This pdf gives us information about the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of tissues, vessels, and organs that work together to move a colorless, watery fluid called lymph back into your circulatory system.
2. Blood is a fluid consisting of formed elements and plasma. It is produced by bone marrow, and the volume depends on body weight. An individual weighing 154 pounds has a blood volume of about 5 quarts/liters.
3. It provides a means of transportation for… A.Transporting respiratory gases… oxygen and carbon dioxide B.Chemicals, such as those found in food, hormones, and salts C.Cells that protect the body from foreign substances
4. Plasma (PLAZ mah) is the fluid part of the blood. It is clear or straw-colored. It comprises 55% of the total blood volume, and is mostly water and proteins: albumin (al BU min), globulin (GLOB u len), fibrinogen (fī BRIN oh jen), and prothrombin (pro THROM bin).
5. Erythrocytes (ee RITH roh sītes) are the red blood cells formed in the red marrow inside bones. They carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
6. Thrombocytes (THROM boh sītes) are platelets, about half the size of erythrocytes. They play an important role in the clotting of blood. Red blood cell; platelet; white blood cell
7. Leukocytes (LOO koh sītes) are white blood cells, the body’s defense against pathogens (bacteria or virus). They move through cell walls to areas of infection, ingesting and destroying the pathogens. Neutrophils are one of the 5 types of leukocytes. A ‘neutrophil count’ identifies the number of white blood cells that are aren’t busy elsewhere, and are available to go fight an infection.
8. In 1901, Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO blood system that contained 4 blood types. This was a significant discovery for the success of blood transfusions. Blood can be lost from surgery, injury, or illness. A person transfused with an incompatible blood type may have a life- threatening reaction. The body’s immune system (white blood cells) attacks it.
9. Type A blood has ‘A’ antigens located on the surface of the red blood cells, and ‘anti-B’ antibodies in the plasma. (Antigens and antibodies are specific protein molecules.) 41% of the population has this blood type. People with Type A blood can get from people with Type A or Type O blood.
10. Type B blood has ‘B’ antigens located on the surface of the red blood cells, and ‘anti-A’ antibodies in the plasma. 10% of the population has this blood type. People with Type B blood can get from people with Type B or Type O blood.
11. Type AB blood both A or B antigens located on the surface of the red blood cells, and no ‘anti-A’ or ‘anti-B’ antibodies in the plasma. Only 4% of the population has this blood type. People with Type AB blood can get transfusions from people with ANY blood type. They are called universal receivers.
12. Type O blood has no A or B antigens located on the surface of the red blood cells, and both ‘anti-A’ and ‘anti-B’ antibodies in the plasma. 45% of the population has this blood type. People with Type O blood can only get transfusions from other people with Type O blood. Because the three other blood types can take their blood, they are called universal donors.
13. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a substance called an ‘agglutinogen’ in the red blood cells. When the blood has this agglutinogen in it, the person is said to be Rh positive. Mixing Rh positive and Rh negative blood groups can result in agglutination, or blood clumping. This can become life- threatening, especially if it happens more than once.
14. To make sure a transfusion is successful, the blood is ‘typed’… A, B, AB, or O. Then it is cross-matched. That means that samples of the donor and Agglutination recipient blood are mixed together, and observed for signs of agglutination.
15. Lymph is the clear, nearly colorless, alkaline fluid that occupies the space between all cells of the body. The term for this is ‘interstitial fluid’ (in ter STISH awl), and it is similar to blood plasma. It is 95% water. It seeps in and out through the walls of very small vessels called Lymph is mostly fluid capillaries. from blood plasma.
16. The lymphatic system is connected to the circulatory system. It consists of capillaries, vessels, ducts, and nodes. This system transports lymph one-way…back to the blood stream. There is no pump, but the lymph moves via skeletal muscle action, respiratory movement, and contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls.
17. The lymphatic system has 3 primary functions: 1. Transports proteins and fluids, lost by capillary seepage, back to the bloodstream. 2. Participates in the body’s immune response. 3. Is the pathway for the absorption of fats from the small intestine into the
18. Lymph nodes are filters, slowing down and cleaning the lymph before returning it to the blood. The dark lumps on the membrane are lymph nodes. Lymph nodes and ducts under the arm.
19. Lymph nodes trap and sometimes become swollen with bacteria that has invaded the body AND the white blood cells that fight that bacteria.
20. The lymphatic system plays an important role in the development or spread of cancer. Cancer that starts in the lymph nodes is called a lymphoma. When cancer cells break off a tumor and spread into the lymph nodes, it is known as metastatic cancer. Example: A dye is injected to direct the surgeon to the nearest lymph node (the sentinel node). If cancer cells are found in this node, they have spread away from the tumor.
21. The spleen is a soft, dark purple organ found in the upper-left portion of the abdomen and surrounded by blood and lymph vessels. The red pulp of the spleen removes old red blood cells (erythrocytes) from the blood supply. The white pulp of the spleen removes, stores and produces white blood cells (lymphocytes).
22. If the spleen is severely damaged, it can be removed surgically with a procedure called a splenectomy. The majority of its functions are taken over by the liver. The individual will have an increased Normally susceptibility to 11-12 cm in length; infections due to the loss 4½ of immune function. inches
23. The tonsils are located in masses of tissue in the back of the throat. They filter bacteria and produce white blood cells. Tonsils are sometimes removed if they become so large they cause an obstruction or if they are chronically inflamed.
24. The thymus gland is usually considered as part of the endocrine system, but is actually Thyroid gland part of the lymphatic system due to its appearance and function. It manufactures one specific type of the infection-fighting lymphocytes. They are Do not confuse the thymus aptly called T-cells. gland with the thyroid gland.