Here, students will review whatever they have learned regarding root words, prefixes, and suffixes from previous grades.
1. Word Decoding- Root words, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Phonics: Ways to understand and simplify language
College of the Redwoods Academic Learning Center Learning Packet
2. Table of Contents Introduction: Word Decoding and Its Use Definitions and List of Root Words and Prefixes Explanation of Suffixes and Spelling Rules. Phonics- Explanation Helpful Study Quiz
3. Introduction: Word Decoding and Its Use Word Decoding is simply a way of breaking up a word into understandable parts. Phonics tells you how words are pronounced, but it is not much help in understanding a word through context or by remembering that parts of words contain smaller, sometimes more specific, sometimes more flexible meanings. Through leaming root words, suffixes and prefixes, you can give yourself a “code book” that not only helps you navigate around English, but at times, also languages derived from Greek, Roman, and German. These include many of today’s European and South American languages. Here’s a quick example of how word decoding might work: Take the sentence- Bill predicted that the results of the latest democratic election would leave the losing candidate suffering with hypertension. There are several words that we can derive “clues” through context. For example, we could guess that whatever the losing candidate is suffering from is not good. But the root word “hyper” means “high or excessive” and a moderately versed reader could see the word “tense” inserted in the middle. Or, they might look at the suffix- “-sion” and recognize that this suffix often accompanies a profession or a state of being. Likewise, the root word “demo” means people, as in “demo/cracy,” meaning rule by the people,” and “demo/graphics” would give you a picture of how people are physically spread out over a given location. Ina final example, look at the word predicted; “pre” meaning before and “dict” meaning to speak as in the word diction. Thus, prediction is a word or words spoken about the future. In each of these cases, knowing just part of the word or knowing the root of a similar word might help you guess at the meaning of the whole word. English is a language that is derived from mainly German, Latin and Greek, as well as, some other languages. Because of this, one of the greatest tools any reader, beginner or advanced, can have is to master and memorize a large amount of these root words. General Roots and Prefixes Root Words- Root Words are where many of our common English words originate from. Often a root word is a word in itself or is easily recognizable as the origin of other words.
4. Sometimes root words have several different meanings. Root Words may come at the beginning or end of longer words. Prefixes- Prefixes help to form longer words, but are not words in themselves
only come at the beginning of words and usually have one distinct meaning.
Root or Prefix
a, an not, without atheist, anarchy, anonymous apathy, aphasia, anemia ab away from absent, abduction, aberrant, abstemious ambul to walk ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist ante before anteroom, antebellum, antedate antecedent, antediluvian anti, ant against, opposite _ |} antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antichrist, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy, antigen, antibiotic audi to hear audience, auditory, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, be thoroughly bedecked, besmirch, besprinkled auto self automobile, automatic, autograph, autonomous, bene good, well benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit
super, supra |] above superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, syn together synthesis, synchronous, syndicate tele distance, from afar || television, telephone, telegraph, telemetry theo, the God theology, theist, polytheist therm, thermo || heat thermal, thermometer, thermocouple, thermodynamic,
tract to drag, draw attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable trans across transoceanic, transmit, transport, transducer un not uncooked, unharmed, unintended veh, vect to carry vector, vehicle, convection, vehement vert, vers to turn convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert,
reversion, extravert, introvert
vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize
What is a suffix? Explanation of Suffixes and Spelling Rules A suffix is a word ending. It is a group of letters you can add to the end of a root word* e.g. walking, helpful *A root word stands on its own as a word, but you can make new words from it by adding beginnings (prefixes) and endings (suffixes). For example, ‘comfort’ is a root word. By adding the prefix ‘dis' and the suffix ‘able’ you can make new words such as ‘discomfort’ and ‘comfortable’.
1] For most short (one syllable) words that end in a single consonant (anything but 'a','e' "i, 'o', ‘u') you need to double the last letter when you add a suffix: e.g. run + ing = running
Adding suffixes to words can change or add to their meaning, but most importantly they show how a word will be used in a sentence and what part of speech (e.g. noun, verb, adjective) the word belongs to. e.g. If you want to use the root word 'talk' in the following sentence: Iwas (talk) to Samina. ‘You need to add the suffix ‘ing’ so that the word 'talk' makes better sense grammatically: "T was talking to Samina". There are various suffixes we use. Probably the most common are 'ed' and ‘ing’. Here are some other suffixes and examples. Suffix spelling rules - double letters Usually when you add a suffix to a root word the spelling of both stays the same: e.g. care + ful = careful But there are several important groups of words where the spelling of the root word changes when you add a suffix. Sometimes the spelling changes because of the 'Doubling' rules. As always, there are exceptions to these 4 rules, but they are a good starting guide:
sun + y = sunny If the word ends with more than one consonant, you don't double the last letter: e.g. pump + ed= pumped sing + ing = singing
2] For most longer (more than one syllable) words that end in 'l' you need to double the 'l' when you add the suffix: eg. travel + ing = travelling cancel + ed = cancelled
3] For most longer (more than one syllable) words that have the stress on the last syllable when you say them AND end ina single consonant (anything but 'a’, 'e' ','o', 'u!) you need to double the last letter: e.g. begin + er = beginner prefer + ing = preferring If the word has more than one syllable and ends in a single consonant, but the stress isn't on the last syllable, then you don't need to double the last letter before adding a suffix: eg. offer + ing = offering benefit + ed = benefited 4] If you have a word ending in a consonant and a suffix starting in a consonant, you don't need to double the last letter of the word: e.g. enrol + ment = enrolment commit + ment = commitment
Suffix Example Suffix Example ed walk + ed = walked ness happy + ness = ing say + ing = saying al accident + al = er tall + er = taller ary imagine + ary = tion educate + tion = able accept + able= education acceptable sion divide + sion = division ly love + ly = lovely cian music + cian = musician ment excite + ment = fully hope + fully = hopefully ful help + ful + helpful est large + est = largest y ease + y = easy
15. More suffix spelling rules
'y'to i rule
‘When you add a suffix to a word which ends in a consonant followed by a'y', change the 'y' to ' e.g. The word 'happy' ends in ‘py’. When you add the suffix ‘ness’, change the 'y' to 'i to make the word happiness: happy + ness = happiness. Exceptions to the rule. If you are adding the suffix 'ing' to a word ending in'y', keep the 'y'. e.g. The word ‘copy’ ends in 'py'. When you add ‘ing’ the 'y' doesn't change to an 'i! because you would have 2 i's together: copy + ing = copying.
Silent 'e' rule
When you add a'y' ora suffix which starts with a vowel (a,¢,i,0,u) to a word which ends in a silent 'e', drop the silent 'e’. Silent 'e' words are ones that end with a consonant and have an 'e' at the end, such as hope, like, love. If you say the word to yourself you don't really hear the 'e' at the end. e.g. The word 'noise' ends ina silent 'e’. When you add the suffix 'y', the 'e' is dropped to make the word, noisy: noise + y= noisy. The word 'like' ends in a silent 'e’.
Silent 'e' rule
When you add the suffix 'ing’, the 'e' is dropped to make the word, liking: like + ing = liking. Exceptions to the rule, Ifa word ends in ‘ce’, or ‘ge’, keep the 'e' if you add a suffix beginning with either an ‘a’, or an 'o'. (This is done to keep the 'c' or 'g' sounding soft.) e.g. The word 'peace' ends in'ce’. When you add on the suffix ‘able' the silent 'e' is kept to make the word, peaceable: peace + able = peaceable
NB: All these rules also apply to words which have a prefix before the root word. For example if you add the suffix 'ness' to the root word 'unhappy' you would still change the 'y’ to 'i: un + happy + ness = unhappiness Verbs, nouns and professions Adding a suffix to a word can change the job that word does. There are several forms of the ‘shun! sound which are all suffixes that can change root words from nouns to verbs, or give you important clues about what the word is doing.
From verbs to nouns...
1] Adding '-tion’ Adding 'tion' to a root word can change the word from a verb (action word) to a noun (name of person, place or thing): e.g. inject (verb) + tion = injection (noun) instruct (verb) + tion = instruction (noun)
From verbs to nouns...
Sometimes the spelling changes slightly between the verb and the noun. The important thing is that you can see that the verb and noun are related in meaning. e.g. relax (verb) + tion = relaxation (noun) describe (verb) + tion = description (noun) Use this when: - there is a consonant before the 'tion' sound (normally the root word ends int’) N.B. if the root word ends in 't’, you drop the final 't' before adding the suffix. - the root word ends with a long vowel or a short 'l'
18. Phonics is a method of teaching reading using the sounds of words. Phonics is usually helpfill to beginners, who are just leaming English and are unfamiliar with common spellings of sounds, but not as helpful to intermediate or advanced learners. This is because phonics does not help in decoding the meaning of a word. Just because you know how a written word sounds when spoken, does not mean that you understand the meaning of that word. However, phonics may be helpful to ESL (English as a Second Language) leamers, who are working on their pronunciation of written English. Because phonics is often for more advanced learners, this packet will not go into depth, but those wishing to learn more can find information at: 1) www.sadlier-oxford.com/phonics/control_page/front2.html - 2) www.tampareads.com/phonics/phonicsindex.htm - 3) wwwsstarfall.com/ -