express their emotions, feelings and desires.”
12. 1.3.2 Characteristics of Language
Language is an inseparable part of human society. Human civilization has been possible only
through language (Naeem, 2010). Language is basically human. It is different from animal
communication. Let’s look at some of the characteristics of language;
a. Language is Learnt
Language is not a born activity as crying and walking. It is not an automatic process. It has to
be learnt. Any learner learns the language by imitation and practice.
b. Language is a acquired Behavior
Language is acquired behavior. If a baby or man is shifted to another community or cultural
group, he will acquire the language spoken by that cultural community. For example; if an
Indian family is settled in United Status, the children of the family will acquire the English
language with an American accent.
c. Language is a System
Language is a system like a human body, just as body functions through different organs
such as brain, heart, lungs. In the same way, language functions through sounds, words and
d. Language is Vocal
The language is primarily observed speech. Speech is a fundamental thing is language
learning, reading and writing are secondary. Through speech and modulation of speech, we
get a clear picture of English inflexion.
e. Ever changing
No language on earth is static. Every language is undergoing changes in its grammar,
vocabulary, structure and phonology with the course of time.
f. Language is for Communication
The main purpose of language is communication. Since it is so, a person's speech must be
intelligible to others. For this, he must acquire the right pronunciation and intonation.
13. g. Language is Arbitrary
Language is arbitrary. There is no relationship between the words of a language and its meaning.
The relationship between word and meaning is arbitrary. There is no reason why a language is
called as ‘Language’ in English, ‘Bhasha’ in Hindi and ‘Zaban’ in Urdu.
h. Language is Based on Cultural Experiences
Every language is the product of a particular society and culture. ‘Good morning’, ‘Thank
you’, ‘Sorry’ and such kinds of words reveal the culture of English people. In each language,
there are words that show the specific culture of that community, such as; ‘Asslamu
alaykum’, ‘Khuda Hafiz’, ‘Shaba khair’, etc shows the culture of Urdu speaking people.
i. Language is Made of Habits
A person can be said to have learnt a language when he can speak it without any conscious
efforts. No language can be learnt without sufficient practice. A language is learnt by use and
not by rules. Learning a language is a process of habit formation.
j. Language is Unique
Each language is unique. No two languages are alike. They cannot have the same set of
patterns of structures, sounds, grammatical rules or words. The sounds, structures,
vocabularies of every language have their own specialty.
1.3.3 Functions of Language
M. A. K. Halliday (1975) explained seven basic functions of language in his book, ‘Exploration
in the functions of language’. These seven basic functions can be summarized as follows:
a. The Instrumental Function
The word ‘instrumental' means serving as an instrument or means. The instrumental function
refers to the use of language as an instrument to make the recipient do something. For ex:
Requesting (Please, give me a glass of water. Will you do me a favour?)
Commanding (Open the door Throw away this garbage) etc.
It serves the function of ‘I want’ the satisfaction of material needs.
b. The Regulatory Function
‘To regulate' means to control or to direct by a rule, method or principle. The regulatory
function of language refers to the use of language to regulate the behaviour of others.
14. Instruction or teaching can be regarded as a type of communicative behaviour intended to
cause the addressee to do something. It also includes advising and suggesting. For ex:
1. You should take some rest. (Advising)
2. You must not take things that don't belong to you. (Control through warning)
3. If you steal again I will smack you. ( Control through threat)
4. You will make Mummy very unhappy if you steal again. (Control through emotional
5. Parking is not allowed. (Control through rule)
c. The Interaction Function
‘To interact' means to ‘to act one upon other or to talk with each other.' The interactional
function of language refers to the use of language in the interaction between ‘self and others'.
It is a ‘me and you' function. It is the contact-oriented function. It includes greetings (Good
Morning, Happy Diwali, Happy Eid, Congratulation), sympathy (I share your sorrow, Keep
patience, Allah will help you), gratitude (Thanks a lot, Thank you for your guidance, we are
grateful for your contribution), compliments (Your dress is very good. How beautiful she
is!), hostility (Go to hell, Get out of here), etc.
d. The Personal Function
The word ‘personal’ means private or of a particular person. The personal function of
language refers to the use of language to express personal feelings and meanings. It aims at a
direct expression of the speaker’s attitude towards what he is speaking about. For ex: A
poem, a speech, expression of love and sorrow, etc. Thus this function refers to the use of
language either to express the speaker’s feeling or to evoke feelings on the part of the
e. The Heuristic Function
The term ‘heuristic' is a theory in education based on the idea that a learner should discover
things himself. The heuristic function of language refers to language as a means of
investigating reality, a way of learning about things that are using language to learn and to
discover. It is the use of language for inquiry or questioning.
f. The Imaginative Function
‘To imagine' means to form a picture of something in the mind, think of the probability of
things. The imaginative function of language refers to language used to create a world of the
15. imagination. It is the use of language for its own sake to give pleasure imaginatively and
aesthetically. For example:
“If I was an apple and grew on a tree
I think I’d drop down on a nice boy like me;
I wouldn’t stay there, giving nobody joy,
I’d fall down at once and say, Eat me, my boy!”
- Anonymous
g. The Representational Function
‘To represent’ means to depict, to show, to describe or to present in words. The representational
function of language refers to language used to communicate information. It is the use of
language to convey a message which has specific reference to the processes, persons, objects,
qualities, states and relations of the real world around us. For ex: books, newspapers, magazines,
novels, use of language in mass media, etc.
1.4 Principles of Language Learning
Children can learn any language as easily as walking, running, playing, etc. People generally
assume that those who study in English medium schools are good at English and those who study
in government schools are poor in English. Language learning has little to do with the medium of
school. It rather depends on teachers' application of principles of language learning. Let us see
what the principles of language learning.
a. Habit Formation
Language learning is a habit formation process. It is a process during which various language
habits are formed. Therefore, listening, speaking, reading and writing habits are to be formed
consciously and unconsciously.
b. Practice and Drill
Language learning is a habit-forming process. For this purpose sufficient practice and drill is
c. Oral Approach
A child learns to speak his mother tongue before reading or writing it. This principle should
be adopted in learning and teaching a second or a foreign language.
16. d. Natural Order of Learning
Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing (LSRW) is the natural order of learning a language. In
this order, a child learns his or her mother tongue without any formal instruction. So this
natural order of learning should be considered while teaching English.
e. Multi-Skill Approach
All the four language skills are to be given their due importance when learning or teaching
them. No skill should be overemphasized or neglected.
f. Selection and Gradation
One should proceed from simple to difficult in language learning; therefore, vocabulary and
structures of language should be selected and graded as per their frequency, teachability and
difficulty level.
g. Situational Approach
The English language should be taught in situations which is the natural way in which a child
learns his mother tongue.
h. Exposure
A child learns his mother tongue because he is exposed to it. While learning a foreign
language like English, exposure to it helps in learning it.
i. Imitation
The child learns his mother tongue by imitation. The English teacher must provide a good
model of speech before the learners. Audio-visual aids should be used.
j. Motivation
Motivation plays an important role in learning a language. Thus, learners should be
k. Accuracy
The English teacher should insist on accuracy in all aspects of language learning. So learners
follow their teachers and consider them as a role model.
l. Purpose
Purpose of language learning should be decided in the beginning. So it becomes a simple
affair to design a course suitable for the purpose.
17. m. Multiple Approaches
The English teacher should not stick to a particular method of teaching. He should use all
methods, approaches and techniques of teaching English as per the needs and requirements of
n. Interest
The teacher should generate a great deal of energy and interest among learners so they will
pay attention to learning a language.
o. Co-relation
If teaching-learning of English is co-related with real life then learner will realize the need of
language learning and will take interest in it.
Activity 2
Enlist the activities normally teachers do while teaching English language in the
Discuss the relevance of the above activities with the principles of language learning.
1.5 Nature of English Language
English is a varied language that has absorbed vocabulary from many languages of the world.
English is the most dynamic language of the world. Let us discuss the nature of English language
a. Receptive
Receptiveness is regarded as an extraordinary nature of English language. It has maintained
its open door policy. It has adopted and accepted thousands of words from European, Asian,
African, Indian, Japanese, Chinese and other languages. We can see a great impact on
classical languages like Latin, Greek, Arabic, French and Sanskrit on English. English has
the richest vocabulary due to its receptiveness (Kumari, 2014).
18. b. Heterogeneous
As English contains vocabulary from many languages, it has become heterogeneous in
nature. In the process of adopting words from other languages, in some cases the original
words as it is without change in meaning, but in some other cases, the spelling, pronunciation
and meaning of original words from other languages was changed for instance; the French
word, ‘tour’ and the Latin word, ‘turris’ bacome ‘Tower’ in English (Kumari, 2014).
c. Systematic
The system of English language functions through sounds, words and structures. The system
of sound is known as phonology. The system of words is called as morphology whereas the
system of structures is named as syntax. All these three systems are integrated with one
another making an organic whole which is called as the English language.
d. Unique
English is unique in its nature. English is not 100% French, not German or Arabic, not Latin
or Greek. English is English. English differs from other languages in its sounds, words,
structures and functioning. Though English has adopted vocabulary from other languages, it
has shaped them remarkably as if these words are its own.
e. Dynamic
English is a dynamic language. It is constantly changing. These changes are regular and
systematic. If you study the history of English language, you will come to know the
difference between Old English, Medieval English and Modern English. The old English
words like; ‘thou and thee’ are now ‘you and your.’ In the age of technology, we have
developed ‘SMS English’ where many short forms are used such as; ‘you’ is written as ‘u’,
‘as soon as possible’ is written as ‘ASAP’, and ‘your’ is written as ‘ur’.
Our Bollywood stars mix Hindi with English, hence a new language comes into existence,
that is ‘Hinglish', where some sentences are spoken in English and some in Hindi.
Sometimes, half of the sentence is spoken in Hindi and the other half in English. So English
is a dynamic language, therefore, it is continuously changing throughout the world.
f. Creative
English is a highly creative language, that’s why it has the richest literature in the world. A
writer or speaker can write or speak something he has never written or said before. English
literature has a wide variety of prose and poetry, fiction and non-fictional writing, such as;
19. novels, short stories, travelogues, fairy tales, science fiction, drama, songs, etc. Because of
the creative power of English, English literature is very easy to listen and read.
g. Productive
English is also highly productive. One can make thousands and lakhs of sentences with its
words. There is no need to learn by rote English sentences. We can produce sentences
without effort. People speak and write in different ways and styles best still, the words and
sentence structures are same. The world is rapidly producing knowledge with the help of
English that is doubling every 13 months.
h. Symbolic
English is symbolic. Every English word, phrase or sentence represents some object, activity
or idea. For ex; after listening to the sentence, ‘Sami was singing a song.' we can visualize
how Sami could be singing the song. The announcement, ‘The Ajanta Express is arriving on
platform no 1,' creates a mental picture of the train arriving on a particular platform. So,
English is symbolic in its nature (Kumari, 2014).
i. Modifiable
English is extremely modifiable. It penetrates, fuses and assimilates with the local language
of a given country to emerge in different modified and extended forms of English to be
accepted, understood and enjoyed universally, such as; Indian English, American English,
British English, Australian English, etc (Kumari, 2014).
j. Grammatical
English has its own grammatical rules and structures of sentences. These grammatical rules
and sentence structures are necessary for proper relationship of the words in a sentence and
to avoid ambiguity. It also clarifies the acceptable and unacceptable forms of sentences. For
example; ‘I am writing a book' is the correct order of present continuous tense rather than the
sentence ‘I book writing.' Therefore, Functional English grammar is essential for learning the
English language.
1.6 Aims and Objectives of Teaching English in India
It is very necessary for a teacher to know the aims and objectives of teaching English. The
teacher must know what changes can be brought about in his learner's knowledge and skills at
the end of the course, term, semester, month, weeks and each particular lesson. If you observe
20. the actual practice of teaching English in India, unfortunately, you may realize that teachers
teach English either to cover the prescribed course or to make the learners pass the exam. But
these are not the aims and objectives of teaching English.
Let us try to understand the differences between aims and objectives (Kumari, 2014).
Aims Objectives
Aims are what you want to achieve objectives are what you will do to achieve
Aim is setting a determined course in an objective is a more specific target in
order to achieve a set target order to achieve the goal
Aim is usually a long-term process an objective is for short term
An aim can be slightly vague an objective is always specific
1.6.1 Aims of Teaching English
Let us try to understand what are the aims of teaching English? It can be summarized as under
a. General Aim
The general aim of teaching English is to make the learner an effective user of English
b. Cultural Aim
The cultural aim of teaching English is to enable the learners to know all the cultural groups
of the world in general and cultural groups of India in particular. It will help in exchanging
cultural values and eradicating cultural evils; such as superstitions, ignorance, untouchability,
intolerance, extremism, etc and a rich and tolerant multi-cultural society can be established.
21. c. Literary Aim
The literary aim of teaching English is to open the treasure of rich English literature for
Indians, such as; poetry, drama, prose works and fiction and enable them to produce Indian
English literature to communicate the Indian philosophy, culture, values and dynamics to the
d. Utilitarian Aim
The utilitarian aim of teaching English is to open the gates of opportunities in different fields
of life, education, travel, science, technology and international affairs.
e. Linguistic Aim
The linguistic aim of teaching English is to enable the learners to understand the system of
English words (Morphology), sounds (Phonology) and sentences (Syntax).
f. Integrative Aim
The integrative aim of teaching English is to inculcate the integrative quality of English
language that unites people all across the world and India.
1.6.2 General Objectives of Teaching English
The general objectives of teaching and learning the English language can be summarized as
It enables the learners to:
a. listen to English sounds properly;
b. listen to words with meaning expressed by others;
c. give the response to the talk of the teacher;
d. recognize and tell the meaning of the words and sentences expressed by the teacher;
e. reproduce whatever he has listened from the teacher; and
f. organize the ideas listened to.
ii. Speaking
It enables the learners to:
22. a. use proper pronunciation in speaking English.
b. use correct stress and intonation in speaking English.
c. speak grammatically correct.
d. tell the answers to the questions asked by the teacher.
e. take part in debate and conversation.
f. use appropriate vocabulary while speaking English.
g. speak English fluently.
iii. Reading
It enables the learners to:
a. read English letters, words and sentences correctly and properly.
b. tell the meaning of the words and sentences provided in the written form.
c. read English with proper stress, intonation, pronunciation.
d. read lessons loudly and silently.
e. read English with proper pauses.
It enables the learners to:
a. write English letters, words and sentences correctly.
b. use capital and small letters at the proper places.
c. use proper punctuation marks.
d. write answers correctly.
e. write a composition on a simple topic.
f. express the thoughts and ideas in a written form.
g. write grammatically correct.
h. write English with proper speed.
1.6.3 Objectives of Teaching English at Different Levels of Education
Objectives of teaching English at different levels of education, primary and secondary levels are
as under;
a. Primary Level
At the primary level learner should:
1. understand English when spoken;
23. 2. acquire the reading ability and read the material that is appropriate for his level;
3. acquire a vocabulary enough to help him in the use of the language that he makes;
4. make simple statements through English;
5. speak with a pronunciation that is acceptable;
6. respond to short conversational questions and to ask questions himself;
7. write English legibly and coherently using proper punctuation and spelling; and
8. use English when he has to respond to calls, requests, greetings, etc. when he has to do
the same to others.
b. Secondary Level
At the secondary level the learner should:
1. speak English fluently and accurately;
2. speak freely. They should think in English and speak it with ease and frequently;
3. express their ideas in English in the classroom at school, at home and in society;
4. respond and react to situations actively and not remain only a passive listener;
5. acquire the ability to understand the native speakers and also be able to respond to them;
6. compose freely and independently in speech and writing;
7. read books, newspapers and periodicals with understanding;
8. develop sufficient command over vocabulary that should include frequent and choicest
English phrases and idioms; and
9. use reference material like encyclopedia, dictionaries, reference books, etc.
1.6.4 Objectives of Teaching English Related to Language Forms
The following are some of the curricular objectives related to prose and poetry lessons listed by
M. Jesa (2005) in his book, ‘Efficient English Teaching’;
a. Prose
The teacher enables the learner to:
a. listen to short speeches, narratives, commentaries;
b. take notes on the listened piece of prose;
c. enjoy puzzles and riddles;
24. d. express ideas in one’s own way;
e. take part in seminars, discussions;
f. present piece of dialogue;
g. dramatize situations;
h. express ideas selecting the appropriate words and functions;
i. read and understand short essays;
j. understand messages, advertisements, brochures;
k. compile dictionary in a simple form;
l. sequence ideas and present in writing;
m. suggest appropriate title;
n. expand an idea;
o. write letters using different formats;
p. write dialogue and reviews; and
q. prepare reports and brochures.
b. Poetry
The teacher enables learners to:
1. listen to and recite poems;
2. appreciate rhythm and feelings;
3. collect recordings of poems;
4. write a few poetic lines; and
5. collect poems with the same rhythmic pattern.
1.7 Status of English in the Global and Indian Context - Scope of English Language
English is an international language. English has been playing an important role in our
educational system as well as in our national life. English was supreme in the pre-independent
India, because of British rule over India. English still occupies an important place and position in
courts, trade, commerce, industry, educational system and national life of India. Let us see the
scope of English through the following points;
25. a. An Official Language
English was the official language of administration during the British period. After the
independence of India, English has been declared as the Associate Official Language of the
Union of India for an indefinite period by an Act of Parliament in 1963. As such it dominates
the administrative business at the centre as well as in the states. All the administrative work
is done in English throughout the country.
b. Language of Court
English still continues to be the language of the courts. So far there is no other suitable
language for legal business. Cases are presented and judgments are given in English in
Supreme, High and District courts of India.
c. Language of International Trade and Industry
English dominates the fields of trade and industry in the country. Because all the work in
these fields is carried on in English, such as; maintenance of accounts, audit and
d. A Link Language
English is a national link language of India as well as an international link language of the
world. It is the only language which is understood in all states of India and all countries of
the world. We can establish social, economic, cultural and political relations with other
countries and other states of India only through English.
e. A Library Language
English is the key to the storehouse of knowledge. Most of this knowledge is not yet
available in Indian languages. It is in this context that the role of English as a library
language becomes important in India.
f. Importance in Education
English plays an important role in the field of education. It is taught as a compulsory subject
in most of the states in the country. It is the medium of instruction in technical, medical, law,
26. science, commerce and other institutions. A large number of English medium schools of
SSC, CBSE, ICSE patterns are providing education through English as a medium of
g. Window to the Modern World
Pandit Nehru had rightly said, "English is our major window on the modern world." English
is a window through which we can see the scientific, technological, agricultural and
commercial developments taking place in the world. English is the only language through
which we have distilled the essence of modern knowledge in all fields of human activity.
h. Importance in Social Life
English plays an important role in the social life of the country. The highly educated and
sophisticated sections of our society find it more convenient to talk in English. Invitation
cards are mostly printed in English. People generally put their signatures in English. People
use thousands of English words in their day to day language. Bills in almost all the shops are
given in English.
i. Lingua Franca of India and World
Lingua Franca means the language of communication used by people belonging to different
languages. English is the Lingua Franca of not only India but throughout the world.
j. Language of Western Science and Arts
English was the key which opened the gates of western sciences and arts to Indians. By
learning English, they not only got a peep into the western sciences and arts but some of
them also acquired mastery over them. For ex: scientists like Raman, philosophers like
Radhakrishnan, poet like Tagore, etc.
k. Language of Science and Technology
English is the language of science and information & communication technology on which
the management and administration of the entire world is dependent. Without English, we
cannot learn modern science and information and communication technology.
27. l. Language of our Literary Development
The credit of developing the Indian languages goes to English. By reading English books,
Indian writers developed their own language and literature. The development of modern
Indian novel, short stories, drama and literary criticism is entirely due to the impact of
English on Indian languages.
Such are the reasons that helped English to become an important language in not only India
but throughout the world.
1.8 Teaching English in Bilingual/Multilingual Contexts - Teaching English as a Second
According to Wikipedia (2017), ‘A person's second language is a language that is not the native
language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.' In other words, a second
language is learned in addition to the mother tongue of the learner for its practical utility in day
to day life and affairs. Therefore, the mother tongue of the learner is called as the first language
or L1 and any language that is learned in addition to the mother tongue is known as second
language or L2. Languages are also classified in many such types' i.e. third language (L3),
foreign language, a dead language, classical language, target language, etc.
In the present context, English has acquired the place of the Second language in India for its
national and global importance as a language of knowledge, communication, education,
business, trade, commerce, science, technology and a window on the modern world. Therefore,
English has been or used by Indians for utilitarian purposes, such as; for social, commercial,
official and educational activities within the country and abroad, for listening to the national and
global broadcast, for reading newspapers and books and to travel across the country or world.
It is very important for a teacher of English to make his learners equipped with the command of
English which allows him to express himself in speech or in writing that can sustain them in the
present world which functions through the English language. Teachers should realize the
objectives of teaching English as a second language and enable the learners to:
28. a. understand English when spoken;
b. speak English correctly and fluently;
c. read English with comprehension at a reasonable speed for gathering information and enjoy
d. write English neatly and correctly with proper speed and legibility;
e. acquire knowledge of the elements of English for achieving a practical command of the
language; and
f. translate English into their mother tongue and vice-versa.
Keeping in view the above objectives the teacher educators should design the syllabus of English
and teachers should plan their teaching activities. If you observe teaching of English in Indian
classrooms, you will come across the following dull irrelevant activities of teachers, such as;
writing new words on the blackboard with their mother tongue meanings, instructing learners to
write them down in their notebooks, asking learners to memorize the words and their meanings
by heart, reading aloud three to four passages of a prose and translating it into their mother
tongue, explaining some grammatical items and telling learners to write down the answers to the
questions given at the end of the lesson as their homework, etc. Through such activities, we are
not going to achieve the objectives of teaching English as a second language. Teachers should
follow the principles of language learning (Refer point 1.4 Principles of language learning in the
present unit).
Activity 3
What is the status of English in your state? Discuss with the help of the following
1. Whether English is taught as a second language or third language?
2. In which class does English instruction begin?
3. Whether English is taught as a compulsory subject or not?
4. Is English a compulsory subject at intermediate and undergraduate classes?
5. How is the policy of state government towards English language teaching?
29. 1.9 Language and Educational Policy in India; Constitutional Provisions and policies of
language education
Before the independence of India, English was an official language. It was the language of rulers,
courts, banks, trade and industry, administration, link language between rulers and ruled and
medium of instruction in schools, colleges and universities. So it occupied a privileged place in
India. But with the attainment of Independence in 1947, the position of English in our education
as well as in our national life came to be seriously questioned. Some national leaders supported
English while some were committed to driving away English from India.
Many educationist and national leaders came to the conclusion that English should be replaced
by one Indian language. But however, all of them were quite reluctant to drive away English
from India owing to its worldwide importance. C.Rajgopalcharya, M.Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal
Nehru supported English. Some leaders were advocating the Hindi language to be adopted as the
national and official language of India but it was seriously opposed by some states of south
India being a multilingual country was in need of a language policy because it was a sentimental
issue for its people. The forefathers of this country wisely dealt this issue through constitutional
provisions and addressing the diverse language needs of the country. Let us know some of the
constitutional provisions that define the language policy of India.
Article 343 : Official language of the Union
1. The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals
to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian
2. Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement
of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official
purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement:
30. Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the
Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals
in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the
Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the
said period of fifteen years, of
a. The English language, or
b. The Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law.
Article 350A: Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage
It shall be the endeavor of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide
adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to
children belonging to linguistic minority groups and the President may issue such directions to
any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.
Article 351: Directive for development of the Hindi language
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so
that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India
and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms style
and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth
Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on
Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
All of the above articles or their sub-clauses clearly shows that the country has given due
importance to English, Hindi and all other regional languages concerning their international,
national and regional importance respectively.
Kothari Commission (1964-66) precisely introduced a ‘three language formula’ that advocates:
a. The First language to be studied must be the mother tongue or the regional language.
31. b. The Second language – In Hindi speaking States, the second language will be some other
modern Indian language or English, and in non-Hindi speaking States, the second
language will be Hindi or English.
c. The Third language – In Hindi speaking States, the third language will be English or a
modern Indian language not studied as the second language, and – In non-Hindi speaking
States, the third language will be English or a modern Indian language not studied as the
second language (Teaching of Indian Language, Position paper, NCERT, 2006.). But
now in most of the states of India, English is taught as a compulsory subject from
standard one to graduation. Today, Indian learners learn English as a second language.
The National Policy on Education (1986) and its revision, Programme of Action (1992)
presented a detailed report regarding; three- language formula, improvements in the linguistic
competencies at the different stages of education, Provision of facilities for the study of English
and other foreign languages, and Development of Hindi language as a link language. The policy
emphasized the use of regional languages as medium of instruction in higher education. The
report mentioned the following:
“The energetic development of Indian Languages and literature is a sine qua non for
educational and cultural development. Unless this is done, the creative energies of the people
will not be released, standards of education will not improve, knowledge will not spread to the
people and the gulf between the intelligentsia and masses will remain if not widen further. The
regional languages are already in use as media of education at the primary and secondary
stages. Urgent steps should now be taken to adopt them as media of education at the university
stage.”(National Policy on Education (With Modifications Undertaken In 1992), page no. 39)
The POA (1992) in chapter 18, ‘Developing Languages (page no 94 – 98),' observed that the
implementation of the three language formula had been less than satisfactory on account of;
a. All the languages are not being taught compulsorily at the secondary stage
b. A classical language has been substituted for a modern Indian language in some States
c. No concrete provision yet exists (though a scheme is likely to take off very soon) for the
teaching of South Indian languages in the Hindi speaking states
32. d. Duration for compulsory study of three languages varies and
e. Competency levels to be achieved by learners of each language have not been precisely
POA (1992) suggested following recommendations for the effective implementation of the Three
Language Formula:
a. Decision by States, State Boards of Secondary/schools education, etc., to make the study of
three languages compulsory at the secondary stage;
b. Prescription of the class from and the duration for which three languages will be taught;
c. Specification of objectives of teaching different languages. The State Boards of Secondary
Education will be asked to take uniform decisions in line with the recommendations of
NCERT and CBSE in these matters; and
d. Specification of levels of language proficiency to be reached in respect of each language.
Language institutions under the Ministry like Kendriya Hindi Sansthan (KHS), Central
Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages
(CIEFL) in consultation with NCERT would be asked to prescribe minimum competencies
to be achieved.
POA (1992) also suggested a plan of action to implement the above recommendations. After
POA (1992), the most noteworthy recommendations were given by National Curriculum
Framework (2005).
The policy suggested promoting Hindi as a link language in the following recommendation:
“Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi. In developing Hindi as the
link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351
of the Constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of
India. The establishment, in non-Hindi States, of colleges and other institutions of higher
education which use Hindi, as the medium of education should be encouraged.”(National Policy
on Education (With Modifications Undertaken In 1992), page no. 40)
Another noteworthy language policy can be seen in National Curriculum Framework (2005).
National Curriculum Framework (2005) in its third chapter, ‘Curricular Areas, School Stages and
33. Assessment, page no; 36-37’ sheds light on language education in the country and suggested
following guidelines:
 Language teaching needs to be multilingual not only in terms of the number of languages
offered to children but also in terms of evolving strategies that would use the multilingual
classroom as a resource.
 Home language(s) of children should be the medium of learning in schools.
 If a school does not have provisions for teaching in the child's home language(s) at the
higher levels, primary school education must still be covered by the home language(s). It is
imperative that we honour the child's home language(s). According to Article 350A of our
Constitution, ‘It shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the
State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage
of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups’.
 Children will receive multilingual education from the outset. The three-language formula
needs to be implemented in its spirit, promoting multilingual communicative abilities for a
multilingual country.
 In the non-Hindi-speaking states, children learn Hindi. In the case of Hindi speaking states,
children learn a language not spoken in their area. Sanskrit may also be studied as a Modern
Indian Language (MIL) in addition to these languages.
 At later stages, the study of classical and foreign languages may be introduced.
Home language means mother tongue of children. NCF (2005) asserted the importance of
multilingualism and mentioned that "Multilingualism, which is constitutive of the identity of a
child and a typical feature of the Indian linguistic landscape, must be used as a resource,
classroom strategy and a goal by a creative language teacher. This is not only the best use of a
resource readily available but also a way of ensuring that every child feels secure and accepted
and that no one is left behind on account of his/her linguistic background (NCF(2005), p. 36).”
In this way, we have taken a short account of language policy of our country.
1.10 Points to Remember
34. In this unit, we tried to understand meaning and characteristics of language. It is the language
that differentiates human and animal communication. We also looked at Halliday's’ basic
functions of language that shows different uses of language in our day to day life. We have also
seen various principles of language learning that are essential for a teacher to remember and
apply while teaching any language.
As we know now that the nature of English language is very dynamic and teachers of English
should also develop the same dynamic nature in themselves. The scope of English language is
unlimited in this era of globalization and so the same is with English language teaching. So, it is
very necessary for a teacher of English language to know the aims and objectives of teaching
different skills and different types of literary forms and teaching English at different levels of
education and teaching English for different purposes. As the future of English is very bright, the
same is of English teachers.
In the next unit, we will study different approaches, methods and techniques of teaching English.
1.11 Glossary
First language (L1): generally a person’s mother tongue or the language acquired first.
Foreign language: a foreign language is one which is studied to know the life of another
nation and its people.
Second language (L2): a second language is learned for utilitarian purposes in addition to the
mother tongue.
Target language: the new language which a person is learning.
Home language: it means ‘mother tongue’ of the children. The term was used in NCF 2005.
1.12 Unit End Exercise
Write short notes on the following:
1. Characteristics of language
35. 2. Nature of English language
3. Scope of English language
4. Aims of teaching the English language
5. Objectives of teaching English at different levels of education
6. Difference between aims and objectives
7. Discuss the constitutional provisions and language policy of India
1.13 Suggested Reading
1. Halliday, M.A.K (1975), Explorations in the functions of language. Retrieved from
2. Jesa, M. (2005). Efficient English Teaching. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.
3. Kumari, A.V (2014). Methods of Teaching English. Guntur: New Era Publications.
4. Naeem, P. (2010). Characteristics and Features of Language.
Retrieved from https://neoenglish.wordpress.com/2010/12/16/characteristics-and-
5. National Curriculum Framework (2005). National Council for Educational Research &
Training: New Delhi. Retrieved from
6. National Policy on Education (With Modifications Undertaken In 1992). Ministry Of
Human Resource Development: New Delhi. Retrieved from
7. Paliwal, A.K. (2002). Perspectives on English Language Teaching. Jaipur: Surabhi
8. Percy, R. (2012). Teaching of English. Hyderabad: Neelkamal Publications Pvt. Ltd.
9. Position paper on Teaching of Indian Language (2006). NCERT: New Delhi.
10. Programme of Action (1992). Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource
Development: New Delhi. Retrieved from
36. 11. Rao, K.V (2010). Techniques of Teaching English. Neelkamal Publications Pvt Ltd:
12. Second Language (2017).
Retrieved on 16th July 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_language
13. Sundary, K.A & Latha, B.H. (2015). Learning English as a Second Language in India.
Retrieved on 15th July 2017 from http://ijellh.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/54.-
37. Unit 2 Different Approaches/Theories to Language Learning and Teaching
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Objectives
2.3 A Brief History of Language Teaching
2.4 Grammar–Translation Method
2.4.1 Principles of Grammar-Translation Method
2.4.2 Merits of Grammar-Translation Method
2.4.3 Demerits of Grammar-Translation Method
2.5 Direct Method
2.5.1 Principles of Direct Method
2.5.2 Merits of Direct Method
2.5.3 Demerits of Direct Method
2.6 Audio-Lingual Method
2.6.1 Principles of Audio-Lingual Method
2.6.2 Merits of Audio-Lingual Method
2.6.3 Demerits of Audio-Lingual Method
2.7 Structural Approach
2.7.1 Principles of Structural Approach
2.7.2 Selection of structures
2.7.3 Gradation of Structure
2.7.4 Merits of Structural Approach
2.7.5 Demerits of Structural Approach
2.8 Situational Approach
2.8.1 Principles of Situational Approach
2.8.2 Merits of Situational Approach
2.8.3 Demerits of Situational Approach
38. 2.9 Dr. West’s New Method
2.9.1 Principles of Dr. West’s New Method
2.9.2 Merits of Dr. West’s New Method
2.9.3 Demerits of Dr. West’s New Method
2.10 Bilingual Method
2.10.1 Principles of Bilingual Method
2.10.2 Merits of Bilingual Method
2.10.3 Demerits of Bilingual Method
2.11 Total Physical Response
2.11.1 Principles of Total Physical Response
2.11.2 Merits of Total Physical Response
2.11.3 Demerits of Total Physical Response
2.12 Whole Language
2.12.1 Principles of the Whole Language
2.12.2 Merits of Whole Language
2.12.3 Demerits of Whole Language
2.13 Communicative Language Teaching
2.13.1 Principles of CLT
2.13.2 Merits of CLT
2.13.3 Demerits of CLT
2.14 Natural Approach
2.14.1 Principles of Natural Approach
2.14.2 Merits of Natural Approach
2.14.3 Demerits of Natural Approach
2.15 Other Methods and Approaches in Brief
2.15.1 Deductive Method
2.15.2 Inductive Method
2.15.3 Multilingual Education (MLE)
2.15.4 Multilingual Pedagogical Approach
2.15.5 Constructive Approach
2.16 Points to Remember
2.17 Glossary
2.18 Unit End Exercise
2.19 Suggested Reading
40. 2.1 Introduction
In any society, language is important to communicate productively. Without an intelligible
language, the geometrical progression of any society is impossible. The best example is the story
of Babel in the Holy Bible.
Briefly, during the time of Noah, people were wicked and God punished all of them with the
great flood except Noah, his family members, and male and female from every species in the
animal kingdom.
After the great flood, the people became sinful once again and they knew God would be angry
with them and He would punish them once again with the destructive flood. Therefore, they
wanted to escape from the anger of God by constructing a tower. God knew their plan and He
confused the tongues of the people and they could not build the tower anymore due to the
incomprehensibility of the language they were speaking to one another.
This incident proves the point that our lives would become terrible if we do not know or
comprehend a language. In addition to political, economic, social and religious reasons, we need
language(s) to communicate and to lead our lives well; Hence, we learn as many languages as
possible and that’s where the method(s) and approaches to language teaching come into action.
In this unit, we shall know about various methods and approaches that are used in language
teaching – starting from the Grammar-Translation method to the Natural approach – Traditional
to Humanistic approaches.
2. 2 Objectives
At the end of the unit, the student-teacher:
1. knows the history of English language teaching;
2. understands various approaches and methods comprehensively;
3. understands the method(s)/approach(es) s/he should use in his/her English classroom;
41. 4. comprehends important terms related to English language teaching.
2.3 A Brief History of Language Teaching
Before we learn some important theoretical aspects of English language teaching, it is imperative
to know the history of language teaching, in brief.
Latin was a popular and an important language which was widely learnt in most parts of Europe
and middle-east region for many centuries. However, due to various religious, political, and
economic phenomena Latin slowly lost its importance among masses. French, Italian, and
English gradually gained popularity during the sixteenth century in Europe.
Latin gradually faded away but the study of Latin has become a model to learn a foreign
language - analysis of its grammar and rhetoric - from the seventeenth to the nineteenth
centuries. Learners studying at grammar schools in England were introduced to Latin grammar.
Children learnt grammar rules, declensions and conjugations, etc through rote learning (Kelly,
1969; Howatt, 1984). After the learners attained required levels of proficiency, they were taught
advanced grammar and rhetoric.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Roger Ascham, Montaigne, Comenius and John Locke
had tried reforming curriculum and suggested how Latin should be taught (Kelly 1969; Howatt,
1984). By the nineteenth century, the approach to studying Latin had become an established
practice to study a foreign language. A foreign language textbook in mid-nineteenth century had
lessons planned around grammar points. Grammar points were identified, and rules were
explained using illustrations.
In the nineteenth-century, a foreign language textbook laid stress on rules regarding word
formation and sentence structure, which the teachers explained and the learners memorized later
on. The oral exercises were minimal and a few written exercises were given to explain the rules.
Books published by Seidenstucker and Plotz during this period were note-worthy. The textbook
of Seidenstucker had detached sentences to demonstrate rules. He divided his text into two parts.
42. The first part had rules and necessary examples. The second part had French sentences for
translation into German and vice-versa. Plotz too followed the same kind of a pattern. Teaching a
foreign language in this manner was known as Grammar-Translation Method or Classical
The three major views related to language are:
1. The structural view: language comprises structures they carry meaning (e.g. grammar).
2. The functional view: language is a medium to complete a certain function (e.g.
requesting, enquiring, etc.).
3. The interactive view: language is a means to make and maintain social relations in
society, concentrating on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in
conversational exchanges. This view has been influential since the 1980s.
Activity 1
What is your view about language?
Definitions of approach, method, and technique
Anthony (1965) put forth the idea of approach, method, and technique in the following way:
An approach is a set of…assumptions dealing with the nature of language
teaching and learning.
43. A method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material…
and all of which is based upon, the selected approach.
A technique is that which actually takes place in a classroom. Techniques must be
consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.
2.4 Grammar–Translation Method
The grammar–translation method originated in the 1500s when Latin was extensively studied as
a foreign language due to its importance in various fields like academia, business, etc. but the use
of Latin gradually declined during the century, and it was substituted by English, and other
European languages. Eventually, people studied Latin as a subject rather than a language for
Modern languages also appeared in school curricula in the 19th century and language teachers
used the same grammar-translation method to teach the languages. In the 19th century, grammar-
translation textbooks had target language grammar. It had separate and disconnected grammar
rules for learners to memorize, a bilingual vocabulary list, and sentences were provided to learn
and translate.
2.4.1 Principles of Grammar-Translation Method
The following are the principles of grammar-translation method:
a. Emphasis is on reading and writing consequently;
b. L1 is used while teaching;
c. Learners learn grammar rules deductively;
d. Rote learning is encouraged;
e. Grammar drills and translation from L1 to L2 are common;
f. “Form” is more important than “content”;
g. Evaluation is based on translation of texts; and
h. The textbook is the only teaching-learning material.
44. Roger Ascham, Montaigne, Comenius and John Locke attempted to reform grammar-translation
method. Later, Berlitz, Passy, Viëtor, and Jespersen shed light on the problems of grammar-
translation. They supported teaching L2 in L2 itself – supporting speech and text.
2.4.2 Merits of Grammar-Translation Method
1. Both the teacher and the learner use L1 while teaching and learning respectively;
2. Translation of new words provides clear understanding to the learner;
3. The teacher need not strive for accuracy;
4. The philosophical principle, known to unknown is followed. Hence, the learners easily
comprehend teaching points;
5. The teacher is relaxed while teaching, as the efforts she has to put in is minimal, and
6. The teacher can evaluate the learner’s comprehension easily
2.4.3 Demerits of Grammar-Translation Method
1. It does not improve the oral fluency in English;
2. It is tedious and uninteresting as the learners have to memorize words and rules;
3. It does not build confidence in the learners;
4. There is no restriction in using L1 in class;
5. Language items learnt are away from real life situations;
6. The learner is unable to use English in day to day communication; and
7. This method focuses only on reading and writing. Speaking is ignored.
Activity 2
Do you think you can use this method in your English classroom? Give reasons
45. 2.5 Direct Method
This method was developed at the end of the nineteenth century and it challenged the views on
Grammar-Translation method. Gouin and others tried to put forth a method based on scientific
observations of children’s language learning.
Franke (1884) put forth a proposition that monolingual language teaching could be effective by
associating form and meaning. Target language should be used actively in class and grammar
rules must not be explained. The learner has to pick up the grammar of L2 as in the case of their
L1, by exposing themselves to the language, inductively (Thornbury 2000). The textbook is not
used in the initial years of learning and teacher decides what to teach. Direct Method lost its
popularity by 1920s in Europe and it was the first teaching method recognized by language
teachers and experts. It moved language teaching into the ‘methods era’.
2.5.1 Principles of Direct Method
The language learning principles of the direct method are:
1. Teaching is done in the target language. Mother tongue/native language of the learners is
2. Everyday vocabulary and sentences are given importance while teaching;
3. Target language grammar is taught inductively;
4. Teaching items of the lesson are introduced to the learners orally;
5. Teacher and learner communicate orally in question and answer form;
6. Realia, pictures or demonstration is used to teach vocabulary. The technique of association of
ideas is used while teaching abstract vocabulary;
7. Listening and speaking skills are given importance; and
8. Pronunciation and grammar are crucial.
2.5.2 Merits of Direct Method
1. L2 is learnt just like learner’s L1
2. Learner avoids L1 and thinks in L2
3. Audiovisual teaching aids are used to make learning easier
46. 4. Emphasis is on speech. Hence, errors are corrected as and when they made.
2.5.3 Demerits of Direct Method
The Direct Method failed to consider the ground realities like:
1. English teachers must possess native-like fluency in English.
2. It is “the product of enlightened amateurism” (Richards & Rodgers 2007: 13).
3. Using only the target language to explain vocabulary is like performing verbal
Activity 3
Can you use this method in your English classroom? State reasons.
2.6 Audio-Lingual Method
As Direct method had serious drawbacks the Audio-Lingual Method came
into existence. It was popular during the 1960s, especially in the United States. The other reason
for the development of the Audiolingual Method was that the United States emerged as a major
international power after the II World War and the demand for teaching English to immigrants
and foreign learners also grew up.
This method stressed the need for oral drilling, pronunciation, and “mastery of the formal
properties of language”, which implies good grammatical habits (Dendrinos 1992: 113) or
‘structure’ (Richards & Rodgers 2007: 52).
The Audiolingual Method declined as the learners could not apply skills learned in the class in
real life situations. Theoretically, Noam Chomsky, a noted linguist, argued that languages were
generated from the learners underlying knowledge of abstract rules (Chomsky 1966: 153).
47. 2.6.1 The Principles of the Audio-Lingual Method
1. Language is for communication;
2. Language is learnt using the natural order: listening, speaking, reading and writing;
3. Language is learnt contextually;
4. Repetition and drilling are common as language learning is a part of the habit;
5. Substitution drills are common to make learners know how language is used;
6. Grammar structures are taught first, then vocabulary;
7. Rules are taught using examples;
8. Errors are corrected immediately;
9. Teachers are the role models of language usage; and
10. Teachers teach the culture of the target language.
2.6.2 Merits of the Audio-Lingual Method
1. It is grounded on a solid theory of language learning;
2. The method is easy and functional to teach a large group of learners;
3. This method emphasized listening and speaking skills more;
4. Visual aids are used for effective vocabulary teaching; and
5. It lays stress on correct pronunciation and structure.
2.6.3 Demerits of the Audio-Lingual Method
1. ELT practitioners and scholars have disregarded this type of learning as this method is
based on behaviourism.
2. Communicative competence is not given due importance;
3. The four basic skills are not given equal importance;
4. “Form” is given more importance than “meaning”; and
5. Pattern practice, drilling, and memorization are mechanical in nature. The functional
aspect of a language and its organic usage are ignored.
6. Teacher dominates the method.
48. Activity 4
How does Audio-Lingual Method differ from Direct Method?
2.7 Structural Approach
This method encourages a learner to master the structures of English. A structure is an
arrangement of phrases in a sentence. This approach presupposes English comprises 'structures'
and they can be taught by systematic selection and gradation of the structures and vocabulary.
Grammatical structures are learnt by language drills and repetitions in the early stages. Learners
have to attain mastery in using 275 graded structures and 3000 root words.
This method uses the following for teaching English:
1. Word order: Word order or sentence structure can change the meaning
2. Function words: Function words modify the meaning of a sentence.
3. Inflections: an affix (prefix or suffix) can change the base form of a word.
2.7.1 Principles of Structural Approach
Prof. F.G. French has put forth the following principles:
1. Learners have to fix up habits of the English language patterns;
2. Learners’ activities are more important than those of the teacher;
3. Oral work is the base for the other language skills are built up;
4. The structures of English are mastered – they are to be picked up, practised and fixed in
5. Meaningful situations are created by dramatization to teach language skills and
6. The teacher teaches one language item at a time.
49. 2.7.2 Selection of Structures
As the structures of English are the basic teaching points in this approach, the teacher selects the
structures based on the following principles:
a. Usefulness: the structures, which are used frequently.
b. Productivity: the structures which entail the other structures.
c. Simplicity: the structures which are simple in terms of form and meaning.
d. Teach-ability: the structures which are easy to teach.
e. Frequency: the structures with a high rate of occurrence.
f. Range: the structures which occur in various contexts.
g. Coverage: the structures which cover a number of meanings
h. Learnability: the structures which are easy to learn.
2.7.3 Gradation of Structure
Structures of English are graded based on the following patterns which are taught together or
separately during English language teaching course:
A. Grouping
a. Phonetic grouping: based on sound. For example: cat, rat, mat etc.
b. Lexical grouping: based on words used in the same context.
c. Grammatical grouping: based on similar sentence pattern.
d. Semantic grouping: based on words having a similar meaning.
e. Structure Grouping: based on structures which fit each other.
B. Sequencing
a. Grammatical sequencing they are placed one after the other depending on their
b. Semantic sequencing they are sequenced depending on their meaning.
c. Lexical sequencing it depends on the phrases which go together
50. C. Types of sentence pattern
There are different patterns of sentences. They are:
a. Two-part patterns Birds fly (birds/fly)
b. Three-part patterns She is sleeping (she / is / sleeping )
c. Four-part patterns Sresta went to shop ( Sresta/went/to/shop)
d. Patterns beginning with 'there',
'Wh' type question There are two chocolates in my bag. Where is your
e. Patterns of command/request Come here, Go there, etc.
f. Formal pattern Good afternoon, Thank you etc.
D. Sentence types
The structures have the following sentence types:
a. Declarative sentence: It makes a statement.
Example: I want to be a good teacher.
b. Imperative sentence: It gives a command or makes a request.
Example: Please write it down.
c. Interrogative sentence: It asks a question.
Example: Where are you going?
d. Exclamatory sentence: It expresses a feeling such as surprise, happiness, etc.
Example: Hurrah! We have won the game.
2.7.4 Merits of Structural Approach
a. The controlled practice of structures leads to improvement of accuracy over a period of
b. Structures are taught based on the principles of selection, gradation, patterns of sentences
and types of sentences. Hence, a lot of time is saved;
c. English is taught in meaningful contexts; and
d. Speech is given importance.
51. 2.7.5 Demerits of Structural Approach
a. Learners’ LI is not utilized in teaching and learning;
b. Language use is a matter of creativity. Teaching a limited number of structures may
restrict learner's potential to use the language; and
c. Language drills and repetitions are mechanical.
d. In order to teach English using structural approach, teachers should be well-versed with
linguistics, especially syntax.
e. Oral work is overstressed.
Activity 5
What is your opinion about the structural approach?
How do you select and grade the structures?
2.8 Situational Approach
The situational approach had been developed from the 1930s to the 1960s by British Applied
Linguists, Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornsby. These two people knew the direct method and the
work done by19th century applied linguists like Otto Jesperson and Daniel Jones, and they tried
to develop a positivist approach to teaching English.
The situational approach ensures that the language taught is practical. The vocabulary and
sentences are used in real situation or simulated situation so that the meaning of words are
52. associated with situations. For an example, learners know the meaning of “pencil”, not because
they have looked it up in a dictionary, but by hearing sentences like: “Write with a pencil!”;
“Sharpen the pencil!” etc. Even if the classroom environment is irrelevant, teacher’s
innovativeness helps learners to comprehend it in a situation outside the classroom.
The objective of teaching English is to make learners use it in their daily life. Therefore,
translation and mechanical drills cannot help learners connect language to real-life situations.
They, in fact, lead to boredom, and there is no relationship between what is being learnt and
practised in daily life. Meaning, context and situation are very important to teach a language. The
vantage point of situational approach is its principle of variety and simplicity. It is due to this
characteristic feature, even slow learners are engaged in what teacher or peers do and say in the
classroom. Learners cooperate with one another and they are excited to learn English using it in
imaginary situations, especially when they enact a situation in class. Besides all these, a
noteworthy point is that situational approach demands much from the English teacher. S/he must
be fluent in English, have a reading invention, be able to evaluate learners’ comprehension level
and offer a revision.
2.8.1 Principles of Situational Approach
1. Language learning is habit-formation;
2. Mistakes should be avoided;
3. Language skills are presented orally first, then in written form- to improve the
effectiveness of learning;
4. Examples are better than analysis for language learning;
5. Meanings of the words are presented in linguistic and cultural context;
6. Opportunities are created for learners to associate the meaning of new words with parallel
7. New words are introduced as and when it comes in the class;
8. Language materials are used to create appropriate situation;
9. Continuous repetition of language items;
10. The teacher raises questions related to created situation and s/he answers them;
11. Revision is important;
12. There is a continuous chain of actions from the teacher; and
53. 13. Teachers’ statements and actions go together continuously.
2.8.2 Merits of Situational Approach
1. Meaning well as the structures, are used in an appropriate situation;
2. Learning is easy and effective. English is real and interesting; and
3. The learner gets good exposure to English, L1 is discouraged.
2.8.3 Demerits of Situational Approach
1. Only limited vocabulary and structures are taught;
2. It is useful for teaching lower-class learners;
3. Drilling makes the class uninteresting and weary; and
4. This approach demands highly competent teachers.
Activity 6
Compare and contrast structural and situational approaches.
2.9 Dr. West’s New Method
Dr. West had done research on teaching English as a foreign language in India and developed
this method as a response to the Direct Method. This method focuses on the English language
needs of Indians. He states that learners in India need to read English, write it, speak it and
comprehend it when spoken.
According to Dr. West, teachers should teach silent reading skills first to improve reading
comprehension skills. So, teachers lay more emphasis on the habit of silent reading. In order to
54. develop silent reading as a habit in learners, he proposed a reading book, which has interesting
reading text and selected vocabulary. Dr. West recommended an essential vocabulary-list of 2,
280 words, which have been classified as:
a. General Words: excellent, beautiful, polite, etc.
b. Essential words: that, in, the, will, etc.
c. Common environmental words: pencil, table, pen, plate, etc.
d. Specific environmental words: plant, park, stream, hill, etc.
New words are spread evenly across the lesson. Mother tongue is used based on
necessity. Supplementary materials are used to arouse interest in learners for silent reading.
Learners’ reading comprehension is evaluated using tests.
According to this method, English is a skill subject and that reading English is the easiest way to
speaking and writing. The method also stresses the need to relate the written work with oral
work. In this method, grammar is considered not as a diet, but as a drug.
The West’s method lays emphasis on three important elements:
a. reading,
b. readers with selected and graded vocabulary, and
c. well-judged use of the L1.
2.9.1 Principles of Dr. West’s New Method
The following are the principles of the method:
1. Memorization and mimicking are common in language learning;
2. New structures are explained in L1;
3. Grammar is taught inductively using model sentences;
4. Initially, conversation practice is given in a controlled environment; and
5. Lectures, discussions and dramatization are used in the intermediate and advanced levels.
55. 2.9.2 Merits of Dr. West’s New Method
1. Learners improve their silent and extensive reading comprehension skills phenomenally
by using different types of questioning – local, global and inferential; and
2. Any teacher can teach this skill, especially silent reading.
2.9.3 Demerits of Dr. West’s New Method
1. Too much of attention is given to silent reading and it is difficult to evaluate;
2. Reading in the initial stage is dull and uninteresting;
3. Reading has been given an exaggerated status; and
4. The order of acquiring basic skill has been challenged.
5. It does not help Indian learners to achieve the four-fold objectives of language learning.
Activity 7
Do you agree with Dr. West regarding the New Reading Method that he had proposed? Give
2.10 Bilingual Method
C.J. Dodson (1967) was the proponent of the bilingual method. It is used for teaching a foreign
language and it is complementary to the audiovisual method. From the beginning, the sandwich
technique is used to convey the meaning bilingually. The mother tongue is used for bilingual
pattern drills.
The bilingual method follows three stages (presentation, practice and production) while teaching
English but ELT practitioners and scholars have neglected it. Butzkamm & Caldwell (2009) have
taken forward Dodson’s ideas and Hall & Cook (2012: 299) supported it.
2.10.1 Principles of Bilingual Method
1. Meaning of new words, phrases, idioms, sentences and grammatical rules is conveyed
through L1 in the initial stage of the lesson;
56. 2. Pattern practice is given only in English; and
3. L1 is used only by the teacher to explain vocabulary and phrases.
2.10.2 Merits of Bilingual Method
1. Learners’ L1 scaffolds L2 learning;
2. Learners become functional bilinguals;
3. Avoids meaningless and tedious parroting of the learning input;
4. Learner comprehends grammar and vocabulary easily with L1. Time is saved; and
5. Importance is given to L1 and its culture.
2.10.3 Demerits of Bilingual Method
1. If the teacher fails to understand this method, there is a danger of making this method
into translation method;
2. There is every chance to get confused while differentiating the features of the L1 and
foreign language;
3. The teacher must be fluent in L1 and L2 also; and
4. Learners may rely more on their L1.
Activity 8
Critically analyze the method and give your opinion along with reason whether it can be used
in your classroom to teach English.
2.11 Total Physical Response
James Asher developed Total Physical Response (TPR) based on his experiences. This method is
based on the coordination of language and physical movement. Learners act according to
commands given by the teacher. The learners learn 12 to 36 words in an hour of teaching.
Teachers are advised to treat learners’ mistakes empathetically - like a parent. Total physical
response lessons use a wide range of realia, posters, etc. In the beginning, teaching-learning aids
57. are not necessary to teach lessons. As learners progress in terms of proficiency, a teacher may
use items s/he finds in the classroom.
Asher proposed three hypotheses based on his observations:
1. Learning language should be free from stress;
2. Language learning engages the right hemisphere of the brain; and
3. Basically, language is learnt by listening;
The total physical response is often used with other approaches/methods/techniques. It is popular
among beginners and young learners.
2.11.1 Principles of Total Physical Response
1. Listening is stressed upon; speaking is not important in the early stages of learning;
2. In the initial stages, learners can respond to the teacher in L1;
3. Listening comprehension skills are the most effective strategy to develop speaking skills;
4. Learners are given enough time to acquire speaking skills through listening;
5. The objective of the method is to develop fluency;
6. Lessons are developed around grammar, especially around the verb;
7. Grammar is learnt by induction – through code breaking;
8. ‘Meaning’ is at the heart of a lesson. Therefore, learners learn vocabulary and commands
based on verbs;
9. Teachers are solely responsible for deciding the listening input; and
10. Teachers have the freedom to use other techniques along with TPR.
2.11.2 Merits of Total Physical Response
1. TPR is criticized for being suitable only for beginner level learners;
2. The teacher need not prepare too much to teach the lesson;