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In this section, we will: Use differentiation to solve real-life problems involving exponentially growing quantities.

1.
3

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

2.
DIFFERENTIATION RULES

3.8

Exponential Growth

and Decay

In this section, we will:

Use differentiation to solve real-life problems

involving exponentially growing quantities.

3.8

Exponential Growth

and Decay

In this section, we will:

Use differentiation to solve real-life problems

involving exponentially growing quantities.

3.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

In many natural phenomena,

quantities grow or decay at a rate

proportional to their size.

In many natural phenomena,

quantities grow or decay at a rate

proportional to their size.

4.
For instance, suppose y = f(t) is

the number of individuals in a population

of animals or bacteria at time t.

Then, it seems reasonable to expect that the rate

of growth f’(t) is proportional to the population f(t).

That is, f’(t) = kf(t) for some constant k.

the number of individuals in a population

of animals or bacteria at time t.

Then, it seems reasonable to expect that the rate

of growth f’(t) is proportional to the population f(t).

That is, f’(t) = kf(t) for some constant k.

5.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

Indeed, under ideal conditions—unlimited

environment, adequate nutrition, and

immunity to disease—the mathematical

model given by the equation f’(t) = kf(t)

predicts what actually happens fairly

Indeed, under ideal conditions—unlimited

environment, adequate nutrition, and

immunity to disease—the mathematical

model given by the equation f’(t) = kf(t)

predicts what actually happens fairly

6.
Another example occurs in nuclear

physics where the mass of a radioactive

substance decays at a rate proportional

to the mass.

physics where the mass of a radioactive

substance decays at a rate proportional

to the mass.

7.
In chemistry, the rate of a unimolecular

first-order reaction is proportional to

the concentration of the substance.

first-order reaction is proportional to

the concentration of the substance.

8.
In finance, the value of a savings

account with continuously compounded

interest increases at a rate proportional

to that value.

account with continuously compounded

interest increases at a rate proportional

to that value.

9.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY Equation 1

In general, if y(t) is the value of a quantity y

at time t and if the rate of change of y with

respect to t is proportional to its size y(t)

at any time, then

dy

ky

dt

where k is a constant.

In general, if y(t) is the value of a quantity y

at time t and if the rate of change of y with

respect to t is proportional to its size y(t)

at any time, then

dy

ky

dt

where k is a constant.

10.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

Equation 1 is sometimes called the law of

natural growth (if k > 0) or the law of natural

decay (if k < 0).

It is called a differential equation because

it involves an unknown function and its

derivative dy/dt.

Equation 1 is sometimes called the law of

natural growth (if k > 0) or the law of natural

decay (if k < 0).

It is called a differential equation because

it involves an unknown function and its

derivative dy/dt.

11.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

It’s not hard to think of a solution of

Equation 1.

The equation asks us to find a function whose

derivative is a constant multiple of itself.

We have met such functions in this chapter.

Any exponential function of the form y(t) = Cekt,

where C is a constant, satisfies

y '(t ) C (ke kt ) k (Ce kt ) ky (t )

It’s not hard to think of a solution of

Equation 1.

The equation asks us to find a function whose

derivative is a constant multiple of itself.

We have met such functions in this chapter.

Any exponential function of the form y(t) = Cekt,

where C is a constant, satisfies

y '(t ) C (ke kt ) k (Ce kt ) ky (t )

12.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

We will see in Section 9.4 that any

function that satisfies dy/dt = ky must be

of the form y = Cekt.

To see the significance of the constant C,

we observe that

k 0

y (0) Ce C

Therefore, C is the initial value of the function.

We will see in Section 9.4 that any

function that satisfies dy/dt = ky must be

of the form y = Cekt.

To see the significance of the constant C,

we observe that

k 0

y (0) Ce C

Therefore, C is the initial value of the function.

13.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY Theorem 2

The only solutions of the differential

equation dy/dt = ky are the exponential

y(t) = y(0)ekt

The only solutions of the differential

equation dy/dt = ky are the exponential

y(t) = y(0)ekt

14.
POPULATION GROWTH

What is the significance of

the proportionality constant k?

What is the significance of

the proportionality constant k?

15.
POPULATION GROWTH Equation 3

In the context of population growth,

where P(t) is the size of a population

at time t, we can write:

dP 1 dP

kP or k

dt P dt

In the context of population growth,

where P(t) is the size of a population

at time t, we can write:

dP 1 dP

kP or k

dt P dt

16.
RELATIVE GROWTH RATE

The quantity 1 dP

P dt

is the growth rate divided by

the population size.

It is called the relative growth rate.

The quantity 1 dP

P dt

is the growth rate divided by

the population size.

It is called the relative growth rate.

17.
RELATIVE GROWTH RATE

According to Equation 3, instead of saying

“the growth rate is proportional to population

size,” we could say “the relative growth rate

is constant.”

Then, Theorem 2 states that a population

with constant relative growth rate must grow

exponentially.

According to Equation 3, instead of saying

“the growth rate is proportional to population

size,” we could say “the relative growth rate

is constant.”

Then, Theorem 2 states that a population

with constant relative growth rate must grow

exponentially.

18.
RELATIVE GROWTH RATE

Notice that the relative growth rate k

appears as the coefficient of t in the

exponential function Cekt.

Notice that the relative growth rate k

appears as the coefficient of t in the

exponential function Cekt.

19.
RELATIVE GROWTH RATE

For instance, if dP

0.02 P

dt

and t is measured in years, then the relative

growth rate is k = 0.02 and the population

grows at a relative rate of 2% per year.

If the population at time 0 is P0, then the

expression for the population is:

P(t) = P0e0.02t

For instance, if dP

0.02 P

dt

and t is measured in years, then the relative

growth rate is k = 0.02 and the population

grows at a relative rate of 2% per year.

If the population at time 0 is P0, then the

expression for the population is:

P(t) = P0e0.02t

20.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

Use the fact that the world population was

2,560 million in 1950 and 3,040 million in

1960 to model the population in the second

half of the 20th century. (Assume the growth

rate is proportional to the population size.)

What is the relative growth rate?

Use the model to estimate the population in 1993

and to predict the population in 2020.

Use the fact that the world population was

2,560 million in 1950 and 3,040 million in

1960 to model the population in the second

half of the 20th century. (Assume the growth

rate is proportional to the population size.)

What is the relative growth rate?

Use the model to estimate the population in 1993

and to predict the population in 2020.

21.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

We measure the time t in years and let

t = 0 in 1950.

We measure the population P(t) in millions

of people.

Then, P(0) = 2560 and P(10) = 3040

We measure the time t in years and let

t = 0 in 1950.

We measure the population P(t) in millions

of people.

Then, P(0) = 2560 and P(10) = 3040

22.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

Since we are assuming dP/dt = kP,

Theorem 2 gives:

kt kt

P (t ) P(0)e 2560e

10 k

P (10) 2560e 3040

1 3040

k ln 0.017185

10 2560

Since we are assuming dP/dt = kP,

Theorem 2 gives:

kt kt

P (t ) P(0)e 2560e

10 k

P (10) 2560e 3040

1 3040

k ln 0.017185

10 2560

23.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

The relative growth rate is about 1.7%

per year and the model is:

0.017185 t

P (t ) 2560e

We estimate that the world population in 1993 was:

P (43) 2560e0.017185(43) 5360 million

The model predicts that the population in 2020 will be:

0.017185(70)

P(70) 2560e 8524 million

The relative growth rate is about 1.7%

per year and the model is:

0.017185 t

P (t ) 2560e

We estimate that the world population in 1993 was:

P (43) 2560e0.017185(43) 5360 million

The model predicts that the population in 2020 will be:

0.017185(70)

P(70) 2560e 8524 million

24.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

The graph shows that the model is fairly

accurate to the end of the 20th century.

The dots represent

the actual population.

The graph shows that the model is fairly

accurate to the end of the 20th century.

The dots represent

the actual population.

25.
POPULATION GROWTH Example 1

So, the estimate for 1993 is quite reliable.

However, the prediction for 2020 is riskier.

So, the estimate for 1993 is quite reliable.

However, the prediction for 2020 is riskier.

26.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY

Radioactive substances decay by

spontaneously emitting radiation.

If m(t) is the mass remaining from an initial

mass m0 of a substance after time t, then

the relative decay rate 1 dm

m dt

has been found experimentally to be constant.

Since dm/dt is negative, the relative decay rate

is positive.

Radioactive substances decay by

spontaneously emitting radiation.

If m(t) is the mass remaining from an initial

mass m0 of a substance after time t, then

the relative decay rate 1 dm

m dt

has been found experimentally to be constant.

Since dm/dt is negative, the relative decay rate

is positive.

27.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY

It follows that dm

km

dt

where k is a negative constant.

In other words, radioactive substances decay at

a rate proportional to the remaining mass.

This means we can use Theorem 2 to show that

the mass decays exponentially: kt

m(t ) m0 e

It follows that dm

km

dt

where k is a negative constant.

In other words, radioactive substances decay at

a rate proportional to the remaining mass.

This means we can use Theorem 2 to show that

the mass decays exponentially: kt

m(t ) m0 e

28.
Physicists express the rate of decay

in terms of half-life.

This is the time required for half of any given

quantity to decay.

in terms of half-life.

This is the time required for half of any given

quantity to decay.

29.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2

The half-life of radium-226 is 1590 years.

a. A sample of radium-226 has a mass of 100 mg.

Find a formula for the mass of the sample that

remains after t years.

b. Find the mass after 1,000 years correct to

the nearest milligram.

c. When will the mass be reduced to 30 mg?

The half-life of radium-226 is 1590 years.

a. A sample of radium-226 has a mass of 100 mg.

Find a formula for the mass of the sample that

remains after t years.

b. Find the mass after 1,000 years correct to

the nearest milligram.

c. When will the mass be reduced to 30 mg?

30.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2 a

Let m(t) be the mass of radium-226

(in milligrams) that remains after t years.

Then, dm/dt = km and y(0) = 100.

So, Theorem 2 gives:

m(t) = m(0)ekt = 100ekt

Let m(t) be the mass of radium-226

(in milligrams) that remains after t years.

Then, dm/dt = km and y(0) = 100.

So, Theorem 2 gives:

m(t) = m(0)ekt = 100ekt

31.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2 a

To determine the value of k , we use the fact

that y(1590) = ½(100).

Thus, 100e1590k = 50. So, e1590k = ½.

Also, 1590k = ln ½ = -ln 2

ln 2

k

1590

So, m(t) = 100e-(ln 2)t/1590

To determine the value of k , we use the fact

that y(1590) = ½(100).

Thus, 100e1590k = 50. So, e1590k = ½.

Also, 1590k = ln ½ = -ln 2

ln 2

k

1590

So, m(t) = 100e-(ln 2)t/1590

32.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2 a

We could use the fact that eln 2 = 2

to write the expression for m(t) in

the alternative form

m(t) = 100 x 2-t/1590

We could use the fact that eln 2 = 2

to write the expression for m(t) in

the alternative form

m(t) = 100 x 2-t/1590

33.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2 b

The mass after 1,000 years is:

m(1000) = 100e-(ln 2)1000/1590

≈ 65 mg

The mass after 1,000 years is:

m(1000) = 100e-(ln 2)1000/1590

≈ 65 mg

34.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY Example 2 c

We want to find the value of t such that

m(t) = 30, that is,

100e-(ln 2)t/1590 = 30 or e-(ln 2)t/1590 = 0.3

We solve this equation for t by taking the natural

logarithm of both sides: ln 2

t ln 0.3

1590

ln 0.3

Thus, t 1590

ln 2

2762 years

We want to find the value of t such that

m(t) = 30, that is,

100e-(ln 2)t/1590 = 30 or e-(ln 2)t/1590 = 0.3

We solve this equation for t by taking the natural

logarithm of both sides: ln 2

t ln 0.3

1590

ln 0.3

Thus, t 1590

ln 2

2762 years

35.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY

As a check on our work in the example, we

use a graphing device to draw the graph of

m(t) together with the horizontal line m = 30.

These curves

intersect when

t ≈ 2800.

This agrees with

the answer to (c).

As a check on our work in the example, we

use a graphing device to draw the graph of

m(t) together with the horizontal line m = 30.

These curves

intersect when

t ≈ 2800.

This agrees with

the answer to (c).

36.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING

Newton’s Law of Cooling states:

The rate of cooling of an object is proportional

to the temperature difference between the

object and its surroundings—provided the

difference is not too large.

The law also applies to warming.

Newton’s Law of Cooling states:

The rate of cooling of an object is proportional

to the temperature difference between the

object and its surroundings—provided the

difference is not too large.

The law also applies to warming.

37.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING

If we let T(t) be the temperature of the object

at time t and Ts be the temperature of the

surroundings, then we can formulate the law

as a differential equation: dT

k T Ts

dt

where k is a constant.

If we let T(t) be the temperature of the object

at time t and Ts be the temperature of the

surroundings, then we can formulate the law

as a differential equation: dT

k T Ts

dt

where k is a constant.

38.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING

This equation is not quite the same as

Equation 1.

So, we make the change of variable

y(t) = T(t) - Ts.

As Ts is constant, we have y’(t) = T’(t).

So, the equation becomes dy

ky

dt

We can then use Theorem 2 to find an expression

for y, from which we can find T.

This equation is not quite the same as

Equation 1.

So, we make the change of variable

y(t) = T(t) - Ts.

As Ts is constant, we have y’(t) = T’(t).

So, the equation becomes dy

ky

dt

We can then use Theorem 2 to find an expression

for y, from which we can find T.

39.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING Example 3

A bottle of soda pop at room temperature

(72°F) is placed in a refrigerator, where

the temperature is 44°F. After half an hour,

the soda pop has cooled to 61°F.

a) What is the temperature of the soda pop

after another half hour?

b) How long does it take for the soda pop

to cool to 50°F?

A bottle of soda pop at room temperature

(72°F) is placed in a refrigerator, where

the temperature is 44°F. After half an hour,

the soda pop has cooled to 61°F.

a) What is the temperature of the soda pop

after another half hour?

b) How long does it take for the soda pop

to cool to 50°F?

40.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING Example 3 a

Let T(t) be the temperature of the soda

after t minutes.

The surrounding temperature is Ts = 44°F.

So, Newton’s Law of Cooling states:

dT

k T 44

dt

Let T(t) be the temperature of the soda

after t minutes.

The surrounding temperature is Ts = 44°F.

So, Newton’s Law of Cooling states:

dT

k T 44

dt

41.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING

If we let y = T – 44, then y(0) = T(0) – 44

= 72 – 44

= 28

dy

So, y satisfies ky y (0) 28

dt

Also, by Theorem 2, we have:

y(t) = y(0)ekt = 28ekt

If we let y = T – 44, then y(0) = T(0) – 44

= 72 – 44

= 28

dy

So, y satisfies ky y (0) 28

dt

Also, by Theorem 2, we have:

y(t) = y(0)ekt = 28ekt

42.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING Example 3 a

We are given that T(30) = 61.

So, y(30) = 61 - 44 = 17

30 k 30 k

and 28e 17 e 2817

Taking logarithms, we have: ln( 17

28 )

k

30

0.01663

We are given that T(30) = 61.

So, y(30) = 61 - 44 = 17

30 k 30 k

and 28e 17 e 2817

Taking logarithms, we have: ln( 17

28 )

k

30

0.01663

43.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING Example 3 a

0.01663t

Thus, y (t ) 28e

0.01663t

T (t ) 44 28e

0.01663(60)

T (60) 44 28e

54.3

So, after another half hour, the pop has cooled

to about 54°F.

0.01663t

Thus, y (t ) 28e

0.01663t

T (t ) 44 28e

0.01663(60)

T (60) 44 28e

54.3

So, after another half hour, the pop has cooled

to about 54°F.

44.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING Example 3 b

We have T(t) = 50 when

0.01663t

44 28e 50

e 0.01663t 286

ln 286

t

0.01663

92.6

The pop cools to 50°F after

about 1 hour 33 minutes.

We have T(t) = 50 when

0.01663t

44 28e 50

e 0.01663t 286

ln 286

t

0.01663

92.6

The pop cools to 50°F after

about 1 hour 33 minutes.

45.
NEWTON’S LAW OF COOLING

In the example, notice that we have

lim T (t ) lim 44 28e 0.01663t 44 28 0 44

t t

which is to be expected.

The graph of the

temperature function

is shown.

In the example, notice that we have

lim T (t ) lim 44 28e 0.01663t 44 28 0 44

t t

which is to be expected.

The graph of the

temperature function

is shown.

46.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH & DECAY

Finally, we will look at

an example of continuously

compounded interest.

Finally, we will look at

an example of continuously

compounded interest.

47.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

If $1000 is invested at 6% interest,

compounded annually, then:

After 1 year, the investment is worth $1000(1.06)

= $1060

After 2 years, it’s worth $[1000(1.06)] 1.06

= $1123.60

After t years, it’s worth $1000(1.06)t

If $1000 is invested at 6% interest,

compounded annually, then:

After 1 year, the investment is worth $1000(1.06)

= $1060

After 2 years, it’s worth $[1000(1.06)] 1.06

= $1123.60

After t years, it’s worth $1000(1.06)t

48.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

In general, if an amount A0 is invested

at an interest rate r (r = 0.06 in this

example), then after t years it’s worth

A0(1 + r)t.

In general, if an amount A0 is invested

at an interest rate r (r = 0.06 in this

example), then after t years it’s worth

A0(1 + r)t.

49.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

Usually, however, interest is compounded

more frequently—say, n times a year.

Then, in each compounding period, the interest

rate is r/n and there are nt compounding periods

in t years.

nt

r

So, the value of the investment is: A0 1

n

Usually, however, interest is compounded

more frequently—say, n times a year.

Then, in each compounding period, the interest

rate is r/n and there are nt compounding periods

in t years.

nt

r

So, the value of the investment is: A0 1

n

50.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

For instance, after 3 years at 6% interest,

a $1000 investment will be worth:

$1000(1.06)3 $1191.02 (annualcompounding)

6

$1000(1.03) $1194.05 (semiannualcompounding)

$1000(1.015)12 $1195.62 (quarterly compounding)

$1000(1.005)36 $1196.68 (monthly compounding)

3653

0.06

$1000 1 $1197.20 (daily compounding)

365

For instance, after 3 years at 6% interest,

a $1000 investment will be worth:

$1000(1.06)3 $1191.02 (annualcompounding)

6

$1000(1.03) $1194.05 (semiannualcompounding)

$1000(1.015)12 $1195.62 (quarterly compounding)

$1000(1.005)36 $1196.68 (monthly compounding)

3653

0.06

$1000 1 $1197.20 (daily compounding)

365

51.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

You can see that the interest paid

increases as the number of

compounding periods (n) increases.

You can see that the interest paid

increases as the number of

compounding periods (n) increases.

52.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

If we let n → ∞, then we will be compounding

the interest continuously and the value of

the investment will be: rt

nt n/r

r r

A(t ) lim A0 1 lim A0 1

n

n n

n

n/r rt

r

A0 lim 1

n n

m rt

1

A0 lim 1 (where m n / r )

m m

If we let n → ∞, then we will be compounding

the interest continuously and the value of

the investment will be: rt

nt n/r

r r

A(t ) lim A0 1 lim A0 1

n

n n

n

n/r rt

r

A0 lim 1

n n

m rt

1

A0 lim 1 (where m n / r )

m m

53.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

However, the limit in this expression is

equal to the number e. (See Equation 6

in Section 3.6)

So, with continuous compounding of interest

at interest rate r, the amount after t years is:

A(t) =

A0ert

However, the limit in this expression is

equal to the number e. (See Equation 6

in Section 3.6)

So, with continuous compounding of interest

at interest rate r, the amount after t years is:

A(t) =

A0ert

54.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

If we differentiate this function,

we get:

dA rt

rA0 e rA(t )

dt

This states that, with continuous compounding

of interest, the rate of increase of an investment

is proportional to its size.

If we differentiate this function,

we get:

dA rt

rA0 e rA(t )

dt

This states that, with continuous compounding

of interest, the rate of increase of an investment

is proportional to its size.

55.
CONTINUOUSLY COMPD. INT. Example 4

Returning to the example of $1000 invested

for 3 years at 6% interest, we see that,

with continuous compounding of interest,

the value of the investment will be:

(0.06)3

A(3) $1000e $1197.22

Notice how close this is to the amount we

calculated for daily compounding, $1197.20

However, it is easier to compute if we use

continuous compounding.

Returning to the example of $1000 invested

for 3 years at 6% interest, we see that,

with continuous compounding of interest,

the value of the investment will be:

(0.06)3

A(3) $1000e $1197.22

Notice how close this is to the amount we

calculated for daily compounding, $1197.20

However, it is easier to compute if we use

continuous compounding.