Verbs: Modal and Semi-Modal Verbs

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These verbs describe the ability of the subject to act upon the object in a sentence, be it affirmative, negative or uncertain.
1. Modals
Semi Modals
(Modal Verbs)
2. What are They ?
shall may might
should can
ought to
have to have got to
We use Modal verbs to talk about an ability/a duty/
a need /a necessity/wanting
...‫ יכולת‬,‫ הכרח‬,‫ צורך‬,‫חובה‬,‫פעלים אלו מבטאים רצון‬
4. What is special about them?
Modal verbs behave very
differently from normal verbs.
Here are some important differences:
.‫פעלים אלו "מתנהגים" באופן שונה מפעלים אחרים‬
:‫בהמשך יוצגו מספר הבדלים חשובים‬
5. 1. Modal verbs are always followed by a verb in
its base form.
He can speak Chinese.
Compare: I speak Chinese.
He speaks Chinese
You may take the book to school.
She may take the book to school.
Compare: You take the books to school.
She takes the books to school.
.‫ יופיע תמיד פועל בצורת המקור שלו‬,‫לאחר פעלים אלה‬
6. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third .2
.person in the present simple
• He speaks Chinese.
• He can speak Chinese. (NOT- He cans speak…)
• She eats a sandwich at 9:30
• She may eat a sandwich at 9:30.
.‫ יופיע תמיד פועל בצורת המקור שלו‬,‫לאחר פעלים אלה‬
.‫ בגוף שלישי יחיד‬S ‫ לא תתווסף‬,‫לשניהם‬
7. 3. You use "not" to make modal verbs
negative, even in Simple Present and
Simple Past.
(We don’t use the helping verb “do”)
He should not be late.
They might not come to the party.
Compare: I don’t like to be late.
I cannot eat any more cakes.
I don’t eat carrot cakes.
,‫כדי ליצור את צורת השלילה של פעלים אלה‬
.do ‫ ללא פועל העזר‬not -‫נשתמש ב‬
8. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the .4
.past tenses or the future tenses
.‫ לא ניתן להשתמש בעבר או בעתיד‬,‫ברוב הפעלים האלה‬
He will can go with us. WRONG
She must studied very hard. WRONG
9. Modal Verbs and their
• Many modal verbs cannot be used
in all of the English tenses. That's
why we need to know their
meaning and the substitute for
these modal verbs.
‫כיוון שחלק מפעלים אלה אינם ניתנים לשימוש בכל‬
‫אפשר להחליף‬/‫ עלינו להבין במה צריך‬,‫הזמנים‬
10. will- will not - won’t
We use this modal to speak about
future actions that we are sure/
convinced about.
‫משתמשים בפעלים אלה כדי לדבר על פעולות‬
.‫משוכנעים שתתרחשנה בעתיד‬/‫שאנו בטוחים‬
11. will- will not(=won’t)
Today is Tuesday. Tomorrow
will be Wednesday.
= I know it because this is a known
We will not be in the office
= I know it because he is going on
12. Can – Could –Be able to
We use these modals to express:
• General ability/ disability
• possibility / impossibility
• opportunity
• Permission :‫משתמשים בפעלים אלה לבטא‬
‫ חוסר יכולת‬/‫• יכולת‬
• request ‫• הזדמנות‬
‫ בקשת רשות‬/ ‫• רשות‬
13. Can
I can walk.
= I have the general ability to do
the action of walking.
I can’t hear you, it is too noisy.
=I don’t have the ability to hear what
you are saying because of the noise.
14. Can
I have some free time. I can help her
=I have the opportunity to help her.
I can't help her now because I don't
have any time.
=I don’t have the opportunity to help her.
15. Can Could
In the past, can changes to could.
He could speak only Hebrew when
he was a kid. He couldn’t speak to
his neighbor who speaks only English.
(General ability)
Practice time-can/could
16. ‫‪may‬‬
‫‪=future possibility/get permission‬‬
‫משתמשים בפועל זה לבטא‪:‬‬
‫• סיכוי‬
‫• יכולת עתידית‬
‫• בקשת רשות‬
17. may
• I may choose to wear the red dress
to the party.
=I have two dresses. There is a chance that I will
choose to wear the red dress and not the blue
one. ‫סיכוי‬
‫יכולת עתידית‬
• Today, he may come on time.
=Although usually he comes late,
There is a possibility that today he will come on
18. may
• May I come to visit you at 5 o’clock?
=I want to come to you but I’m not sure that you
want me to come/that you will be at home/that
you will let me enter .
‫ מתן רשות‬/ ‫בקשת רשות‬
• You may take only one candy.
=Although there are more candies, I permit you
to take only one of them!
19. ‫‪might‬‬
‫משתמשים בפועל זה לבטא‪:‬‬
‫אפשרות (בדרך כלל למשהו שלילי)‬
20. might
• We may come on time, but if you
miss the bus, we might be late.
=I plan to come on time and this is why I I want
to catch the 7:15 bus.
If I catch the 7:30 bus, I can come on time or
not, I’m not sure.
• If you advertise on the Internet you
might get a lot of spam to your e-
mail box.
=Although you don’t want to get spam, there’s a
risk that you will get it.
21. ‫‪should‬‬
‫‪= advice or a strong suggestion.‬‬
‫משתמשים בפועל זה כדי לתת עצה‪,‬‬
‫לעיתים "המלצה שאי אפשר לסרב לה"‬
22. • If you want to be a champion you
should practice every day.
=You don’t have to practice but then, you will
not get better.
• When you make a cheese cake, you
should first check that you have
-or else, it will not be a cheese cake
23. must - mustn’t
Must – very strong advice/ obligation
Mustn't – things you're not allowed to
:‫משתמשים בפעלים אלה כדי‬
"‫•לתת עצה או "המלצה שאי אפשר לסרב לה‬
‫•לבטא חובה‬
24. • She is sick. She has high fever. She
must take a pill.
= very strong advice/ obligation
• You mustn’t ride your bike without a
= you're not allowed to do.(‫)אסור‬
25. Semi modals
26. have to - has to
had to – will have to
= it is necessary
=shows obligation and giving advice.
have to/has to –in the present/near future
had to –in the past
will have to –in the future
27. • I have to clean my room.
(My mother forces me to do it.)
• She has to finish the test before the
bell rings.
(After the bell rings, you can’t go on answering
the questions.)
• Gail Devers had to take radiation
therapy for her decease.
(…to get well.)
• At the end of the 8th grade we will
have to leave our school.
(…and go to high school.)
28. don’t have to
doesn’t have to
Don't have to / Doesn't have to
= it isn't necessary
Practice time-have/has to
29. Ought to – be supposed to
– be allowed to
• Ought to =‫חייב‬
• be supposed to= we expect him/her
• be allowed to = permission someone
will let/permit him do it.
30. • That’s a great movie. You ought to see it!
(or You must see it.)
• The teacher is supposed to base the
grades on the tests and assignments.
• On Friday, the students in our school don’t
have to wear the school uniform. They are
allowed to wear any color they want. (They
are permitted to / They can even wear a pink
shirt with yellow stripes.)
31. able to )be(
be able to show an ability.
-I don’t know when I will be ready. I
will be able to give you an answer
-Is he able to do it? Yes, he knows
how to do it and has time to do it.
(=Can he do it?)
32. negative contractions
(short form)
33. Modal Verbs and their
• Many modal verbs cannot be used
in all of the English tenses. That's
why we need to know their
meaning and the substitute for
these modal verbs.
‫כיוון שחלק מפעלים אלה אינם ניתנים לשימוש בכל‬
‫אפשר להחליף‬/‫ עלינו להבין במה צריך‬,‫הזמנים‬
34. Practice time
• Exercise on modal verbs and their substitutes
• Exercise - modal verb or substitute
• Exercise on 'must not' and 'need not' (for soccer fans)