The lesson deals with describing appositives as well as teaching students how to identify, test for and punctuate appositives.
1. San José State University Writing Center www. sisu.edu/writingcenter Written by Sarah Andersen What Is an Appositive? An appositive is a noun that immediately follows and renames another noun in order to clarify or classify it. Appositives are used to reduce wordiness, add detail, and add syntactic variety to a sentence. For example, you can combine two simple sentences to create one sentence that contains an appositive.
Appositives in Introductory Phrases The previous example appositives can als
how how an appositive can come after a noun it renames. However, stand as the introductory phrase of a sentence before the noun.
Appositives in Introductory Phrases After a noun: Ms. Wood, Sally's favorite teacher in high school, is friendly and approachable. Before a nou
Sally's favorite teacher in high school, Ms. Wood is friendly and approachable. Appositives at the Ends of Sentences Similarly, an appositive can be found as a phrase at the end of a sentence. Appositives at the Ends of Sentences Martha ate lunch at Chili’s, her favorite restaurant on the weekends. My uncle was staying at the Holiday Inn, the most affordable hotel in the neighborhood. Appositives, Fall 2012. Rev. Summer 2014. 10f3
2. How Do | Test for Appositives? To test to see if an appositive is needed, replace the appositive with the noun being modified. The sentence should make sense if you substitute the appositive for the noun or noun phrase.
Appositive Tests Original sentence: Ms. Wood, Sally's favorite teacher in the school, is friendly and With substitution: Sally's favorite teacher in the school is friendly and approachable. How Do | Punctuate Appositives? Appositives are punctuated differently if they are restrictive or nonrestrictive. Restrictive Appositives Appositives may or may not be crucial to identify the noun or noun phrase. If an appositive is necessary to understand the identity of the noun or noun phrase that is being modified, the ve is restrictive. Restrictive appositives are not set off with commas.
Mark’s teacher John Smith served in the army. If we removed the appositive, we would understand that Mark’s teacher served in the army. But the sentence loses clarity. Without the appositive, we are unsure which of Mark’s teachers is being referred to. Therefore, this appositive is restrictive and has no commas. Nonrestrictive Appositives If an appositive is unnecessary to understand the identity of the noun or noun phrase it is identifying, it is nonrestrictive. Nonrestrictive appositives are set off with commas.
Fred’s biology teacher, Ted Jones, served in the navy. If we removed the appositive, we would still understand that Fred’s biology teacher served in the ive adds detail to the sentence, the audience already understands being referred to; including the name is unnecessary. Therefore, this appositive is nonrestrictive.
Directions: Underline the appositive in each sentence. Identify the appositive as restrictive (no commas) or nonrestrictive (commas). Punctuate the appositive appropriately. 1. One of his favorite baseball players Barry Bonds played for the San Francisco Giants. 2. My third grade teacher Mrs. Brown is now retired. 3. President Obama the popular US president usually presents eloquent speeches. Appositives, Fall 2012. Rev. Summer 2014. 20f3
3. The Lincoln Memorial a beautiful structure is located near the Washington Monument. Sally Billy’s younger sister is afraid of heights. Your cousin Danielle has beautiful hair. Elvis Presley my favorite musician will be legendary for decades to come. A credible author Stephen King has written many horror novels. My neighbor Ann an elderly woman loves to plan her own vegetables. 10. The famous musician Stevie Wonder is completely blind. Answer Key for Activity 10. The famous musician Stevie Wonder One of his favorite baseball players Barry Bonds played for the San Francisco Giants. My third grade teacher, Mrs. Brown, is now retired. (nonrestrictive) President Obama, the popular US president, usually presents eloquent speeches. The Lincoln Memorial, a beautiful structure, is located near the Washington Monument.
Sally, Billy’s younger sister, is afraid of heights. (nonrestrictive) Your cousin Danielle has beautiful hair. (restrictive)
ley, my favorite musician, will be legendary for decades to come. redible author, Stephen King has written many horror novels. (nonr My neighbor Ann, an elderly woman, loves to plant her own vegetables (nonrestrictive) s completely blind. (restrictive)