Ancient Greek Architecture: Buildings and Monuments

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This booklet describes the types of Greek columns and their examples, important buildings, and monuments.
1. Ancient Greek Architecture
Complete the graphic organizer as you follow along
with the presentation.
2. Types of Greek Columns
• Doric
• Ionic
• Corinthian
4. Doric
Doric columns are the most simple of the three types of columns. There
are three main parts of the column: the capitol, the shaft, and the
frieze. The capitol is the top of the column that is made up of a circle
topped by a square. The shaft is the tall part of the column. The frieze
is the area above the column that has simple patterns for decorations.
5. Doric Columns - Example
There are many examples of
ancient Doric buildings.
Perhaps the most famous
one is the Parthenon in
Athens. Many buildings
constructed today borrow
some parts of the Doric
6. Ionic
The main parts of Ionic columns are the shaft, the flutes, the capitol, and
the base. The shafts of Ionic columns are shorter than Doric columns,
which made them look more slender. The flutes were lines that were
carved into the shaft from top to bottom. The bases are large and look
like carved, stacked rings. The capitols have scroll designs on them. The
Ionic columns are a little more decorative than the Doric.
7. Ionic Columns - Example
• The Temple of Athena
Nike in Athens, shown
here, is one of the most
famous Ionic buildings in
the world. It is located on
the Acropolis, very close
to the Parthenon.
8. Corinthian
The Corinthian column is the most decorative
column and is the type most people like best.
The Corinthian capitals have flowers and
leaves below a small scroll. The shaft has
flutes and the base is like the Ionian base.
9. Corinthian Columns - Example
The Temple of the Sybil in
Rome is a good example
of the Corinthian design.
The Romans used the
Corinthian order much
more than the Greeks.
10. Ancient Agora with Acropolis
What is an agora?
11. The Parthenon was a temple to Athena built on top of the highest hill in Athens,
which was called the Acropolis. The Acropolis was where the kings lived in Athens
during the Late Bronze Age and where everyone went to defend themselves when
there was a war.
Why do you think everyone went there to defend themselves during war?
After the Dark Age, there were no more kings. So, the Acropolis became sacred to
the goddess Athena, and the Athenians built her a temple.
12. The theater of Dionysus, under the south side of
the Acropolis.
13. The Greeks built huge outdoor theaters on hillsides, so that people could be seated in
a way that let them see what was going on down in the stage area. The seating section
was called the Theatron, which is the origin of our word “theater”.
Theater was important to the Ancient Greeks because it was a way to honor the god
Dionysus, god of harvest and wine. Theater was such a a big deal that crowds of over
15,000 people would gather to see a play. Even prisoners would be released from jail
temporarily so they could attend! Every town had at least one theater and
competitions were held with winners for playwriting and performing. Sophocles was a
famous ancient Greek playwright. He wrote 120 plays. But there were many Greek
playwrights because plays were so popular. There were three types of plays:
•Tragedies: The first type they invented was the tragedy. In tragedies, one or more
major characters always suffered a disastrous end.
•Comedies: Comedies were invented next. In comedies, plays always had a happy
•Satires: Satires were plays that made fun of mortal legends and of real people. In
ancient Greece, you did not poke fun at the gods - not in a play, not in real life, not
ever. But you could poke fun at your leaders. Satires in ancient Greece were often
political in nature, and could affect people's opinions about current events.
14. The Remains from the Theater of Sparta
What is an outdoor theater like this is called?
Who can point out where the seats were? Where the stage would have been?
15. The remains from the Theater of Sparta.
Does anyone know what an outdoor theater like this is called? Amphitheater
Who can point out where the seats were? Where the stage would have been? Seats are in
rows on the hillside. The stage is down in the center.
18. US Capitol Building
20. Jefferson Monument
22. United States Supreme Court
24. United States Library of Congress
26. The White House