# Learn to Model Multiplication

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Learn how to model and obtain the value of multiplication.
1. Modeling Multiplication
“A critical area of instruction is to develop student understanding of the meanings of multiplication and
division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equal- sized groups, arrays, and area
models (NGA/CCSSO 2010c).”
“In grade four, students extend multiplication and division to include whole numbers greater than 100. The
standards (4.NBT.5-6) call for students to use visual representations such as area and array models that
students draw and connect to equations…With larger numbers, such array models become too difficult to
draw, so students can make sketches of rectangles and then label the resulting product as the number of
things or square units.”
- Grade Four, California Mathematics Framework
“In previous grades, students built a conceptual understanding of multiplication with whole numbers as they
applied multiple strategies to compute and solve problems. Students can continue to use different strategies
and methods learned previously-as long as the methods are efficient- but they must also understand and be
able to use the standard algorithm.”
2. Groups (3.OA.1, 3.OA.3)
4 x 3 is 4 groups of 3.
Step 1: Create 4 groups. Draw a circle.
Step 2: Put 3 blocks or objects in each group.
Step 3: Find the total number of objects using different strategies: skip counting, adding repeatedly, etc.
3. Array and Area Model (3.OA.1, 3.OA.3)
4 x 3 is 4 rows of 3 or 4 rows and 3 columns
Step 1: Identify the number of rows and columns. Use the Multiplication Mat.
columns
rows
Step 2: Put the right number of rows and columns as guide.
Step 3: Fill in the area with blocks.
Step 4: Remove the guide and find the total number of blocks on the mat.
4. Area Model and Partial Products (4.NBT.5)
4 x 13 is 4 rows of 13 or 4 rows and 13 columns
Step 1: Identify the number of rows and columns. Use the Multiplication Mat.
columns
rows
Step 2: Put the right number of rows and columns as guide.
c c
Step 3: Fill in the area with blocks.
c c
c c
c c
c c
c c
Step 4: Remove the guide and find the total number of blocks on the mat.
Find the total value of the tens and the
c c total value of the ones using previously
c c learned strategies. Add the partial products.
c c
c c
5. Open Area Model (4.NBT.5)
22 x 13
Step 1: Decompose each number by place value: (20 + 2) x (10 + 3).
Step 2: Draw a rectangle large enough to write numbers inside. Leave space outside to write decomposition of
given numbers.
Step 3: Draw a vertical and horizontal line on the rectangle. Modeling ….
Step 4: Write the decomposition of numbers as dimensions of the rectangles.
10 3
20
2
Step 5: Find the area of each section of the largest rectangle.
10 3
20 20 x 10 = 200 20 x 3 = 60
2 2 x 10 = 20 2x3=6
Step 6: Add the partial areas to find the area of the whole rectangle.
200 + 60 + 20 + 6 = 286
6. Multiplication Algorithm and Partial Products (4.NBT.5)
123 x 4
1 2 3
X 4
1 2 3x4 1. Multiply the value of the digit in each place value by
the multiplier. Ex. 3 x 4, 20 x 4, 100 x 4
+ 8 0 20 x 4 2. Write the product from each place value (partial
products). Ex. 12, 80, 400
4 0 0 100 x 4 3. Add the partial products to find the product of the
given problem.
4 9 2
22 x 13
2 2
X 1 3
6 2x3 1. Multiply the value of the digits in each place value by
the value of each digit in the multiplier.
6 0 20 x 3
2. Write the product from each place value (partial
+ 2 0 2 x 10 products).
3. Add the partial products to find the product of the
2 0 0 20 x 10 given problem.
2 8 6