4. Doric Doric columns are the most simple of the three types of columns. There are three main parts of the column: the capitol, the shaft, and the frieze. The capitol is the top of the column that is made up of a circle topped by a square. The shaft is the tall part of the column. The frieze is the area above the column that has simple patterns for decorations.
5. Doric Columns - Example There are many examples of ancient Doric buildings. Perhaps the most famous one is the Parthenon in Athens. Many buildings constructed today borrow some parts of the Doric design.
6. Ionic The main parts of Ionic columns are the shaft, the flutes, the capitol, and the base. The shafts of Ionic columns are shorter than Doric columns, which made them look more slender. The flutes were lines that were carved into the shaft from top to bottom. The bases are large and look like carved, stacked rings. The capitols have scroll designs on them. The Ionic columns are a little more decorative than the Doric.
7. Ionic Columns - Example • The Temple of Athena Nike in Athens, shown here, is one of the most famous Ionic buildings in the world. It is located on the Acropolis, very close to the Parthenon.
8. Corinthian The Corinthian column is the most decorative column and is the type most people like best. The Corinthian capitals have flowers and leaves below a small scroll. The shaft has flutes and the base is like the Ionian base.
9. Corinthian Columns - Example The Temple of the Sybil in Rome is a good example of the Corinthian design. The Romans used the Corinthian order much more than the Greeks.
10. Ancient Agora with Acropolis What is an agora?
11. The Parthenon was a temple to Athena built on top of the highest hill in Athens, which was called the Acropolis. The Acropolis was where the kings lived in Athens during the Late Bronze Age and where everyone went to defend themselves when there was a war. Why do you think everyone went there to defend themselves during war? After the Dark Age, there were no more kings. So, the Acropolis became sacred to the goddess Athena, and the Athenians built her a temple.
12. The theater of Dionysus, under the south side of the Acropolis.
13. The Greeks built huge outdoor theaters on hillsides, so that people could be seated in a way that let them see what was going on down in the stage area. The seating section was called the Theatron, which is the origin of our word “theater”. Theater was important to the Ancient Greeks because it was a way to honor the god Dionysus, god of harvest and wine. Theater was such a a big deal that crowds of over 15,000 people would gather to see a play. Even prisoners would be released from jail temporarily so they could attend! Every town had at least one theater and competitions were held with winners for playwriting and performing. Sophocles was a famous ancient Greek playwright. He wrote 120 plays. But there were many Greek playwrights because plays were so popular. There were three types of plays: •Tragedies: The first type they invented was the tragedy. In tragedies, one or more major characters always suffered a disastrous end. •Comedies: Comedies were invented next. In comedies, plays always had a happy end. •Satires: Satires were plays that made fun of mortal legends and of real people. In ancient Greece, you did not poke fun at the gods - not in a play, not in real life, not ever. But you could poke fun at your leaders. Satires in ancient Greece were often political in nature, and could affect people's opinions about current events.
14. The Remains from the Theater of Sparta What is an outdoor theater like this is called? Who can point out where the seats were? Where the stage would have been?
15. The remains from the Theater of Sparta. Does anyone know what an outdoor theater like this is called? Amphitheater Who can point out where the seats were? Where the stage would have been? Seats are in rows on the hillside. The stage is down in the center.