What is the Working of Lymphatic System?

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This pdf gives us information about the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of tissues, vessels, and organs that work together to move a colorless, watery fluid called lymph back into your circulatory system.
2. Blood is a fluid consisting of
formed elements and plasma. It is
produced by bone marrow, and
the volume depends on body
weight. An individual weighing
154 pounds has a blood volume
of about 5 quarts/liters.
3. It provides a means of transportation for…
A.Transporting respiratory gases… oxygen and
carbon dioxide
B.Chemicals, such as those found in food,
hormones, and salts
C.Cells that protect
the body from
4. Plasma (PLAZ mah) is
the fluid part of the
blood. It is clear or
straw-colored. It
comprises 55% of the
total blood volume,
and is mostly water
and proteins: albumin
(al BU
min), globulin (GLOB u
len), fibrinogen
(fī BRIN oh jen),
and prothrombin
(pro THROM bin).
5. Erythrocytes (ee RITH roh sītes) are the red
blood cells formed in the red marrow inside
bones. They carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
6. Thrombocytes
(THROM boh sītes) are
platelets, about half the size of
erythrocytes. They play an
important role in the clotting of
Red blood cell; platelet; white blood cell
7. Leukocytes (LOO koh sītes) are white blood cells,
the body’s defense against pathogens (bacteria or
virus). They move through cell walls to areas of
infection, ingesting and destroying the pathogens.
Neutrophils are one of the 5 types of leukocytes. A
‘neutrophil count’ identifies the number of white
blood cells that are aren’t busy elsewhere, and are
available to go fight an infection.
8. In 1901, Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO
blood system that contained 4 blood types. This
was a significant discovery for the success of
blood transfusions.
Blood can be lost
from surgery, injury,
or illness. A person
transfused with an
incompatible blood
type may have a life-
threatening reaction.
The body’s immune
system (white blood
cells) attacks it.
9. Type A blood has ‘A’ antigens located on the
surface of the red blood cells, and ‘anti-B’
antibodies in the plasma. (Antigens and
antibodies are specific protein molecules.) 41%
of the population has this blood type.
People with
Type A blood
can get
from people
with Type A
or Type O
10. Type B blood has ‘B’ antigens located on the
surface of the red blood cells, and ‘anti-A’
antibodies in the plasma. 10% of the population
has this blood type.
People with
Type B blood
can get
from people
with Type B
or Type O
11. Type AB blood both A or B antigens located on
the surface of the red blood cells, and no ‘anti-A’
or ‘anti-B’ antibodies in the plasma. Only 4% of
the population has this blood type.
People with
Type AB blood
can get
from people
with ANY blood
type. They are
12. Type O blood has no A or B antigens located on
the surface of the red blood cells, and both
‘anti-A’ and ‘anti-B’ antibodies in the plasma. 45%
of the population has this blood type.
People with Type O
blood can only get
transfusions from
other people with
Type O blood.
Because the three
other blood types
can take their blood,
they are called
universal donors.
13. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence
of a substance called an ‘agglutinogen’ in the red
blood cells. When the blood has this agglutinogen
in it, the person is said to be Rh positive.
Mixing Rh positive
and Rh negative blood
groups can result in
agglutination, or
blood clumping. This
can become life-
threatening, especially
if it happens more
than once.
14. To make sure a
transfusion is
successful, the blood
is ‘typed’… A, B, AB,
or O. Then it is
cross-matched. That
means that samples
of the donor and Agglutination
recipient blood are
mixed together, and
observed for signs of
15. Lymph is the clear,
nearly colorless,
alkaline fluid that
occupies the space
between all cells of
the body. The term for
this is ‘interstitial
fluid’ (in ter STISH awl),
and it is similar to
blood plasma. It is
95% water. It seeps in
and out through the
walls of very small
vessels called Lymph is mostly fluid
capillaries. from blood plasma.
16. The lymphatic
system is connected
to the circulatory
system. It consists
of capillaries,
vessels, ducts, and
nodes. This system
transports lymph
one-way…back to
the blood stream.
There is no pump, but the lymph moves via
skeletal muscle action, respiratory movement, and
contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls.
17. The lymphatic system has
3 primary functions:
1. Transports proteins
and fluids, lost by
capillary seepage, back to
the bloodstream.
2. Participates in the
body’s immune response.
3. Is the pathway for the
absorption of fats from the
small intestine into the
18. Lymph nodes are filters, slowing down and
cleaning the lymph before returning it to the blood.
The dark
lumps on the
membrane are
lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes and ducts under the arm.
19. Lymph nodes trap and sometimes become
swollen with bacteria that has invaded the body
AND the white blood cells that fight that
20. The lymphatic system
plays an important role
in the development or
spread of cancer.
Cancer that starts in the
lymph nodes is called a
lymphoma. When
cancer cells break off a
tumor and spread into
the lymph nodes, it is
known as metastatic
Example: A dye is injected to direct the surgeon to the nearest lymph
node (the sentinel node). If cancer cells are found in this node, they
have spread away from the tumor.
21. The spleen is a soft, dark
purple organ found in the
upper-left portion of the
abdomen and surrounded
by blood and lymph
vessels. The red pulp of the
spleen removes old red
blood cells (erythrocytes)
from the blood supply. The
white pulp of the spleen
removes, stores and
produces white blood cells
22. If the spleen is severely
damaged, it can be
removed surgically with
a procedure called a
splenectomy. The
majority of its functions
are taken over by the
liver. The individual will
have an increased Normally
susceptibility to 11-12 cm
in length;
infections due to the loss 4½
of immune function. inches
23. The tonsils are located
in masses of tissue in
the back of the throat.
They filter bacteria and
produce white blood
cells. Tonsils are
sometimes removed if
they become so large
they cause an
obstruction or if they
are chronically
24. The thymus gland is
usually considered as
part of the endocrine
system, but is actually Thyroid
part of the lymphatic
system due to its
appearance and function.
It manufactures one
specific type of the
lymphocytes. They are
Do not confuse the thymus
aptly called T-cells. gland with the thyroid gland.