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Practice adding and subtracting whole numbers.

1.
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CHAPTER 4

1 Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers

Goal Use mental math strategies to calculate sums and differences.

1. Use mental math to calculate each sum. At-Home Help

Describe your strategy. Rounding is a mental math

strategy for adding and subtracting

a) 680 210 890

numbers. When you round, you will

Regroup 600 + 200 + (80 + 10) = 600 + 200 + 90, or 890. need to adjust your answer to get

the exact answer.

For example:

23 58 can be rounded to

b) 763 847 289 1899 20 60 80. 23 is 3 more than 20

Round 289 to nearest hundred, then regroup to get and 58 is 2 less than 60. So adjust

750 + (847 + 3) + (300 + 10) = 750 + 850 + 310, or 1910. your answer by adding 1.

The answer is 81.

289 is 11 less than 300. So subtract 11 from 1910.

76 40 can be rounded to

80 40 40. 76 is 4 less than 80.

So adjust your answer by

2. Use mental math to calculate each sum. subtracting 4. The answer is 36.

a) 545 655 1200 d) 715 903 422 2040 Regrouping is another mental math

strategy for adding and subtracting

b) 874 926 1800 e) 1822 428 650 2900 numbers. Regroup numbers into 5s

or 10s to make calculations easier.

c) 766 704 1470 f ) 2016 624 910 3550

For example:

3. Use mental math to calculate each difference. 43 92 can be regrouped as

(43 2) 90.

Describe your strategy. The answer is 45 90 135.

80 19 can be regrouped as

a) 680 490 190

(80 10) 9.

If the question was 690 – 490, the answer would be The answer is 70 9 61.

200. 680 is 10 less than 690. So subtract 10 from 200.

b) 1650 95 1555

Round 95 to nearest hundred to get 1650 – 100 = 1550. 95 is 5 less than 100.

So add 5 to 1550.

4. Use mental math to calculate each difference.

a) 820 450 370 c) 903 237 520 e) 3005 755 2250

b) 625 175 450 d) 1020 500 666 f ) 2103 487 1616

32 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

CHAPTER 4

1 Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers

Goal Use mental math strategies to calculate sums and differences.

1. Use mental math to calculate each sum. At-Home Help

Describe your strategy. Rounding is a mental math

strategy for adding and subtracting

a) 680 210 890

numbers. When you round, you will

Regroup 600 + 200 + (80 + 10) = 600 + 200 + 90, or 890. need to adjust your answer to get

the exact answer.

For example:

23 58 can be rounded to

b) 763 847 289 1899 20 60 80. 23 is 3 more than 20

Round 289 to nearest hundred, then regroup to get and 58 is 2 less than 60. So adjust

750 + (847 + 3) + (300 + 10) = 750 + 850 + 310, or 1910. your answer by adding 1.

The answer is 81.

289 is 11 less than 300. So subtract 11 from 1910.

76 40 can be rounded to

80 40 40. 76 is 4 less than 80.

So adjust your answer by

2. Use mental math to calculate each sum. subtracting 4. The answer is 36.

a) 545 655 1200 d) 715 903 422 2040 Regrouping is another mental math

strategy for adding and subtracting

b) 874 926 1800 e) 1822 428 650 2900 numbers. Regroup numbers into 5s

or 10s to make calculations easier.

c) 766 704 1470 f ) 2016 624 910 3550

For example:

3. Use mental math to calculate each difference. 43 92 can be regrouped as

(43 2) 90.

Describe your strategy. The answer is 45 90 135.

80 19 can be regrouped as

a) 680 490 190

(80 10) 9.

If the question was 690 – 490, the answer would be The answer is 70 9 61.

200. 680 is 10 less than 690. So subtract 10 from 200.

b) 1650 95 1555

Round 95 to nearest hundred to get 1650 – 100 = 1550. 95 is 5 less than 100.

So add 5 to 1550.

4. Use mental math to calculate each difference.

a) 820 450 370 c) 903 237 520 e) 3005 755 2250

b) 625 175 450 d) 1020 500 666 f ) 2103 487 1616

32 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

2.
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CHAPTER 4

2 Estimating Sums and Differences

Goal Estimate sums and differences to solve problems.

1. Which sums are greater than 2200? At-Home Help

a) 840 622 713 less than 2200 To solve problems, use estimation

if the problem does not ask for an

b) 372 923 987 greater than 2200 exact answer.

Round to the place value that gives

c) 565 834 879 greater than 2200

you numbers that are easy to add

d) 703 543 824 less than 2200 or subtract. You might adjust your

rounding up or down, depending

2. Which differences are less than 540? on the numbers.

Sometimes you may want to use

a) 1280 640 greater than 540

more than one strategy to solve

b) 6080 5590 less than 540 the problem.

Always check if your answer

c) 4608 3024 greater than 540

is reasonable.

d) 8146 7870 less than 540 Remember to show all your work.

3. A mountain-climbing contest had teams climb two different mountains. One team

climbed Mount Everest. It has a height of 8848 m. Another team climbed Mount Logan

in the Yukon Territory. It has a height of 5959 m. About how much higher did the

Mount Everest team climb? Describe your strategy.

About 2800 m. Round 8848 and 5959 to nearest hundred to get 8800 – 6000 = 2800.

4. Sam recorded the forms of transportation used by neighbourhood students to get

to school. The neighbourhood will win an award if more than 5000 students use a

physically active form of transportation to get to school.

Form of transportation Number of students

walk 3162

bicycle 1072

bus 2154

car 936

other (skateboard, inline skates, etc.) 636

Will Sam’s neighbourhood win the award? Describe your strategy.

No. Round numbers to nearest thousand or hundred to get 3000 + 1000 + 600 = 4600.

About 4600 students use a physically active form of transportation.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 33

CHAPTER 4

2 Estimating Sums and Differences

Goal Estimate sums and differences to solve problems.

1. Which sums are greater than 2200? At-Home Help

a) 840 622 713 less than 2200 To solve problems, use estimation

if the problem does not ask for an

b) 372 923 987 greater than 2200 exact answer.

Round to the place value that gives

c) 565 834 879 greater than 2200

you numbers that are easy to add

d) 703 543 824 less than 2200 or subtract. You might adjust your

rounding up or down, depending

2. Which differences are less than 540? on the numbers.

Sometimes you may want to use

a) 1280 640 greater than 540

more than one strategy to solve

b) 6080 5590 less than 540 the problem.

Always check if your answer

c) 4608 3024 greater than 540

is reasonable.

d) 8146 7870 less than 540 Remember to show all your work.

3. A mountain-climbing contest had teams climb two different mountains. One team

climbed Mount Everest. It has a height of 8848 m. Another team climbed Mount Logan

in the Yukon Territory. It has a height of 5959 m. About how much higher did the

Mount Everest team climb? Describe your strategy.

About 2800 m. Round 8848 and 5959 to nearest hundred to get 8800 – 6000 = 2800.

4. Sam recorded the forms of transportation used by neighbourhood students to get

to school. The neighbourhood will win an award if more than 5000 students use a

physically active form of transportation to get to school.

Form of transportation Number of students

walk 3162

bicycle 1072

bus 2154

car 936

other (skateboard, inline skates, etc.) 636

Will Sam’s neighbourhood win the award? Describe your strategy.

No. Round numbers to nearest thousand or hundred to get 3000 + 1000 + 600 = 4600.

About 4600 students use a physically active form of transportation.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 33

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CHAPTER 4

3 Adding Whole Numbers

Goal Solve problems by adding four 3-digit whole numbers.

1. Calculate. At-Home Help

1 2 1 1

a) 2 0 6 b) 3 2 9 c) 4 2 1 To add numbers, add digits with the

same place value.

3 4 9 4 6 2 2 3 0

1 2 7 5 0 3 3 2 9 Check your answer using estimation.

4 6 7 3 6 8 5 4 7 For example:

1 1

1 1 4 9 1 5 0 0 1 5 2 7 2 1 3 or 2 1 3

1 4 0 3 2 7 3 2 7

2 2 1 6 3 1 6 3

1 6 6 2 2 0 4 2 0 4

9 0 7 8 0 0

9 0

2. During summer camp, Cecilia’s group planted 1 7

trees on five days. The group planted 154 trees on 9 0 7

the first day, 183 trees on the second day, 189 trees Estimate:

200 300 200 200 900

on the third day, and 196 trees on the fifth day.

The group planted a total of 934 trees.

a) How many trees were planted on the fourth day? Show your work.

212 trees 3 2

154 934

183 –722

189 212

+196

722

b) Use estimation to check if your answer is reasonable.

Round 154 down and the other numbers up.

100 + 200 + 200 + 200 = 700 900 – 700 = 200

My estimate of 200 is close to 212. So my answer is reasonable.

3. Balvinder sells chocolate bars to raise money $130 $117 $676

for his school. From Monday to Friday, $130 –$546

Balvinder sold $676 worth of chocolate bars. $143 $130

On Monday he sold $117, on Tuesday he sold +$156

$130, on Wednesday he sold $143, and on 400

Friday he sold $156. Calculate how much 130

he sold on Thursday. Show your work. 16

$546

34 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

CHAPTER 4

3 Adding Whole Numbers

Goal Solve problems by adding four 3-digit whole numbers.

1. Calculate. At-Home Help

1 2 1 1

a) 2 0 6 b) 3 2 9 c) 4 2 1 To add numbers, add digits with the

same place value.

3 4 9 4 6 2 2 3 0

1 2 7 5 0 3 3 2 9 Check your answer using estimation.

4 6 7 3 6 8 5 4 7 For example:

1 1

1 1 4 9 1 5 0 0 1 5 2 7 2 1 3 or 2 1 3

1 4 0 3 2 7 3 2 7

2 2 1 6 3 1 6 3

1 6 6 2 2 0 4 2 0 4

9 0 7 8 0 0

9 0

2. During summer camp, Cecilia’s group planted 1 7

trees on five days. The group planted 154 trees on 9 0 7

the first day, 183 trees on the second day, 189 trees Estimate:

200 300 200 200 900

on the third day, and 196 trees on the fifth day.

The group planted a total of 934 trees.

a) How many trees were planted on the fourth day? Show your work.

212 trees 3 2

154 934

183 –722

189 212

+196

722

b) Use estimation to check if your answer is reasonable.

Round 154 down and the other numbers up.

100 + 200 + 200 + 200 = 700 900 – 700 = 200

My estimate of 200 is close to 212. So my answer is reasonable.

3. Balvinder sells chocolate bars to raise money $130 $117 $676

for his school. From Monday to Friday, $130 –$546

Balvinder sold $676 worth of chocolate bars. $143 $130

On Monday he sold $117, on Tuesday he sold +$156

$130, on Wednesday he sold $143, and on 400

Friday he sold $156. Calculate how much 130

he sold on Thursday. Show your work. 16

$546

34 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

4.
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CHAPTER 4

4 Subtracting Whole Numbers

Goal Subtract whole numbers to solve problems.

1. Estimate and then subtract. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 8702 6914 c) 64 902 5964 To subtract numbers, start subtracting

from the smallest place value.

Estimate: more or Estimate: more or

Regroup if you need to.

less than 2000? less than 60 000?

For example:

less less

10

7 0 12

5 8 1 2

16 9 13 18 9

7 6 10 12 5 3 8 10 12 2 6 4 9

8 7 0 2 6 4 9 0 2 3 1 6 3

–6 9 1 4 –5 9 6 4 You can also add a number to both

1 7 8 8 5 8 9 3 8 numbers to get numbers that are

easier to subtract.

For example, add 51 to both

b) 10 550 9845 d) 56 003 7894 numbers. 5812 51 5863

Estimate: more or Estimate: more or 2649 51 2700

less than 1000? less than 46 000? 5 8 6 3

less more 2 7 0 0

3 1 6 3

Add 155 to both numbers.

15 9 9 Check your answer using estimation

10 550 + 155 = 10 705 4 5 10 10 13 or addition.

9845 + 155 = 10 000 5 6 0 0 3

Estimate: 5800 2600 3200

– 7 8 9 4

1 0 7 0 5 4 8 1 0 9

–1 0 0 0 0

7 0 5

2. Rico’s home town had a population of 75 692 people in 1990. In 2000,

the population was 83 020 people. By how much did the population increase?

Determine if your answer is reasonable using estimation. Show your work.

7328 people

Add 8 to both numbers. 83 020 + 8 = 83 028

75 692 + 8 = 75 700

8 3 0 2 8

–7 5 7 0 0

7 3 2 8

Estimate: 85 000 – 75 000 = 10 000

My estimate of 10 000 is close to 7328. So my answer is reasonable.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 35

CHAPTER 4

4 Subtracting Whole Numbers

Goal Subtract whole numbers to solve problems.

1. Estimate and then subtract. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 8702 6914 c) 64 902 5964 To subtract numbers, start subtracting

from the smallest place value.

Estimate: more or Estimate: more or

Regroup if you need to.

less than 2000? less than 60 000?

For example:

less less

10

7 0 12

5 8 1 2

16 9 13 18 9

7 6 10 12 5 3 8 10 12 2 6 4 9

8 7 0 2 6 4 9 0 2 3 1 6 3

–6 9 1 4 –5 9 6 4 You can also add a number to both

1 7 8 8 5 8 9 3 8 numbers to get numbers that are

easier to subtract.

For example, add 51 to both

b) 10 550 9845 d) 56 003 7894 numbers. 5812 51 5863

Estimate: more or Estimate: more or 2649 51 2700

less than 1000? less than 46 000? 5 8 6 3

less more 2 7 0 0

3 1 6 3

Add 155 to both numbers.

15 9 9 Check your answer using estimation

10 550 + 155 = 10 705 4 5 10 10 13 or addition.

9845 + 155 = 10 000 5 6 0 0 3

Estimate: 5800 2600 3200

– 7 8 9 4

1 0 7 0 5 4 8 1 0 9

–1 0 0 0 0

7 0 5

2. Rico’s home town had a population of 75 692 people in 1990. In 2000,

the population was 83 020 people. By how much did the population increase?

Determine if your answer is reasonable using estimation. Show your work.

7328 people

Add 8 to both numbers. 83 020 + 8 = 83 028

75 692 + 8 = 75 700

8 3 0 2 8

–7 5 7 0 0

7 3 2 8

Estimate: 85 000 – 75 000 = 10 000

My estimate of 10 000 is close to 7328. So my answer is reasonable.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 35

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CHAPTER 4

5 Adding and Subtracting

Decimal Numbers

Goal Use mental math strategies to calculate sums and differences.

Samantha, Matthew, and Akira went to buy some At-Home Help

clothes from a charity fundraiser. To add or subtract money amounts

mentally, regroup the numbers to

$9.95

$8.75 make the calculations easier.

Remember to check if your

answers are reasonable.

$7.90

For example, to add

$0.80 $6.95 $3.25 $7.75, regroup.

$8.75

$2.80 7.00 0.05 3.00 0.25 7.00

0.75 7.00 3.00 7.00 0.05

$7.90 0.25 0.75

17.00 0.05 1.00

1. a) Samantha has $22.00. Choose three items she 18.00 0.05

can buy. $17.95

Suggested answer: 1 jacket, 1 hat, and 1 sweater

b) Use mental math to calculate the total cost. What bills and coins can she use to

pay for the items?

(using answer above) $21.50 one $20 bill, one loonie, and two quarters

c) Use mental math to calculate Samantha’s change.

$0.50

2. Akira has $18.75 and Matthew has $24.50. How much more money does Matthew

have than Akira? Use mental math to calculate your answer.

$5.75

3. a) Choose three items that Akira can buy. Use mental math to calculate the

total cost.

Suggested answer: 1 pair of gloves, 1 sweater, and 1 shirt (total cost) $17.45

b) Use mental math to calculate Akira’s change.

$1.30

36 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

CHAPTER 4

5 Adding and Subtracting

Decimal Numbers

Goal Use mental math strategies to calculate sums and differences.

Samantha, Matthew, and Akira went to buy some At-Home Help

clothes from a charity fundraiser. To add or subtract money amounts

mentally, regroup the numbers to

$9.95

$8.75 make the calculations easier.

Remember to check if your

answers are reasonable.

$7.90

For example, to add

$0.80 $6.95 $3.25 $7.75, regroup.

$8.75

$2.80 7.00 0.05 3.00 0.25 7.00

0.75 7.00 3.00 7.00 0.05

$7.90 0.25 0.75

17.00 0.05 1.00

1. a) Samantha has $22.00. Choose three items she 18.00 0.05

can buy. $17.95

Suggested answer: 1 jacket, 1 hat, and 1 sweater

b) Use mental math to calculate the total cost. What bills and coins can she use to

pay for the items?

(using answer above) $21.50 one $20 bill, one loonie, and two quarters

c) Use mental math to calculate Samantha’s change.

$0.50

2. Akira has $18.75 and Matthew has $24.50. How much more money does Matthew

have than Akira? Use mental math to calculate your answer.

$5.75

3. a) Choose three items that Akira can buy. Use mental math to calculate the

total cost.

Suggested answer: 1 pair of gloves, 1 sweater, and 1 shirt (total cost) $17.45

b) Use mental math to calculate Akira’s change.

$1.30

36 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

6.
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CHAPTER 4

6 Adding Decimals

Goal Add decimals using base ten blocks and pencil and paper.

1. Estimate and then add. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 0.56 0.98 d) 3.498 2.635 0.384 Decimal tenths, hundredths, and

thousandths are added using the

Estimate: 0.5 + 1 = 1.5 Estimate: 3 + 3 + 0.3 = 6.3 same rules as whole numbers.

1 1 2 1 • It is easier to add vertically if

0 .5 6 3 .4 9 8 the decimal points are aligned.

+0 .9 8 2 .6 3 5 • Add place values that are

1 .4 0 +0 .3 8 4 the same.

0 .1 4 6 .5 1 7 • If the sum of a place value is

1 .5 4 10 or more, regroup using

the next greater place value.

• Check your answer using

estimation.

b) 2.804 0.426 e) 4.675 3.899 0.269 For example:

Estimate: 3 + 0.5 = 3.5 Estimate: 5 + 4 = 9 2 1 1

0 . 7 6 2 0 . 7 6 2

1 1 4 .6 7 5 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 5

2.8 0 4 3 .8 9 9 0 . 8 0 3 0 . 8 0 3

+0 .4 2 6 +0 .2 6 9 0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 0 7

3.2 3 0 7 .0 0 0 2 . 1 2 2 2 . 0 0 0

1 .6 0 0 0 . 1 1 0

0 .2 2 0 0 . 0 1 2

0 .0 2 3 2 . 1 2 2

8 .8 4 3 Estimate:

0.8 0.4 0.8 0.1 2.1

To add a decimal number that has

only tenth and hundredth place

c) 0.897 5.824 f ) 4.8 3.152 0.59 values and a decimal number that

has a thousandth place value, add

Estimate: 1 + 6 = 7 Estimate: 5 + 3 + 1 = 9 a zero for the thousandth place value.

0 .8 9 7 1 1

For example, calculating

+5 .8 2 4 4 .8 0 0

1.34 0.379 is the same as

5 .0 0 0 3 .1 5 2

1.340 0.379. Answer is 1.719.

1 .6 0 0 +0 .5 9 0

0 .1 1 0 8 .5 4 2

0 .0 1 1

6 .7 2 1

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 37

CHAPTER 4

6 Adding Decimals

Goal Add decimals using base ten blocks and pencil and paper.

1. Estimate and then add. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 0.56 0.98 d) 3.498 2.635 0.384 Decimal tenths, hundredths, and

thousandths are added using the

Estimate: 0.5 + 1 = 1.5 Estimate: 3 + 3 + 0.3 = 6.3 same rules as whole numbers.

1 1 2 1 • It is easier to add vertically if

0 .5 6 3 .4 9 8 the decimal points are aligned.

+0 .9 8 2 .6 3 5 • Add place values that are

1 .4 0 +0 .3 8 4 the same.

0 .1 4 6 .5 1 7 • If the sum of a place value is

1 .5 4 10 or more, regroup using

the next greater place value.

• Check your answer using

estimation.

b) 2.804 0.426 e) 4.675 3.899 0.269 For example:

Estimate: 3 + 0.5 = 3.5 Estimate: 5 + 4 = 9 2 1 1

0 . 7 6 2 0 . 7 6 2

1 1 4 .6 7 5 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 5

2.8 0 4 3 .8 9 9 0 . 8 0 3 0 . 8 0 3

+0 .4 2 6 +0 .2 6 9 0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 0 7

3.2 3 0 7 .0 0 0 2 . 1 2 2 2 . 0 0 0

1 .6 0 0 0 . 1 1 0

0 .2 2 0 0 . 0 1 2

0 .0 2 3 2 . 1 2 2

8 .8 4 3 Estimate:

0.8 0.4 0.8 0.1 2.1

To add a decimal number that has

only tenth and hundredth place

c) 0.897 5.824 f ) 4.8 3.152 0.59 values and a decimal number that

has a thousandth place value, add

Estimate: 1 + 6 = 7 Estimate: 5 + 3 + 1 = 9 a zero for the thousandth place value.

0 .8 9 7 1 1

For example, calculating

+5 .8 2 4 4 .8 0 0

1.34 0.379 is the same as

5 .0 0 0 3 .1 5 2

1.340 0.379. Answer is 1.719.

1 .6 0 0 +0 .5 9 0

0 .1 1 0 8 .5 4 2

0 .0 1 1

6 .7 2 1

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 37

7.
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CHAPTER 4

7 Subtracting Decimals

Goal Subtract decimals using base ten blocks and pencil and paper.

1. Estimate and then subtract. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 5.0 2.3 d) 6.411 2.58 Decimal tenths, hundredths, and

thousandths are subtracted using

Estimate: 5 – 2 = 3 Estimate: 6.5 – 2.5 = 4 the same rules as whole numbers.

4 10 Add 0.42 to both numbers. • It is easier to subtract vertically if

5.0 6.411 + 0.42 = 6.831 the decimal points are aligned.

–2 .3 2.58 + 0.42 = 3.00 • Subtract place values that are the

2.7 same, starting from the smallest

6.8 3 1 place value.

–3 .0 0 0 • If you can’t find the difference for

3.8 3 1 a particular place value, regroup

using the next greater place value.

• Check your answer using

estimation or addition.

b) 8.21 3.63 e) 9.05 6.208 For example:

Estimate: 8 – 3 = 5 Estimate: 9 – 6 = 3

9 9

Add 0.37 to both numbers. 8 10 4 10 2 10 10 10

8.21 + 0.37 = 8.58 9.0 5 0 3.0 0 0

3.63 + 0.37 = 4.00 –6 .2 0 8 –0.7 5 7

2.8 4 2 2.2 4 3

8.5 8

–4 .0 0 You can also add a number to both

4.5 8 numbers to get numbers that are

easier to subtract.

For example, add 0.243 to

both numbers.

3.000 0.243 3.243

c) 4.020 1.989 f ) 3.8 0.058 0.757 0.243 1.000

Estimate: 4 – 2 = 2 Estimate: 4 – 0 = 4

3.2 4 3

9 11 Add 0.942 to both numbers. 1 . 0 0 0

3 10 1 10 3.8 + 0.942 = 4.742 2.2 4 3

4.0 2 0 0.058 + 0.942 = 1.000

To subtract a decimal number that

–1 .9 8 9 4.7 4 2 has only tenth and hundredth place

2.0 3 1 –1 .0 0 0 values from a decimal number that

3.7 4 2 has a thousandth place value, add

a zero for the thousandth place value.

For example, calculating 3.25 1.722

is the same as 3.250 1.722.

38 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

CHAPTER 4

7 Subtracting Decimals

Goal Subtract decimals using base ten blocks and pencil and paper.

1. Estimate and then subtract. Show your work. At-Home Help

a) 5.0 2.3 d) 6.411 2.58 Decimal tenths, hundredths, and

thousandths are subtracted using

Estimate: 5 – 2 = 3 Estimate: 6.5 – 2.5 = 4 the same rules as whole numbers.

4 10 Add 0.42 to both numbers. • It is easier to subtract vertically if

5.0 6.411 + 0.42 = 6.831 the decimal points are aligned.

–2 .3 2.58 + 0.42 = 3.00 • Subtract place values that are the

2.7 same, starting from the smallest

6.8 3 1 place value.

–3 .0 0 0 • If you can’t find the difference for

3.8 3 1 a particular place value, regroup

using the next greater place value.

• Check your answer using

estimation or addition.

b) 8.21 3.63 e) 9.05 6.208 For example:

Estimate: 8 – 3 = 5 Estimate: 9 – 6 = 3

9 9

Add 0.37 to both numbers. 8 10 4 10 2 10 10 10

8.21 + 0.37 = 8.58 9.0 5 0 3.0 0 0

3.63 + 0.37 = 4.00 –6 .2 0 8 –0.7 5 7

2.8 4 2 2.2 4 3

8.5 8

–4 .0 0 You can also add a number to both

4.5 8 numbers to get numbers that are

easier to subtract.

For example, add 0.243 to

both numbers.

3.000 0.243 3.243

c) 4.020 1.989 f ) 3.8 0.058 0.757 0.243 1.000

Estimate: 4 – 2 = 2 Estimate: 4 – 0 = 4

3.2 4 3

9 11 Add 0.942 to both numbers. 1 . 0 0 0

3 10 1 10 3.8 + 0.942 = 4.742 2.2 4 3

4.0 2 0 0.058 + 0.942 = 1.000

To subtract a decimal number that

–1 .9 8 9 4.7 4 2 has only tenth and hundredth place

2.0 3 1 –1 .0 0 0 values from a decimal number that

3.7 4 2 has a thousandth place value, add

a zero for the thousandth place value.

For example, calculating 3.25 1.722

is the same as 3.250 1.722.

38 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

8.
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CHAPTER 4

8 Communicate About Solving

a Multi-Step Problem

Goal Explain a solution to a problem.

Twyla wants to add 1 kg of compost to two vegetable At-Home Help

gardens. One garden measures 6.00 m by 3.60 m. To solve problems, follow these steps.

The other garden measures 7.60 m by 5.30 m.

Understand the Problem

One kilogram of compost is needed for 43 m2. • What are you asked to find out?

Does Twyla have enough compost for both gardens? • What information is given?

Write a solution. Determine if your answer is • What information is necessary

reasonable. Use the Communication Checklist. to solve the problem?

Suggested answer: Make a Plan

• Is there more than one step

Understand the Problem needed to solve the problem?

I need to determine if Twyla has enough compost for • What calculations can be used?

both gardens. Make a Plan: This problem will take more than Carry Out the Plan

one step andmore than one operation to solve. First I need to • Show all your work.

multiply to find the area of each garden. Then I need to add Look Back

to find the total area. I can compare the total area with the • Check whether your answer

area that 1 kg will cover, or 43 m2. is reasonable.

Use the Communication Checklist.

Carry Out the Plan:

Area of one garden: 6.00 m x 3.60 m = 21.60 m2 2 1 . 6 0 m2

2 Communication Checklist

Area of other garden: 7.60 m x 5.30 m = 40.28 m2 + 4 0 . 2 8 m ✓ Did you explain your thinking?

Total area: 61.88 m2 > 43 m2 6 1 . 8 8 m2 ✓ Did you show how you

So Twyla does not have enough compost for both gardens. calculated each step?

✓ Did you explain how you

Look Back: Check whether calculations are reasonable. checked each answer?

Round all numbers in the problem to the nearest whole number. ✓ Did you show the right amount

Area of one garden: 6 m x 4 m = 24 m2 of detail?

Area of other garden: 8 m x 5 m = 40 m2

Total estimated area: 64 m2 > 43 m2

My estimated answer for the problem shows that Twyla does not have enough compost

for both gardens. So my calculated answer is reasonable.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 39

CHAPTER 4

8 Communicate About Solving

a Multi-Step Problem

Goal Explain a solution to a problem.

Twyla wants to add 1 kg of compost to two vegetable At-Home Help

gardens. One garden measures 6.00 m by 3.60 m. To solve problems, follow these steps.

The other garden measures 7.60 m by 5.30 m.

Understand the Problem

One kilogram of compost is needed for 43 m2. • What are you asked to find out?

Does Twyla have enough compost for both gardens? • What information is given?

Write a solution. Determine if your answer is • What information is necessary

reasonable. Use the Communication Checklist. to solve the problem?

Suggested answer: Make a Plan

• Is there more than one step

Understand the Problem needed to solve the problem?

I need to determine if Twyla has enough compost for • What calculations can be used?

both gardens. Make a Plan: This problem will take more than Carry Out the Plan

one step andmore than one operation to solve. First I need to • Show all your work.

multiply to find the area of each garden. Then I need to add Look Back

to find the total area. I can compare the total area with the • Check whether your answer

area that 1 kg will cover, or 43 m2. is reasonable.

Use the Communication Checklist.

Carry Out the Plan:

Area of one garden: 6.00 m x 3.60 m = 21.60 m2 2 1 . 6 0 m2

2 Communication Checklist

Area of other garden: 7.60 m x 5.30 m = 40.28 m2 + 4 0 . 2 8 m ✓ Did you explain your thinking?

Total area: 61.88 m2 > 43 m2 6 1 . 8 8 m2 ✓ Did you show how you

So Twyla does not have enough compost for both gardens. calculated each step?

✓ Did you explain how you

Look Back: Check whether calculations are reasonable. checked each answer?

Round all numbers in the problem to the nearest whole number. ✓ Did you show the right amount

Area of one garden: 6 m x 4 m = 24 m2 of detail?

Area of other garden: 8 m x 5 m = 40 m2

Total estimated area: 64 m2 > 43 m2

My estimated answer for the problem shows that Twyla does not have enough compost

for both gardens. So my calculated answer is reasonable.

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 39

9.
04-NEM6 WBAns 8/8/05 3:17 PM Page 40

CHAPTER 4

Test Yourself Page 1

Circle the correct answer.

1. Using estimation, which question has an answer greater than 1600?

A. 569 872 236 C. 379 406 765

B. 264 504 429 D. 596 604 366

Use the survey results to answer Questions 2 and 3.

Favourite food Number of students

chili 214

pizza 307

curried chicken 234

sushi 209

2. About how many students were surveyed?

A. about 850 B. about 980 C. about 800 D. about 950

3. How many more students chose pizza than sushi?

A. 86 students B. 89 students C. 98 students D. 96 students

4. Which calculation is not reasonable?

A. 604 392 850 723 2569 C. 356 147 520 801 1824

B. 824 368 456 D. 18 011 9234 7777

5. What are the missing numbers from top to bottom?

6 2 5 2

7 3

3 2 8

A. 1, 8, 9, 5, 6 B. 1, 8, 9, 5, 7 C. 1, 8, 0, 5, 8 D. 1, 9, 9, 5, 7

Use the chart to answer Questions 6 and 7. Juice Volume (L)

orange 2.615

6. What is the total volume of juice?

apple 2.365

A. 10.300 L C. 10.090 L cranberry 2.130

mango 3.090

B. 10.200 L D. 9.090 L

7. How much more mango juice is there than orange juice?

A. 1.475 L C. 0.685 L

B. 1.685 L D. 0.475 L

40 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

CHAPTER 4

Test Yourself Page 1

Circle the correct answer.

1. Using estimation, which question has an answer greater than 1600?

A. 569 872 236 C. 379 406 765

B. 264 504 429 D. 596 604 366

Use the survey results to answer Questions 2 and 3.

Favourite food Number of students

chili 214

pizza 307

curried chicken 234

sushi 209

2. About how many students were surveyed?

A. about 850 B. about 980 C. about 800 D. about 950

3. How many more students chose pizza than sushi?

A. 86 students B. 89 students C. 98 students D. 96 students

4. Which calculation is not reasonable?

A. 604 392 850 723 2569 C. 356 147 520 801 1824

B. 824 368 456 D. 18 011 9234 7777

5. What are the missing numbers from top to bottom?

6 2 5 2

7 3

3 2 8

A. 1, 8, 9, 5, 6 B. 1, 8, 9, 5, 7 C. 1, 8, 0, 5, 8 D. 1, 9, 9, 5, 7

Use the chart to answer Questions 6 and 7. Juice Volume (L)

orange 2.615

6. What is the total volume of juice?

apple 2.365

A. 10.300 L C. 10.090 L cranberry 2.130

mango 3.090

B. 10.200 L D. 9.090 L

7. How much more mango juice is there than orange juice?

A. 1.475 L C. 0.685 L

B. 1.685 L D. 0.475 L

40 Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction Copyright © 2006 Nelson

10.
04-NEM6 WBAns 8/8/05 3:17 PM Page 41

CHAPTER 4

Test Yourself Page 2

Use the picture below to answer Questions 8 and 9.

$3.35

$1.75 5

$0.7

.85

$2

$1.

95

8. What is the total cost of the items shown?

A. $10.65 B. $7.45 C. $10.50 D. $11.05

9. Kittie bought a can of nuts, a package of dried fruit, and a muffin with a $10 bill.

How much change should she receive?

A. $1.75 B. $0.85 C. $1.85 D. $0.75

10. Jasmine is making a fruit cake. The recipe has a combination of fruits and nuts.

What is the total mass of fruit and nuts in the fruit cake?

Ingredient Mass (kg)

currants 0.450

raisins 0.525

almonds 0.175

candied peel 0.175

A. 1.200 kg B. 1.325 kg C. 1.550 kg D. 1.860 kg

11. Asgar hiked on two different trails during summer camp. One trail measures 2.863 km.

Asgar hiked a total of 5.501 km. How long is the other trail?

A. 3.738 km B. 3.648 km C. 2.748 km D. 2.638 km

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 41

CHAPTER 4

Test Yourself Page 2

Use the picture below to answer Questions 8 and 9.

$3.35

$1.75 5

$0.7

.85

$2

$1.

95

8. What is the total cost of the items shown?

A. $10.65 B. $7.45 C. $10.50 D. $11.05

9. Kittie bought a can of nuts, a package of dried fruit, and a muffin with a $10 bill.

How much change should she receive?

A. $1.75 B. $0.85 C. $1.85 D. $0.75

10. Jasmine is making a fruit cake. The recipe has a combination of fruits and nuts.

What is the total mass of fruit and nuts in the fruit cake?

Ingredient Mass (kg)

currants 0.450

raisins 0.525

almonds 0.175

candied peel 0.175

A. 1.200 kg B. 1.325 kg C. 1.550 kg D. 1.860 kg

11. Asgar hiked on two different trails during summer camp. One trail measures 2.863 km.

Asgar hiked a total of 5.501 km. How long is the other trail?

A. 3.738 km B. 3.648 km C. 2.748 km D. 2.638 km

Copyright © 2006 Nelson Answers Chapter 4: Addition and Subtraction 41