# Increasing and Decreasing Functions and the First Derivative Test

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OBJECTIVES:
1. Determine intervals on which a function is increasing or decreasing.
2. Apply the First Derivative Test to find the relative extrema of a function.
1. Applications of Differentiation
2. Increasing and Decreasing
Functions and the First
Derivative Test
3.  Determine intervals on which a function is increasing or
decreasing.
 Apply the First Derivative Test to find relative extrema of
a function.
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4. Increasing and Decreasing
Functions
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5. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
You will learn how derivatives can be used to classify relative
extrema as either relative minima or relative maxima. First, it
is important to define increasing and decreasing functions.
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6. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
A function is increasing when, as x moves to the right, its
graph moves up, and is decreasing when its graph moves
down. For example, the function in Figure 3.15 is
decreasing on the interval is constant on the
interval (a, b) and is increasing on the interval
Figure 3.15 6
7. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
As shown in Theorem 3.5 below, a positive derivative
implies that the function is increasing, a negative derivative
implies that the function is decreasing, and a zero
derivative on an entire interval implies that the function is
constant on that interval.
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8. Example 1 – Intervals on Which f Is Increasing or Decreasing
Find the open intervals on which is
increasing or decreasing.
Note that f is differentiable on the entire real number line
and the derivative of f is
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9. Example 1 – Solution cont’d
To determine the critical numbers of f, set f'(x) equal to
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10. Example 1 – Solution cont’d
Because there are no points for which f' does not exist,
you can conclude that x = 0 and x = 1 are the only critical
numbers. The table summarizes the testing of the three
intervals determined by these two critical numbers.
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11. Example 1 – Solution cont’d
By Theorem 3.5, f is increasing on the intervals and
and decreasing on the interval (0,1), as shown in
Figure 3.16.
Figure 3.16
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12. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
Example 1 gives you one instance of how to find intervals on
which a function is increasing or decreasing. The guidelines
below summarize the steps followed in that example.
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13. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
A function is strictly monotonic on an interval when it is
either increasing on the entire interval or decreasing on the
entire interval. For instance, the function f(x) = x3
is strictly monotonic on the entire real number line because
it is increasing on the entire real number line, as shown in
Figure 3.17(a).
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Figure 3.17(a)
14. Increasing and Decreasing Functions
The function shown in Figure 3.17(b) is not strictly
monotonic on the entire real number line because it is
constant on the interval [0, 1].
Figure 3.17(b)
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15. The First Derivative Test
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16. The First Derivative Test
After you have determined the intervals on which a function is
increasing or decreasing, it is not difficult to locate the relative
extrema of the function.
For instance, in Figure 3.18
(from Example 1), the function
has a relative maximum at the point
(0, 0) because f is increasing
immediately to the left of x = 0
and decreasing immediately to the
right of x = 0.
Figure 3.18
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17. The First Derivative Test
Similarly, f has a relative minimum at the point
because f is decreasing immediately to the left of x = 1 and
increasing immediately to the right of x = 1. The next
theorem makes this more explicit.
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18. The First Derivative Test
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19. Example 2 – Applying the First Derivative Test
Find the relative extrema of the function
in the interval (0, 2π).
Note that f is continuous on the interval (0, 2π). The
derivative of f is
To determine the critical numbers of f in this interval, set
f'(x) equal to zero.
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20. Example 2 – Solution cont'd
Because there are no points for which f' does not exist, you
can conclude that x = π/3 and x = 5π/3 are the only critical
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21. Example 2 – Solution cont'd
The table summarizes the testing of the three intervals
determined by these two critical numbers.
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22. Example 2 – Solution cont'd
By applying the First Derivative Test, you can conclude that
f has a relative minimum at the point where
and a relative maximum at the point
as shown in Figure 3.19.
Figure 3.19
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