Methods of Teaching Science

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Science has become an integral part of our life. Science has also influenced educational enterprise &
hence it is also an integral part of our educational system. Learning science has become
an unavoidable part of general education. In this chapter, we shall discuss the meaning importance &
place of science in the school curriculum and general and specific instructional objectives we shall
also learn about the organization of science curriculum using disciplinary approach & integrated
Dr. Chandana Pattnaik
Dr. Chandrashekher Ashok Chakradeo
Dr. Shrima Banerjee
2. Science Method
1.0 Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Meaning of General Science
1.3 Importance of Science
1.4 Place in School Curriculum
1.5 General and Specific Instrumental Objectives
1.6 Organization of Science Curriculum
1.7 Let us Sum Up
1.0 Objectives:-
After reading this unit you will be able to
 Understand the meaning & importance of general science.
 Describe the place of science in school curriculum
 Explain the disciplinary approach of organization of science curriculum.
 Explain the integrated approach of organization of science curriculum.
1.1 Introduction:-
“Science does not simply sit down & pray for things to happen, but seeks to find out why
things happen. It experiments and tries again and again and sometimes fails and sometimes
succeeds & so bit by bit it adds to human knowledge. This modern world of ours is very different
from ancient world or the middle ages. This great difference is largely due to Science.”
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru -
As very rightly quoted above our every day is different from the earlier days & this is
largely due to the contribution of science in our life. We can’t live happy life without Science. The
science has become integral part of our life. Science has also influenced educational enterprise &
hence it is also the integral part of our educational system. Learning of science has become
unavoidable part of general education. In this chapter we shall discuss the meaning importance &
place of science in school curriculum and general and specific instructional objectives we shall
also learn about organization of science curriculum using disciplinary approach & integrated
3. 1.2 Meaning of General Science
The term science & general science are used synonymously.
Einstein defines science as “An attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense
experience correspond to logically uniform systems of thought.”
According to the Columbia dictionary “Science is an accumulated & systematized
learning, in general usage restricted to natural phenomenon.”
According to ‘Science Manpower Project’, “Science is a cumulative and endless series of
empirical observation which result in the formation of concepts & theories, with both concepts &
theories being subject of modification in the light of further empirical observation. Science is both
a body of knowledge & the process of acquiring & refining knowledge.”
According to Griggs, “In the literal sense science means the pursuit of knowledge but it
has a wider connotation for our purpose, and can be said to mean a knowledge of nature in the
widest possible form.”
On the basis of these definitions of science we can say that
1. Science is a study of natural phenomenon.
2. It is organized & systematized learning.
3. It is a body of cumulative & ordered observations.
4. It is the knowledge based on observations, experiments.
5. Science is a process as well as the product.
1.3 Importance of General Science
The modern civilization is a scientific civilization. In this age the modern society is
completely drawn into the scientific environment. Today science has become an integral part of
our life & living. Now we cannot think of a world without science. The importance of general
science in day to day life may be summarized as under.
1. Agricultural Advancement:-
The Science has revolutionized the agricultural field. The new scientific understanding of the
nature of living creatures, both plants & animals, has led to a spectacular improvement in
agricultural technology. Science has brought revolution in mechanism of agriculture to which
Indian Farmers have readily accepted. The effective use of fertilizers, pesticides, modern
methods of cultivation, improved verities of seeds etc. are few examples of importance of science
in the agricultural sector. Science gives information about insert-control, cattle-diseased, use of
manures & health measures help a farmer & his family.
2. Health:-
Science has helped all of us in improving our health. The old prejudice of vaccination has
broken down with the result of that small pox has been practically wiped out. Science has proved
4. to be a savior to mankind where contagious diseases & epidemics have been prevented by
scientific techniques. Due to contribution of science and average life of an individual is increased
from 32 years in 1950 to over 55 years to day in India.
3. Trade & Industry:-
The ways & processes of trade & industry have been changed due to impact of science.
Industries have become advanced due to advancement in sciences. For example industries such
as textile, steel, electronic, drug, small scale etc have been advanced due to advancement in
In the words of Kothari Commission, “The Wealth & Prosperity of a nation depends on the
effective utilization of its human & material resources through industrialization. The use of human
material for industrialization demands its education in science & training in technical skills.
Industry opens up possibilities of greater fulfillment for the individual.”
4. Education:-
Facilities for study of engineering & medicine in different branches have been increased due
to development of science. As a result various new branches in different disciplines have
emerged. This provides more opportunities for jobs in the market.
5. Other beneficiary areas:- These include,
a. Transportation
b. Banking
c. Communication
d. Entertainment
e. Digitalization & Media
1.4 Place in School Curriculum
Science is an important subject in school curriculum because man’s future depends to a
large extent on scientific advances & development of productive activity. Hence there is a great
need to teach science in school curriculum.
Kothari Commission strongly emphasized that, “We lay great emphasis on making
science an important element in school curriculum. We, therefore, recommend that science and
mathematics should be taught on compulsory basis to all pupils as a part of general education
during first ten years of schooling. In addition there should be provision of special course in these
subjects at the secondary stage, for students of more than average ability.”
UNESCO’s International Education Commission (1972) recommended that,
“Science & technology must become essential components in any educational enterprise;
they must be incorporated into all educational activity intended for children, young people &
Science has now become a compulsory subject in the school curriculum because of its
multifarious value to the individual as well as the society.
1. Intellectual Value:-
5. The Science has introduced us to new ways of thinking and reasoning. Scientific knowledge
helps to sharpen our intellect & promotes intellectual honesty. The science education can develop
the positive attitudes like open mindedness such positive is helpful to an individual to understand,
evaluate and solve many problems faced in life.
2. Vocational Value:-
In present age all the vocation need the knowledge of science more ever there are large no of
vocations for which study of science is compulsory requirement examples: Medicine,
Engineering, Computers, Para medicines, agriculture etc. The study of science at a school level
is the basis of many vocations & other productive activities in the latter life of students.
3. Aesthetic Value:-
Knowledge of science develops in man a passion for truth & thus he has a passion for beauty.
The English Poet Keats has said, “Truth is Beauty.” Science is basically unfolding of the
mysteries of nature & nature is a store house of all the beautiful things. Thus teaching of science
is necessary for developing aesthetic sense in an individual.
4. Utilitarian Value:-
Scientific principles & laws find a large number of applications in our everyday life. For proper
utility of such applications knowledge of science is necessary Electronics, Electricity,
Communication, transport etc all integral part of our life is strongly influenced & advanced due to
advancement in science. Thus teaching of science is necessary from utilitarian point of view.
5. Cultural Value:-
Science has played an important role in determining the culture & civilization of a country from
time to time. It has affected our way of thinking & way of living. Science has a direct influence in
dispelling many traditional beliefs. Science has made us more aware of the universe we live. The
scientists take an equal responsible part in the vital issue of our country so as to bring about
consideration & integration of scientific developments & our cultural heritage.
6. Moral Value:-
Knowledge of science develops in us truthfulness & reasoning. These qualities are desirable
in all human beings. These qualities make the life worth living. This could be possible with the
teaching of science.
7. Psychological Value:-
Teaching of science is essential for developing scientific attitudes & scientific temper. The
principle of learning by doing is the main basis of the teaching of science & satisfies the instincts
of curiosity, creativeness, self assertion, self expression etc. of the pupils.
8. Adjustment Value:-
Science develops in us a scientific attitude. It also develops in an individual a problem solving
attitude. These attitudes helps to solve any problems in life successfully. A person having
scientific attitude lives a peaceful & successful life.
9. Leisure Time Value:-
6. Science has helped us to overcome the problem of passing our leisure time & to make best
use of it. Science has provided us with a large number of devices such as television, radio,
cinema etc. which are the source of entertainment to all of us. They also serve as source of
knowledge & are used for spread of mass education & making the community aware of dangers
of various ills. Science has also provided a large number of hobbies which we can pursue in our
leisure time. For example Photography.
Thus from the above discussion it is very clear that a subject which is so valuable &
psychologically based and so closely connected with our daily life, is justified to be included in the
curriculum & hence science education is valuable in students individual life as also his life in
1.5 General & Specific Instrumental Objectives
The subject taught in the schools have their own identity, importance & educational
values. The educational value of a subject is established by goals / aims & objectives. Which are
achieved by through the study of the subject. The aims or long term goals can be regarded as
expression of strategy while objectives are specific, immediate and attainable goals, specific to
one subject, precise & clearly defined, objectives are more directly concerned with what
specifically is being attempted over a relatively short period.
An objective is a point or an end view of the possible achievement in terms of what a pupil
is to be able to do when the whole educational system is directed towards educational aims.
The objectives are
a. General Objectives:-
b. Specific Instrumental Objectives:-
1.5 (a) General Objectives:-
The Directorate of Extension Programmes for Secondary Education, Government of India,
in its brochure on ‘Evaluation in General Science’ sets some of the objectives of teaching general
science in secondary schools as follows:
1. The pupils studying general science should acquire knowledge of the fundamentals of
science useful to all in everyday life.
2. They should develop the ability to apply the knowledge in everyday life.
3. They should acquire experimental skills such as
a. Handing apparatus & Instruments
b. Arranging apparatus for an experiment.
c. Preserving apparatus, chemicals, specimens, models etc.
4. They should acquire constructional skills such as
a. Improving simple instruments & appliances; &
b. Repairing certain instruments & appliances of everyday use.
5. They should develop drawing skills such as
a. Drawing & sketching certain objects, instruments & arrangements &
b. Photography in certain objects & specimens.
6. They should be able to locate reliable & recent information from appropriate sources.
7. 7. They should be able to interpret scientific data given in various forms such as tabular,
graphical, scientific etc.
8. They should develop the power of minute observation of their surroundings.
9. They should develop the power of oval expression in science to discuss, argue, describe &
raise questions, using scientific terminology.
10. They should develop the scientific method in thinking & action.
11. They should adopt the scientific attitude in making statements, accepting information &
forming beliefs.
12. They should develop interest in scientific reading & hobbies.
13. They should be able to appreciate the impact of science on life, both personal & social, the
struggle through which science has advanced & the inspiring work of the scientists.
1.5 (b) Specific Instrumental Objectives
Specific objectives are related to a particular topic in a particular period of time. These
objectives can be further divided into the following categories:-
1. Knowledge
2. Understanding
3. Application
4. Skills
1. Knowledge:-
The pupil acquires knowledge of terms, concepts, symbols, definitions, principles, processes
& formula of science.
To demonstrate the achievement of above objectives, the pupil;
a. Recalls or reproduces
b. Recognizes
2. Understanding:-
The pupil develops understanding of terms, concepts, symbols, definitions, principles,
process, formula, reactions, mechanisms etc.
To demonstrate the achievement of above objectives the pupil;
a. Give illustrations,
b. Compares,
c. Discriminates between closely related concepts,
d. Classifies
e. Identifies relationship
f. Estimate
g. Estimate the results
h. Interprets
i. Verifies
3. Application:-
The pupil applies his knowledge & understanding of science to unfamiliar situations (or new
To demonstrate the achievement of above objectives the pupil,
8. a. Analyse a given problem
b. Construct hypothesis based on observations
c. Arrange experiments for verification of hypothesis
d. Develop relation between reason & effect
e. Be able to give logic in favour of events/happenings in science
f. Draw conclusions from facts acquired from observations.
4. Skills:-
The pupil acquire skill in experimentation, construction, observation, drawing & problem
To demonstrate the achievement of above objectives the pupil,
a. Draw diagrams nearly, proportionately & methodically
b. Keep the apparatus / specimen systematically
c. Handle apparatus properly.
d. Improvise apparatus models & experiments
e. Locate errors & limitations in experimental set up & in procedures.
f. Solve numerical problems concerning physical sciences
g. Measure the objects & events in terms of physical quantities & units.
It is important to note that these objectives are determined before teaching starts. If these
objectives are not clear for science teacher he/she may be deviated from their path. Teacher
will not be sure what suppose to teach why it is to be taught. How it is to be taught? Hence it
is very essential for a science teacher to predetermine the objectives of science.
1.6 Organization of Science Curriculum
The main purpose of every school is – “To make the child a complete and perfect man.”
This will help the child to be able to lead his life in a better way than he is today. Therefore
schooling is an important human activity. In formal school education curriculum is the major
means to impart knowledge and skills. Different scholars have defined it in different ways.
According to Cunningham, “The curriculum is a tool in the hands of artist (teacher) to mould his
material (pupils) according to his ideals (objectives) in his studio (school). According to P.
Samuel, “The curriculum is the sum total of the experiences of the pupil that he receives through
the manifold activities that go on in the school, in the classroom, in the laboratory, in the library,
on the playground, in the workshops & seminars, & in the numerous informal contacts between
teacher & pupils.”
The major issue in the field of education today is organizing science curriculum in an
effective manner.
Therefore are two major approaches regarding organization of science curriculum viz.
Disciplinary Approach & Integrated Approach. These two approaches are explained below.
1.6 (a) Disciplinary Approach
This approach is also known as the subject approach or the traditional approach. as each
subject is separately taught by the teacher in the area of the particular subject in question. For
9. example science was traditionally taught as a subject with different compartments such as
physics, biology, and chemistry as separate components of the science subject.
Similarly language was taught as a separate subject from other subjects. English was
taught as being different from Hindi, Oriya, History, Geography etc. Thus each subject has a well
defined boundary from which there is no connection to the other.
Thus the approach in which every subject is taught as a separate discipline is called as
disciplinary approach. This approach is based on the premise that, the subject is a store house of
facts, methods, theories, concepts & generalizations. In disciplinary approach the focus is more
on the subject & its content rather than the process. In India the disciplinary approach is very
popular in the higher secondary level. It shall be the responsibility of teacher to show the
connection between different disciplines (subjects).
Characteristics of disciplinary approach
a. In-depth Conceptual Knowledge
Every subject has detailed and in-depth conceptual knowledge
b. Disciplinary based teaching
Each subject is taught as a separate discipline.
c. Content based teaching
The teaching of disciplinary based curriculum largely based on content.
d. Source of knowledge/information
In disciplinary approach the teacher is the main source of knowledge / information.
e. Main purpose
The main purpose of disciplinary approach is to prepare specialist, scientists etc.
f. Mastery of the subject
The learner is expected to master the subject matter.
g. Chalk & talk based teaching
This approach mostly leads to chalk & talk based teaching.
h. Text book is main authority
This approach restrains student observations, values or conclusions different from the text
book which is the main authority in disciplinary approach.
Importance /Merits of the disciplinary approach
a. Expert in the subject
This approach develops expertise in particular subject
b. Subject Growth
The disciplinary approach foster the growth of the subject.
c. Time Saving
Disciplinary approach is very time saving in terms of course completion.
d. Detailed Conceptual Understanding
The disciplinary approach of organizing science curriculum provides detailed conceptual
understanding of the subject.
e. Theory building
The disciplinary approach is very useful in building theory in particular subject/discipline.
f. Higher level thinking
10. As in disciplinary approach the subject is store house of theories, concepts,
generalizations etc. This lead to higher level thinking.
1. Less opportunity for creativity
The disciplinary approach does not provide much opportunities for students creativity.
2. Dropout
Disinterest in particular subject / discipline may lead to dropout.
3. Require expert teachers
The disciplinary approach requires highly knowledgeable & expert teachers.
4. Less Scope of socialization & social skills
Isolated teaching reduces the scope of socialization and social skills.
1.6 (b) Integrated Approach:-
“An integrated approach allows learners to explore, gather, process, refine and present
information about the topics they want to investigate without the constraints imposed by
traditional subject barriers. “(Pigdon & Woolley, 1992)
Integrated approach encourages student to see the interconnectedness and interrelationships
between the different curriculum areas. Instead of focusing on learning in isolated curriculum
areas, an integrated approach is based on skill development around a particular theme that is
relevant to students of a particular class.
1. The curriculum set up of science at primary level i.e. general science is an example of
integrated approach.
Following are the ways of integration
a. Cross disciplinary approach:-
This approach examine an issue typically relevant to one discipline through the lens of
another discipline.
b. Multi disciplinary approach:-
This approach examines an issue from multiple perspectives, without making a concerted
effort to systematically integrate various disciplines.
Inter-disciplinary approach:-
This approach examines an issue from multiple perspectives, leading to a systematic
effort to integrate the alternative perspectives into a unified or coherent framework of analysis.
The integrated curriculum approach is successful in making students more aware of
content area connections, providing a learning environment supporting academic and social
needs, dissolving the boundaries among the disciplines, and fostering stronger
student/teacher relationships. Students participating in an integrated curriculum have
demonstrated a more positive attitude about themselves & school. Similarly teachers are
provided with a new opportunity to work together, increasing collegiality.
Characteristics of Integrated approach:-
1. Wide conceptual knowledge
Integrated approach provides an opportunity for broader & wider conceptual knowledge.
2. Child-centered teaching
11. Integrated approach promotes child centered teaching
3. Integration of skills with contents
Integrated approach of curriculum organization promote integration of skills with contents.
4. Teacher as a mediator
The role of a teacher is mediator between knowledge and child.
5. Use of modern method
The integrated approach requires use of modern methods of teaching such as inquiry
based teaching.
6. Flexibility:-
No rigid disciplines exist. Integrated approach is flexible.
7. Preparation of future citizens:-
The main purpose of integrated approach is to prepare the future citizens of a society.
8. Openness:-
The approach is open to new ideas and procedures.
9. Multi learning Environment:-
The approach requires multi learning environment such as classroom, lab, outdoor,
computer, internet etc.
Importance / Merits of integrated approach
1. Detailed conceptual understanding
This approach help the learner to get detailed conceptual understanding of the content.
2. Choice based selection of discipline / subject
Integrated approach help the students to select discipline / subject according to their own
3. Creativity
This approach foster creativity among learner.
4. Promotion of modern methods
This approach promotes modern methods of teaching such as collaborative learning,
cooperative learning etc.
5. Development of self concept & socialization
Integrated approach helps in developing self concept & socialization
6. Realistic Application
This approach has realistic applications.
Limitations of integrated approach
1. Time Consuming
Integrated approach is time consuming as a single theme analysis is done with different
discipline point of view.
2. Need of well equipped & expert teacher
Integrated approach needs well equipped & expert teachers who are capable of using modern
methods of teaching.
3. Create confusion
If this approach is not handled carefully then child may get confuse in various disciplines.
4. Proper selection & organization of various disciplines
Integrated approach needs expertise to select theme and organization of various disciplines.
1.7 Let us Sum Up
12. There is no definition of general science or science which is universally accepted. In
general we can define science as an accumulated and systematized learning in general usage
restricted to natural phenomenon. Science is the activity where truthfulness is obviously an
essential condition for success. Its success is measured by its truthfulness. Today each and
every occasion of life is influenced by science has become an integral part of our school
education system.
Check your progress
1. Give any two definitions of general science.
2. Enumerate the areas influenced by science
3. State any five general objectives of teaching general science
4. Write specific instructional objectives for the topic “Chemical Change”
5. Write two approach of organizing science curriculum
1. R.C. Sharma, ‘Modern Science teaching’, Dhanpat Rai publishing Company (P) Ltd, New
Delhi (2006)
2. S.P. Kulshreshtha, ‘Teaching of Science’, Surya Publication (2007)
13. 3. L.M. Sharma, ‘Teaching of Science & Life Sciences’, Dhanpat Raj publishing Co. (P) Ltd. New
Delhi (1996)
2.0 Objectives
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methods of Teaching General Science
2.2.1 Lecture-cum-Discussion Method
2.2.2 Laboratory Method
2.2.3 Observation Method
2.2.4 Project Method
2.2.5 Problem Solving Method
2.3 Let us Sum Up
2.0 Objectives
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
 Develop an understanding of different methods of teaching science.
 Develop an understanding of lecture-cum-discussion method.
 Develop an understanding of laboratory method and its utilization in teaching of
 Develop an understanding of importance of observation method in science teaching.
 Develop an understanding of project method.
 Develop an understanding of problem solving method.
I think teaching is an art and there are born teachers. But there are majority of teachers,
who can improve upon by experience of practice and utilization of various methods of teaching
science. The basic aim of teaching any subject is to bring about desired change in behavior. The
change in behavior of child will be indicated through children’s capacity to learn effectively. This is
only possible by adopting various methods of teaching. The teacher cannot utilize any method to
any type of students in any type of environment. He / She has to choose and adopt the right
method of teaching keeping in mind the capability of the students and the curriculum. Thus,
method in a way of presentation of the content in the classroom. But, it in however very important
to keep in mind that a method is not an end in itself but is used to achieve the set aims of
teaching. You should also keep in mind that, same method should not be used at all times but
there should be flexibility in using it as for as situations circumstances, and condition in a
particular case. You should use various methods depending upon demand of the situation. The
method which in a particular class under a particular circumstance, may be a total failure for other
teacher. However, some set criteria for selection of a method of teaching will be discussed further
in the following paragraphs.
Principles for selecting methods:-
There are some guiding principles for determining teaching methods. They are as follows:-
15. 1. Principle of sense of achievement through interest and purpose.
2. Principle of active cooperation.
3. Principle of capability of students of particular class.
4. Principle of realization of meaning of education i.e., “I bring up”, “I nourish”, “Drawing art”.
5. Psychological principle i.e., need, interest, of students.
6. Principle of individual difference i.e., different potentialities of students.
All the methods of teaching science can be classified into two types:-
(i) Teacher-Centred and (ii) Pupil-Centred
(i) Teacher-Centred Methods:-
This type of teaching methods focus on telling, memorizing, recalling informations. The
students participation is very limited where in they only ask questions or answers questions. Most
of the time the students are passive listeners and receive the knowledge. The teacher is centre of
process that goes on in the classroom.
(ii) Pupil-Centred Methods:-
This process emphasizes on need, requirement, interest and capability of students. The
students are active participants where in their skills and abilities are developed. The climate in the
classroom is conducive where in flexibility in there. Teacher and students jointly explore the
different aspects of problem. The role of the teacher in to create a problematic situation, have
materials and resources available to the students, and help them identify issues, state
hypotheses, clarify and test hypotheses and draw conclusions.
Teacher Centred Model
Substantive Procedural Environmental
Dimension Dimension Dimension
Formal Teacher
Repetition, occupies
Science facts and central
information position
Teacher domination
Teacher as authority Minimal
and taskmaster use of new
16. Pupil – Centred Model
Substantive Procedural Environmental
Dimension Dimension Dimension
Use of new
Scientific informal
Method, Scientific Seating
Reflective Concepts and arrangement
Method Generalization flexible
Democratic, group Teacher as
Discovery and moderator and
participation, and
explanation of generator of
group decision
making inquiry
Facilitates higher inquiring process,
results in critical reasoning,
increases efficiency, maximizes
This method is a combination of lecture method and discussion method. This is very
helpful in building an active verbal interaction between the teachers and students. The teacher
delivers the lecture and provides some time (10 minutes) after the lecture for discussion among
the students and teacher in the classroom. The student’s views, comments experiences,
problems, difficulties in understanding any point or portion of the lecture come to teacher’s
knowledge and teacher replies, and clarifies the doubts. It is an important strategy in stimulating
the students interests and assess their understanding of the concept. It is a process in which
interaction goes on in between teacher and students, where in question and answer are asked
and given by both the teacher and students making the process interactive, and effective. The
basic purpose of this method is to disseminate information and attain educational objectives by
learning. The discussion in the class is intended to be a give and take between teacher and
students. This method helps students to apply critical thinking power in various situations. Higher
learning skills like analyzing, synthesizing, generalizing are given front seat.
The Principles are as follows:-
1. The teacher should be aware of needs of learners.
2. The teacher must arouse interest in the subject and sustain in the mind of students.
3. Teacher must use visual aids and use ICT.
4. The teacher must take enough time to build mental pictures, with new concepts, previous
knowledge, moving from simple to difficult ideas, for better conceptual development.
The teacher has to perform following roles:-
1. Encourage students to participate in discussion.
2. Ensure, student’s attention span is maintained.
3. Pre plan and prepare properly for discussion and support ideas with factual evidence and
4. Encourage student taking than teacher talking.
5. If possible give time before hand so that, the discussion becomes productive.
6. Do not dominate rather get the discussion started set goals, summarize, mediate and clarify.
1. It creates democratic environment in the class.
2. Develops and improves communication skills of students.
18. 3. It brings about attitudinal change among students.
4. It helps in assessing the factual knowledge of the students.
1. It is helpful for mature students.
2. If it is not properly used, then the principle of “learning by participating” is not achieved.
3. If teacher does not handle students effectively then the students may be in disciplined rather
than participation.
4. If not managed properly, it will not help all types of students in the class.
5. Teacher must control his emotions else this may result in wrong output.
1. The teacher must maintain good eye contact with students in order to make the process
2. The teacher must actively involve students.
3. The teacher must instruct clearly.
4. Must keep the group focused on the task.
5. Teacher should use good time management techniques and evaluate students as they learn
in the class.
6. Teacher should not read extensively from lecture notes or text books.
7. Teacher must not ignore participant’s comments and feedback.
This method in commonly thought of as a hands on and minds on approach to teach
science where in students have the opportunity to gain some experience with phenomena
associated with their course of study. In this method either student participate alone or in small
groups. They produce or manipulate various variables that are under exploration. The degree to
which student has control over exploration can vary over a wide range. Here the students learn
by actual doing rather than my observing the experiments. As young children do it by themselves,
the experience is impressed more firmly in their minds. Thus this method in psychologically sound
as it satisfies the natural urge for activity. This method broadens interest of the students. They
learn many virtues through laboratory activity. The experience in a laboratory is very rich in
personal satisfaction as they gain it firsthand. The sense of excitement and challenge help them
to achieve some tangible him.
1. It follows the principle of learning by doing.
2. It follows psychological principle, where students age, lord and interest is taken into
3. The work should be Pre-organized and Pre-selected.
4. Teacher must see that, students are allowed to work independently without much
5. The teacher must ensure that apparatus and equipments should be checked pair hand.
6. Teacher must see that students are able to follow in struction and record their observation
1. Teacher must be a facilitator of the process of doing experiments by students.
2. Teacher must check the apparatus previously, so that it goes on smoothly.
3. The practical work must be Pre-organized and Pre-selected.
4. The skills of handling apparatus, drawing, diagrams, careful observations taking necessary
precautions, must be developed among students.
5. The teacher must be that, the student is doing experiment properly by following proper
The Merits are listed below:-
1. This method follows child-centered approach.
2. It makes students active and alert.
3. It gives scope for learning by doing and students do a lot of thinking themselves.
4. Different skills are developed.
5. It paves way for exploration experimentation and verification of scientific facts and principles.
6. It inculcates good virtues like, honesty, truthfulness, dignity of labour etc.
7. It helps in developing sprit of enquiring.
8. It helps in developing higher order this king capacities like reasoning, analyzing, synthesizing
The limitations of this method are as follows:-
1. It is expensive and uneconomical.
2. It is time consuming as it takes much time in some experiments to come to conclusion.
3. It expects a lot from students and teacher.
4. It does not guarantee that, students would be equally efficient in solving problems outside
5. All students cannot be expected to be skilled workers.
6. Most of the students are either not ready or lack to ability to undertake original work.
1. This method should not be considered independently but should form a part of the total
science programme.
2. The practical work must be pre-planned.
3. It is imperative that same individual laboratory work must be done by every student.
4. Instead of performing the experiments started in the book should be little modified for better
5. Before experiment in performed the purpose must be clarified to the students.
In this method, the student observes and acquires knowledge. Through we cannot call this
as a specific method of science teaching but as a matter of fact almost all science begins with
observation the students observe nature, in groups, in lab at school at home or in gardens. The
20. result of this process information of a concept of nature which in permanent in mind. The training
of pupils in observation is really strong his mind with suitable experiences all thoroughly classified
and digested. Science provides remarkable. A raining in observation and reasoning. The learners
reasons from the once established facts and form concepts about further observed phenomena .
It is based on following principles.
1. Principle of freedom.
2. Principle of experience.
3. Principle of play-way.
4. Principle of individual effort.
5. Principle of activity.
6. Principle of logical thinking.
7. Principle of purpose fullness.
A lot is expected / demanded of the teacher in this method:-
i) He must be man of knowledge and give adequate references for further observation.
ii) He should possess curiosity, scientific attitude, interest, sprit of investigation so as to
inculcate such qualities among students who in term observe and discover many things.
iii) He must provide an atmosphere for freedom in the classroom in order to encourage
students to make observations.
iv) He must be a guide, a working partner and friend of the students.
v) He should devise and plan different activities according to the age, ability and interests of
the students.
1. The work of the teacher becomes interesting.
2. The students see think give logic and thoughtful answers.
3. The students learn the similarities and dissimilarities of objects clearly and easily.
4. The knowledge acquired in permanent.
5. Students develop interest in subject.
6. Students become self-dependent, self-reliant and self-confident.
7. The problem of home-work in solved.
8. The relation between teacher and taught becomes intimate and healthy.
1. It is too much to expect children observe and retain knowledge. The students are in nature
sometimes and their knowledge and thinking power in limited.
2. It is not suitable for all the topic of science.
3. This method is information. The practical part of it remains underdeveloped.
4. It is not economical from time point of view.
5. This method is also not economical as it requires a lot of preparation and maintenance form
school point of view. Where is students can observe many things.
1. The students must be given full freedom during observation.
2. Interest and curiosity must be developed in students prior to making observations.
3. The teacher must check and observe things beforehand.
4. The teacher must put questions and pinpoint students observation as and when required.
5. The school must have science corner where in students observation and activity goes on
6. A science bulletin board, A museum shelf, Aquaria and terraria must be there in school where
in students develop a constant interest in the subject.
7. A weather station must be setup where in students observe the weather develop interest.
This method was propounded by W.H Kilpatrick. This method was perfected by J.A
Sternson. The base of this method lies in the philosophy of pragmatism. This method emphasizes
on building a comprehensive unit around an activity which may be carried out in school or
outside. The essence of this method lies in the fact that a group of students do a purposeful task.
This implies the students undertake the activity in a group or individually over a period of time. It
may include a number of activities and the end product is in the form of written report or a display.
“A project is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment”- Dr.
William Kilpatrick.
“A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting”. – Stevenson.
“A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school. – Ballard.
Thus, project is a purposeful activity and planned activity which is achieved in social,
natural situations created in schools.
1. The Principle of freedom.
2. The Principle of purpose.
3. The Principle of activity.
4. The Principle of interest.
5. The Principle of utility.
6. The Principle of correlation.
7. The Principle of sociability.
8. The Principle of experience.
9. The Principle of reality.
10. The Principle of learning by doing.
All the project can be divided majorly into two types.
(i) Individual Project.
(ii) Group Project.
According to W.H. Kilpatrick projects are of four project.
i) Producer projects
ii) Consumer projects
22. iii) Problem projects
iv) Drill projects.
Here the emphasis is on actual construction of a material object or article.
Here the emphasis is gain on obtaining either direct or vicarious experience, such as
reading and learning stories, listening to a musical delectation etc.
The main purpose is to solve a problem using intellectual process, such as determining
the density of a certain liquid.
This type of project emphasizes on attaining a certain degree of skill in a reaction as
learning a vocabulary.
Steps of Project Method:-
The teacher provides a situation to the students which must create same problems and
students must feel interested to work.
The students are tempted to choose a project. The teacher should stimulate discussion by
suggestion. While choosing the project the teacher should bear in need that it should be of
real need to students. The purpose of project must be clearly defined to the students. The
project must be common and acceptable to all. In case of wrong choosing, teacher must help
students tactfully to see that the students choose a better project. They should be asked to
write down the reasons for selection.
The success of the project lies in the good planning. The students should plan out ht
whole project under the guidance of teacher. Every child must be encouraged to participate in
the discussion and make suggestion. All the students are encouraged to write down the plan
neatly and properly.
Execution of different activities to different students on the basis of their capacity leads to
successful completion of the project work. It is the longest step and requires meticulous
assignment of duties to different students or groups the teacher must guide and encourage
students. It is the duty of the teacher to keep watch on the process of activities and instruct as
and when requirement.
23. 5. EVALUATION: -
This is very important step as; the students review the project and find out mistakes if any.
Self-Criticism is very important at this stage. The students discuss their work and rectify their
mistakes and recollect useful knowledge. The teacher sees that the objectives of the project
have been achieved.
The students keep a complete record of entire activity. How they planned, discussions
were held, how duties are assigned, how criticism were made, which will help them in their
future work.
i) Arrangement of science fair.
ii) Preparation of soap/chalk/candle/ink etc.
iii) Improvise apparatus.
iv) Beautifying campus.
v) Establishing science museum.
vi) Establishing physical science laboratory.
vii) Painting iron apparatus to present it from rusting.
1) Teacher must be a friend, guide and working partner.
2) Teacher must have through knowledge of individual student and allot work accordingly.
3) Provide democratic atmosphere.
4) He should learn with students and should not claim to know everything.
5) He must be inexperienced, initiative and process tact for creating positive ambience.
1) It promotes Co-operative activity.
2) It arouses and maintains interest of students.
3) It keeps the students on freedom of thought and action while doing the work.
4) It develops scientific attitude.
5) It widens the mental horizon of student.
6) It develops dignity of labour.
7) The students learn by self activity.
8) It supports all the laws of learning i.e., law of readiness, law of exercise, law of effect.
9) The correlation of subjects is best followed in this method. The subjects are not treated as
water tight compartments.
10) This is a psychological method.
1. The knowledge is not acquired in a sequential manner.
2. There may be a chance of overlapping of subject matter.
3. If not planned and executed properly them, it may not be completed in time.
24. 4. It is a time consuming process.
5. It may be a costly affair where in same items/things may not be available at times.
6. There may be overdevelopment of individualism and under development of co-operation and
group responsibility.
7. If the topic in wrongly selected them the objective may not be achieved.
8. It gives to students a superficial knowledge of great many things. Therefore it is not suitable
for all types of students.
9. This method is not suitable for a mature teacher.
10. The whole syllabus, for higher classes cannot be accomplished with this method.
1. The topic should have same educational value.
2. Project should be selected according to the student’s interest.
3. Entire course should not be planned only using this method.
4. The objectives of the project must be clear and defined.
5. Students should be assigned various duties according to their capabilities.
6. The students should be given freedom to interact among themselves.
Science subject is one of the important subjects in school education. However, really the
traditional teaching methods are challenged for their inability to foster critical thinking, holistic
learning environment among children. The science subject must develop science process skills
where children, observe, measure, classify, process information, interpret think on solving
problems, analyze, synthesize, formulate conclusions, etc. but, it should be kept in mind that,
creativity in an essential element of P.S.
In a problem solving method, children learn by working on problems. This enables the
students to learn new knowledge by facing the problems to be solved. The students are expected
to observe, understand, analyze, interpret find solutions, perform applications that lead to a
holistic understanding of the concept. This method develops scientific process skills. This method
helps in developing brainstorming approach to learning concepts.
The students thinking on problem and their understanding of the science behind it is
based on common sense. It does not start from textual knowledge. Rather it proceeds from
experiencing to gradually forming concepts through books at later stage. It is a process from
practice to theory not vice versa. Knowledge here is not a goal but a natural out came of working
on tasks. Students live in the real world and like to deal with concrete things where they can
touch, feel manipulate things then the method is useful in igniting the process of science learning.
1. Principle of learning by doing.
2. Principle of purpose.
3. Principle of freedom of thought.
4. Principle of learning by experiencing.
5. Principle of utility.
6. Principle of scientific attitude.
7. Principle of interest.
25. 8. Principle of reality.
9. Principle of concreteness.
10. Principle of objectivity.
1. Selection of problem.
2. Presentation of problem.
3. Collection of facts.
4. Drawing an outlines.
5. To reach a satisfactory conclusion.
6. Evaluation.
7. Writing report.
A remember of problems are confronted by the students in the class or outside. They are
made to select a problem as per their capacity and interest.
Each student is made to feel responsible for presenting the problem in front of the teacher
and class as per his insight. The students are free to give their suggestions on the problem.
All the facts related to problem are collected either by a students or group. As a number of
facts will be collected, it will help the students to keep the most pertinent facts and discard
This is most important phase as a proper outline at this stage will lead to purposeful activity.
The teacher will guide students to draw exact plan and follow it properly so that the solution to
problem is reached. It is more or less like planning stage, where in a clear indication of outline
leads to better result.
It is the longest step and requires outmost patience. The tentative solutions which are offered
by students are properly noted down. A good number of arrangements, discussion,
brainstorming results in reaching a satisfactory conclusion. The teacher has to be very careful
at this stage as, if may lead to wrong conclusions. The discussions must be healthy and
conducive atmosphere must be provided in the classroom for it.
The students review the entire process and find out each and every stage where in they have
made any mistakes. Self-criticism and Self-realization will give training of self confidence. The
teacher must see that objective have been achieved.
A complete report must be written by students. This will include, how they planned, what
discussions were held, how duties were assigned, how satisfactory conclusion was reached
26. etc. the writing of report will be maintained as a record which will be used in future course of
1. Teacher must work as a facilitator.
2. Teacher must keep in mind that if in a child-directed learning not teacher-directed.
3. Teacher must provide situation for all students to come formed and contribute towards the
success of the activity.
4. He must be alert and active to arouse interest among students.
5. Teacher must provide democratic atmosphere.
6. He must be initialize, tactful and we experienced.
1. Students develop democratic feting.
2. This method follows the principle of learning by doing.
3. They learn to use old facts in new references.
4. They become capable to generalize.
5. Students learn to find solution to their problem.
1. It is not economical from time and money point of view.
2. There is always a doubt of drawing wrong conclusions.
3. There is short of talented teachers to practice this method.
4. This is not suitable for all level students.
1. The time period must be fixed.
2. The objective should be fixed for a problem.
3. Proper attention must be gain by teacher towards students activities.
4. All students should be given equal opportunity to put forth their problems and ideas.
5. As far as possible the process of group formation should be psychological.
6. Apart from improvement of teaching the objective of this method should be development of
routine problem solving skills.
2.3 LET US SUM UP: -
As we have seen all above methods have their pros and cons. But, effectiveness of
teaching depends upon the method that teacher adopts. Group teaching does not happen over
right. For effective teaching, knowledge of different methods of teaching science in essential. The
teacher however must be free to choose any method that he thinks is suited to the students. For
many decades now, which is not practiced i.e., creating excitement of science, use of new and
innovative methods must be practiced now. Same are discussed here.
In lecture-cum-discussion method is best suited for all lords of students. The basic
purpose of this method is to disseminate and encourage them to take part in the discussion.
27. However, teacher has to see that all students are given equal chance or else this will loose its
In laboratory method, the student controls and observed the changes under investigation.
Students learn by actual activity students learn many virtues through laboratory activity.
Observation method encourages students to develop a keen power of observation and
acquire knowledge. This aims at training students mind to store suitable experiences for
reasoning and establish facts observation of nature develops a sense of satisfaction and
develops awareness towards protection of nature.
Project method has certain steps to be followed by students. This method in based on
philosophy of pragmatism. The sense practicalism develops an attitude to undertake the activity
and complete it scientifically.
Problem solving method develop skill of finding solutions to the problem on their own. The
students thinking on problem and their understanding of the science behind anything helps them
to solve problems of their life objectivity. Students live in the real world and like to deal with
concrete things.
At the end, we can conclude that it is you teachers who have to keep in mind, which
method is suitable to which type of students under what circumstance. Every method has its
merits and demerits. The choosing of methods depends upon your intelligence, resource fullness.
1. Discuss briefly the advantages and disadvantages of lecture-cum-discussion method.
2. Describe the laboratory method of teaching science keeping its merits and demerits in mind.
3. Identify a topic where in you can adept problem solving method.
4. “Observation develops optical reasoning and concentration power”. Explain?
5. Discuss the project method for teaching science. Illustrate it.
6. What are the merits and demerits of laboratory method of teaching science.
1. Das, R.C. Science teaching in schools, sterling publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1985.
2. Kulshreshtha, S.P, Teaching of science, and pasricha H, surya publication, 2007.
3. Sharma, R.C, Modern Science teaching, Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Ltd, New
Delhi, 2006.
4. Yadav, M.S. Teaching of Science , Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2004.
5. Zaidi, S.M. Modern teaching of science Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2004.
Dr. Chandana Patnaik
Asst. Prof. CSSM,
Chamber, Mumbai
28. 3.0 Objectives.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Formulation of Instructional Objectives.
3.3 Unit Planning.
3.4 Lesson Planning.
3.5 Improvisation of teaching aids in general science.
3.6 Let us sum up.
3.0 Objectives: -
In this unit, an overview of following points will be given to you. After reading this unit, you
would be able to:
 Formulate instructional objectives of teaching science.
 Plan a teaching unit of science.
 Plan a lesson effectively according to different approaches.
 Know the process of developing improvised teaching aids in general science.
3.1 Introduction: -
If you are keen in making lesson plans which may help you in achieving your identified
objectives, then they should be stated clearly. If objectives are not clearly defined, it is impossible
to evaluate a student, a lesson, a unit, a course or a programme effectively. This leads to
teaching disaster. Unless you have clear picture of instructional intention, you will be unable to
select test items it the objectives are clearly defined, then students know which activities are
relevant for success of the teaching learning process.
A meaningfully stated objective is that clearly communicate the readers the writer’s
intention- It states the behavioral outcome students after completing a chapter. The most
important characteristics of useful objectives are that it identifies the kind of performance that will
be accepted as evidence that the learner has achiever the objective.
According to B.S. Bloom
“Educational objectives are not only the goals towards which curriculum is shaped and towards
which instruction in guided, but they are also the goals that provide, the detailed specification for
the construction and use of education techniques”.
According to E.J. Frust,
“An educational objective may be defined as a desired change in behavior in a person that we are
trying to bring about through education”.
If we look back at the objectives of teaching science in early twentieth century, then we
see major stress was on teaching of facts. As the time passed and various committee and
commissions recommended changes according to need of changing time, still we see the stress
was on acquisition of knowledge.
29. Educational Objectives
learning Experience (L.E) Change of Behavior (B.E)
This show learning experiences are provided by teaching activities to achieve educational
objectives and change of behavior is evaluated in terms of educational objectives.
Objectives are of two types: -
i) Educational Objectives.
ii) Teaching / Instructional Objectives.
Educational Objectives: -
These objectives are broad and related to educational system and school.
Teaching / Instructional Objectives: -
These objectives are narrow and specific and are concerned with classroom teaching.
The educational objective stretches to a longer period of time say from primary level to university
level, where as instructional objectives may be realized within the stipulated period of 40 minutes
duration. For example – Educational objectives is “To develop the feeling of national integration”.
This includes several teaching objectives like knowledge, understanding, application, interest,
attitude of national integration.
3.2 Formulation of instructional objectives: -
Benjamin S. Bloom has divided the cognitive objectives into six categories. But,
instructional objectives are related to classroom objectives we will see them one by one.
(A) Classroom Instructional Objectives: -
1. The pupil acquires knowledge of scientific facts, terms, concepts, principles, theories.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil recalls……
a) The facts, terminology.
b) The definition of various laws, principles.
c) The names of different parts of flower, leaf, plants.
d) The concept of classification of substances.
e) The names of types of diseases.
ii) The pupil ‘lists all the elements on the periodic table.
iii) The pupil recognizes………
a) Different apparatus used in various experiments.
30. 2. The pupil develops an understanding of various scientific terms, facts, definitions, concepts,
laws, theories, procedures, etc.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil sees a relationship between different facts, concepts i.e., mass and volume.
ii) The pupil cites examples of metals and metalloids.
iii) The pupil classifies plant kingdom and animal kingdom.
iv) The pupil selects appropriate for performing experiment.
v) The pupil compares the characteristic of metals, non-metals etc.
vi) The pupil defects errors in a given example.
vii) The pupil rectifies errors in a given statement, diagram, formula, example etc.
viii) The pupil verifies the answer by substituting the values in a given problem or equation.
ix) The pupil uses an appropriate method to solve a problem, to do titration.
x) Pupil cites illustrations of different types of chemical equations.
3. The pupil applies his knowledge and understanding in new and unfamiliar situation.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil analyses the given example into what in given and what to be found out.
ii) The pupil formulates hypothesis to organize the elements.
iii) The pupil collects relevant data related to a hypothesis.
iv) The pupil selects relevant data, i.e., facts and principles for a particular situation eg.
Relationship among different group elements.
v) The pupil judges the adequacy of data or procedure or apparatus eg. to check laws of
reflection, refraction, etc.
vi) The pupil suggests new illustrations for different types of llences, propagation of lights
vii) The pupil predicts various applicability of laws.
viii) The pupil solves the problems on velocity, momentum, etc.
ix) The pupil interprets various graphs, charts etc.
x) The pupil translates statements into symbols.
4. The pupil develops the skills required for science learning.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil checks the feasibility on instruments before using them.
ii) The pupil rectifies the defects in the instruments e.g. the presence of air bubble in the
burette during titration.
iii) The pupil sets up appropriate apparatus for perform different experiment.
iv) The pupil measures with reasonable accuracy the length of pendulum and period of
v) The pupil reads the log table, mathematical symbol, different tables.
vi) The pupil records the observation accurately and neatly.
vii) The pupil makes accurate observations while reading graphs, tables etc.
viii) The pupil uses the relevant data to reach at a solution.
ix) The pupil draws conclusions.
x) The pupil summarizes observations after the experiment.
B) Personality Objectives
31. 5. The pupil develops interest in science.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil reads, on his own, a number of books, magazines, newspapers related to
scientific information.
ii) The pupil visits places of scientific importance and interest e.g. planetarium,
laboratories, science centres etc.
iii) The pupil participates in activities like debates, projects, talks, elocution, in or out side
iv) The pupil collects, picture, specimens, data, of scientific importance from books,
journals, gardens etc.
v) The pupil prepares models, charts, pictures etc.
vi) Contributes exhibits censuring scientific facts for display in or outside schools.
vii) The pupil writes articles, news items related to scientific concepts.
viii) The pupil prefers to attend to programme related to science on TV, Radio, etc.
ix) The pupil meets scientist astronauts etc.
x) The pupil helps in maintenance of a science laboratory, science club, museum,
herbarium etc.
6. The pupil develops positive scientific attitude.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil respects research finding or new approaches contrary to existing theory.
ii) The pupil accepts those conclusion based on logical reasoning.
iii) The pupil expresses his ideas in a logical sequence.
iv) The pupil arrives at a judgment after weighing all possible evidence carefully.
v) The pupil considers new ideas, discoveries, inventions free from prejudice.
vi) The pupil reconsiders his own judgments and beliefs in the light of new knowledge
and theories.
vii) The pupil cooperates with others in arranging scientific, models, charts, materials, etc
in proper places.
viii) The pupil faces problems with full confidence.
7. The pupil appreciates the contribution of science in every walk of life and knowledge.
Specifications: -
i) The pupil expresses his appreciation of man’s effort to conquer nature and natural
ii) The pupil recognizes the contribution of scientists to the modern world.
iii) The pupil derives a sense of pleasure in understanding the achievement of science
e.g. god particle, travel to space, satellites etc.
Check your progress: -
1. Define educational objectives.
2. What is instructional or classroom objective?
3.3 Unit Planning: -
“A unit is as large a block of related subject matter as can be over viewed b the learner”.
 Preston
32. ‘Outline of carefully selected subject matter which has been isolated because of its
relationship to pupils.
 Sanford
“The unit is an organized body of information and experience designed to effect
significant outcomes for the learner”.
 Wisely
Thus, a teaching unit keeps in view the needs, capabilities and interest of pupils. It
provides organized body of information and experience. This aims at significant outcome
from the learners.
Points to be kept in mind while planning for a unit: -
1. It must be related to social and physical environment of the pupils.
2. It must take into account the previous experiences of pupils.
3. It must provide now experiences to the pupils.
4. It must not be too lengthy, so that pupil’s interest is sustained.
5. It should be flexible so as to allow different types of students to explore their
6. It should be the result of cooperative planning of teacher and pupil as far as possible.
Steps of Developing a Teaching Unit
1. Preparation or motivation: -
The pupils establish the purpose and one motivated to achieve it. The motivation
must be self-directed. This is required throughout the lesson.
2. Knowing the previous experience: -
It is always advisable to start with the pupils where they are this is helpful in
knowing the background so that duplication or danger of non-understanding can be
arrived. This can be done by questioning.
3. Presentation: -
In this step new experiences are given to the students. These may be direct or
vicarious care must be taken to present adequate amount of new experience that can
be digested by pupils.
4. Organization of learning: -
The student should get opportunity to bring their learning together so that they may
establish relationship between the new experiences and assimilate them.
5. Summarization: -
This is usually done at the end of the teaching unit to bring together all the
learning. This may be done at internals during the progress of the unit organization
and summarizations go together.
6. Review and drill: -
During the progress of unit, there is a chance of forgetting some part of it and not
comprehending same. This requires to review or drill the new content taught for better
retention from time to time during the lesson.
7. Evaluation: -
33. Evaluation should be done to know the level of achievement of students. This can
be done either by written from or oral form after short intervals. i.e., after a week or
fortnight. This can also be done by interview self-check test, puzzles etc. The final test
given grades to the pupils and tests effectiveness of teaching.
Proforma for Teaching Unit
Subject: - Standard: -
Name of the Unit: -
Major objectives of the Unit: -
Sl. Topics No. of lessons Time required Scope of Procedure to be Teaching
No. required (periods) subject adopted (Method Aids
content of teaching)
Specimen Unit Plans
Subject – Biology
Class –
Name of
the unit – Reproduction in Plants.
Major Objectives of the unit: -
i) Pupils develops understanding and appreciate the vegetative and the, sexual mode of
reproduction in plants.
ii) Develop skills of observation, experimentation.
iii) Develop interest in nature.
iv) Develop investigatory method of doing things.
Concepts No of Time Scope of content Teaching Aids
lessons required
1 2 3 4 5
1. Pollution is One One period Unisexual and bisexual Fresh or preserved
first step in flowers, different seasonal specimen’s of unisexual
sexual flowing plants, pollination, and bisexual flowers
reproduction process, types and factor’s chart showing seasonal
responsible. plants chart showing self
and cross pollination.
2. Pollination One Two period Agencies of pollination, Chart or film showing
takes place characteristics of flowers pollution by mind and
through a no. pollinated by mind and insects, specimens of
of way insects, artificial salvia flower, mounted
pollination, and needles, forceps,
germination on stigma. brushes, watch-glass etc.
34. 3. Fertilization in One One period Structure of pollen grain Pollen grains, sugar
caused due to and its germination on solution chart showing
fusion of male stigma, structure of ovule the structure of ovule
nucleus with process of fertilization, and path of pollen tube
egg cell. double fertilization, after inside the style, fruits of
effects of fertilization. orange, mango, wheat
rice etc.
4. Besides One One period Concept of vegetative Different underground
reproducing reproduction, vegetative stems. Asparagus, dahlia,
sexually reproduction in steps and Bryophyllum slides and
plants leaves, advantages of charts of different modes
reproduce vegetative reproduction, of reproduction like,
vegitatively. over sexual reproduction budding fragmentation
vegetative & asexual spore format.
reproduction budding.
5. Vegetative One Three period Artificial ways and Various specimens and
propagation vegetative propagation implement to
in plants cutting, layering, and demonstrate cutting,
grafting, their laying and grafting chart
demonstration and showing three way of
practice by students. propagation.
Check your progress: -
1. Prepare a unit plan on living things.
2. Prepare an unit plan on properties of gases.
3.4 Lesson Planning: -
Proper planning of the lessons in key to effective teaching. A daily lesson planning
consists of teaching points, specification to be achieved, organization of an orderly sequence of
learning activities, actual test items to which pupils are to be exposed Lesson Planning is
essential because, effective learning takes place only if content in presented in an integrated and
correlated manner G.H. Green says “The teacher who has planned his lesson wisely related” to
his topic and to his classroom without any anxiety, ready to embark with confidence upon a job he
understands and prepared to carry in to a workable conclusion. He has foreseen the difficulties
that are likely to arise, and prepare himself to deal with them. He knows the aims that lesson is
intended to fulfill, and he has marshaled his own resources for the purpose. And because he is
free of anxiety he will be able to estimate the value of his work as lesson proceeds, equally aware
of failure and success and prepared to learn from both.
A daily lesson plan is confined to only one period. The contention presented in the form of
teaching points. The learning activities discussed in detail. The test items may be in the form of
an essay or short answer or objective type questions.
Suggestions to improve lesson plan: -
35. 1. It is important to highlight only the key concepts or relation and save most of the time for
2. It must be made in the context of overall unit plan and should be continuous from day to day.
3. To make the lesson plan fit a long-range schedule the teacher must give careful attention to
important ideas of the textbook for a particular day.
Steps in lesson planning (Herbartion steps)
1. Introduction: - This stage prepares the students for new knowledge. This step is important
but, must be brief. It must test previous knowledge of the child. Curiosity of pupils can be
aroused by some experiment, chart, model, story, discussion etc.
2. Presentation: -
The actual lesson begins at this stage. The teacher makes use of different teaching aids to
make lesson effective. Teacher must involve students to make lesson interesting.
3. Association: -
The new ideas must be associated with daily life situation by citing suitable examples and
drawing comparison with related concepts. This step is important as principles are
4. Generalization: -
An effort must be made so that, students draw the conclusion themselves. Teacher should
guide the students only if their generalization in either incomplete or irrelevant.
5. Application: -
The knowledge gained through the lesson must be applied to certain situations. This step is
conformity with the general desire of the students to make use of generalization in order to
see for themselves if the generalizations are valid in certain situations or not?
6. Recapitulation: -
At this last stage, teacher tries to ascertain whether his students have understood and
grasped the subject or not. This cheeks the effectiveness of the lesson.
All these six steps are herbartion try gives for lesson planning. Teacher can guide lines
and in many lessons it is not possible to follow all the methods
Advantages of lesson plan: -
1. It stimulates the teacher to ask questions.
2. It provides freedom in teaching.
3. In induces confidence among teachers.
4. Lesson planning make the work, regular, organized and systematic.
5. It saves a lot of time.
Sample proforma for lesson plans: -
1. For problem solving method: -
Sub: - Topic: -
Class: - Time: -
Objectives: -
Instructional material: -
36.  Creating a situation or posing problem:
 Defining and delimiting the problem:
 Collecting and interpreting data:
 Formulating hypothesis:
 Experimentation (Test of hypothesis) : -
 Drawing conclusion:
 Generalization and application:
2. Laboratory Method: -
Sub: - Topic: -
Class: - Time: -
Objectives: -
Material required: -
Introduction: -
Direction for the experiments: -
Grouping students: -
Demonstration (If required): -
Guidance and supervision during laboratory work.
3. Lecture cum Discussion method:-
Sub: - Topic: - Class:-
Time: - Objective:-
Pervious knowledge:-
Introduction (motivation):-
Assignments to each group for self-study
Date and period for discussion:-
Initiation of discussion by teacher
Discussion by each group in turn:-
Role of teacher:-
Main learning points:-
Follow- up assignments:-
Check your progress:-
1) What are the advantages of preparing lesson plans?
2) What are the determinants of effective teaching? Explain.
3.5 Improvisation of teaching Aids in general science:-
37. “Necessity in the mother of invention, new emerging needs of science teaching, therefore,
calls for improvisation.”
-Unesco Source Book
for science Teaching
The important objectives of teaching science into arouse the students’ attitude and interest
towards science .It is possible only when students do something themselves use some
improvised apparatus and make save improvements in them. It is obvious that, unless students
perform practical activities, they will not understand the facts, laws and principle of science.
Therefore students must prepare or improvise apparatus after studying theory properly according
to their ability and interest these apparatus can be prepared out of ordinary, inexpensive items.
Such apparatus which students prepare themselves with the help of teachers which are
inexpensive and display same process of science are called as improvised apparatus.
Many great scientists like, Madam Curie, Dalton, Priestly, Edison, carried out their experiment
successfully in the humblest conditions.
Characteristics of improvised apparatus:-
1) The material in simple, accurate and appropriate to the age tends of the users.
2) The process involved in the production of materials in simple and inexpensive.
3) The materials can be easily and effectively used by the teachers and pupils.
4) The raw materials are easily available in the local environments.
5) The materials don’t involve specialization skills and can be made by pupils and teachers
6) The production of materials is not time consuming.
7) The material is free from distractions conflicts or bias.
Need/Importance of improvised Apparatus:-
1. Economic Value-these items are prepared art of materials which are considered to be waste
or low cost. Thus they have great economics value “Best art of waste”
2. Social value: - The construction of these materials follows the principle of learning by doing.
The habit to work together without any disporting in formed and the child moulds himself
according to the needs of society and moves towards the goal of socialism.
3. Recreational Value: - Students do the work on their own they keep themselves occupied and
utilize their leisure time. Thus, it has got recreational value
38. 4. Practical Value: - While constructing apparatus, they became; organized. They themselves
discovered new apparatus, can produce according to the needs, repairs old apparatus can
also take interest of doing more.
5. Educational and psychological value: - The improvised apparatus provide opportunities for the
exercise and development of ingenuity and the resourcefulness. The pupil find new way of
applying their knowledge. They learn to think critically and scientifically.
Coordination of hands and heads develops as sense of confidence and constructive
and creative instincts of pupils are satisfied. They energy of the child in channelized in a
proper way.
6. Scientific Value: - The students develop interest in scientific activities and in turn they gain
scientific knowledge.
Examples of Improvised Apparatus:-
1. Working model of lungs: - Cut bottom of a large plastic B bottle. Fit
a cork to the neck with “Y” tube in it. On both side of “Y” tube tie a
rubber balloon or some small bladder. Tie a sheet of brown paper or
rubber sheet the bottom of the bottle, with piece of string knotted
through a hole and sealed with wax. Pulling this string lower the
diaphragm and air enters the neck of “Y” tube and balloons dilate.
Pressing the diaphragm upwards has the opposite effect.
2. Astronomical Telescope: - Take two card board tubes are fitting each other. Fin two tenses
of different focal lengths at the end of each tube. The lens of
law focal length says 2cm & 3cm serves as the edge piece
and of 15-30 cm as object lens.
3. Davy’s safety lamp: - Take an ordinary spirit lamp empty tin box/empty ink-
pot and surrender the flame by wire gaze preferably of copper.
4. Liebig’s condenser: - Take metallic pipe of required length and
diameters make two holes on each end. One for inlet and other
for armlet. Solder two small tubes are on each hole. Fix the cork
at each end.
5. Voltmeter: - Take a plastic glass and make two holes at bottom. Insert two
copper wires one in each hole. Fill the glass with acidulated water and
invert two test tubes of water one on each wire. Connect wire to two
terminals of batting; water will begin to decompose into oxygen and
39. hydrogen.
6. Dropping Funnel: - Take a glass or plastic funnel fit rubber tubing to the funnel. Attach glass
tube to it. Attach pinchcock.
Physics: -
1. Thermos Flask
2. Thermo Couple
3. Telescope
4. Telegraph system
5. Spectroscope
6. Ripple tank
7. Periscope
8. Kaleidoscope
9. Hydrometer
10. Dip circle
11. Brain
12. Calorimeter
13. Telephone model
14. Steam engine
15. Pascal’s law apparatus
16. Pinhole camera
17. Galvanoscope
18. Electric ball
19. Automatic signal
20. Aneroid barometer
21. Gold leaf electroscope
22. Strom finder
23. Air oven
24. Rain gauge
25. A simple refraction bottle
Chemistry: -
1. Fire extinguisher
2. Model of atoms
3. Sand baths
4. Test tube stands
5. Bunsen burner
6. Apparatus for preparing & collecting gas.
7. Wick holders
40. Biology: -
1. Osmometer
2. Photometer
3. Preparation of simple slides of plants and animals.
4. Models of plants, animals, etc.
Check your progress; -
1. Name save improvised apparatus.
2. Why improvised apparatus are encouraged for students?
3.6 Let us Sum Up: -
In this unit, we have discussed about formulation of instructional objectives, unit planning,
lesson planning and improvisation of teaching aids in general science.
As we know the objectives of teaching science have been changing from time to time the
rapid progress of science and technology has changed the objectives of teaching science in
school. However major instructional objects remain more or less same. They import fundamental
knowledge. Inculcate scientific attitude. Instructional objectives aims at imparting training in
scientific method or reflective thinking.
The unit planning involves certain steps. As a unit in a block of related subject matter which
are so organized to help divide the syllabus into small workable sections.
For an effective and efficient teaching, planning in essential. This helps teacher to gain
confidence. The teaching becomes systematic and organized. The teacher proceeds in a wel
chalked out guidelines.
Last but not the least this unit has improvisation of teaching aids in general science, which
is the need of time. In the view of economic constraints the developing countries cannot provide
all the necessary equipment and materials of science. Many countries are now emphasizing on
development of low-cost science materials using locally available resources.
1. State the objectives of teaching science specify each objective in terms if classroom
2. What is the new of writing objectives in behavioral terms?
3. State the objectives of teaching science topics like volume, density, reflection of light and
specify each objective in terms of at least three specifications.
4. What do you understand by unit planning? What steps should be followed in preparing a unit
5. Prepare unit plans for nutrition in plants and animals.
6. What are the various steps of preparation in lesson planning?
7. Discuss different proforma for lesson planning.
8. Discuss the new and importance of improvised apparatus for teaching of science at high
school level.
9. What are the characteristic of improvised apparatus? Explain four improvised science
References: -
41. 1. Das, R.C. Science teaching in Schools, sterling publication PVT. Ltd. 1985.
2. Kulshreshtha, S.P. Teaching of Science, and Pasricha, H Surya Publication, 2007
3. Sharma, R.C. Modern science teaching, Dhanpat Rai Publishing company (P) ltd, New Delhi,
4. Yadav, M.S. Teaching of science, Anmol Publications, PVT. Ltd, New Delhi, 2004.
5. Zaidi, S.M. Modern teaching of science, Anmol Publications PVT. Ltd. New Delhi, 2004.
By:Smt.Shrima Banerjee,
Asst.Prof-Hansraj Jivandas College of Education,
Evaluation is a methodological area that is closely related to, but distinguishable from more
traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional
social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it
requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders
and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Here we introduce the
idea of evaluation and some of the major terms and issues in the field.
4.1.1.a. Objectives/Learning Outcomes
• To explain types of formative and summative evaluation in science
• To classify different types of evaluation in science.
• To make effective use of objectives for achievement tests in science.
• To develop competency through effective use of achievement tests in science.
4.1.2 Definitions of Evaluation
Probably the most frequently given definition is:
Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of some object
This definition is hardly perfect. There are many types of evaluations that do not necessarily result
in an assessment of worth or merit -- descriptive studies, implementation analyses, and formative
evaluations, to name a few. Better perhaps is a definition that emphasizes the information-
processing and feedback functions of evaluation. For instance, one might say:
Evaluation is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful
feedback about some object
Both definitions agree that evaluation is a systematic endeavor and both use the deliberately
ambiguous term 'object' which could refer to a program, policy, technology, person, need, activity,
and so on. The latter definition emphasizes acquiring and assessing information rather than
assessing worth or merit because all evaluation work involves collecting and sifting through data,
making judgments’ about the validity of the information and of inferences we derive from it,
whether or not an assessment of worth or merit results.
Check your progress
Read the following and answer the question:
Q1)What do you mean by Evaluation?
42. 4.1.3 The Goals of Evaluation
The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences
including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies.
Most often, feedback is perceived as "useful" if it aids in decision-making. But the relationship
between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one -- studies that seem critical sometimes
fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have
a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that
the major goal of evaluation should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through
the provision of empirically-driven feedback.
4.1.4 Types of Evaluation
There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the
purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that
between formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the
object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or
technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context,
personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects
or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to
delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the
outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target
outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.
Formative evaluation is primarily a building process which accumulates a series of components of
new materials, skill, and problems into an ultimate meaningful whole
-Wally Guyot
Formative evaluation (sometimes referred to as internal) is a method of judging the worth of a
program while the program activities are forming (in progress). This part of the evaluation focuses
on the process. Thus, formative evaluations are basically done on the fly. They permit the
designers, learners, and instructors to monitor how well the instructional goals and objectives are
being met. Its main purpose is to catch deficiencies so that the proper learning interventions can
take place which allows the learners to master the required skills and knowledge. Formative
evaluation is also useful in analyzing learning materials, student learning achievements, and
teacher effectiveness. In this sense formative evaluation is a part of the instructional process,
underpinning the importance of student involvement. Students need to be involved both as
assessors of their own learning and as resources to other students bringing into focus the
importance of self and peer assessment besides teacher assessment. Research shows that the
involvement in and ownership of their work increases students’ motivation to learn. The most
significant advantage of formative evaluation is that it makes learning an enjoyable experience
because of student involvement, enhanced learning.
Formative evaluation is a tool used by the teacher to continuously monitor student progress in a
non threatening, supportive environment. It involves regular descriptive feedback, a chance for the
students to reflect on their performance, take advice and improve upon it. It involves students’
being an essential part of assessment from designing criteria to assessing self or peers. If used
effectively it can improve student performance tremendously while raising the self esteem of the
child and reducing the work load of the teacher.
All assessments can be summative (i.e., have the potential to serve a summative functions.
The summative evaluation (sometimes referred to as external) is a method of judging the worth of
a program at the end of the program activities (summation). The focus is on the outcome. The