History of Plain Indians

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This booklet covers the history of Plain Indians including their introduction, belief, culture, tribe, religion, food, earth lodges, and other interesting facts about that.
1. Plains Indians
By Nicole Kotrous
2. Chapter 1
Plains Indians
By Nicole Kotrous
3. Chapter 2
Years and years ago, buffalo and Indians
roamed the plains of North America. It could be
that those very buffalo and Indians roamed in
your backyard! Imagine... it’s a hot summer
night, you’re dashing through the seemingly
endless prairie grass. Your bow and arrows
bouncing against your back, sweat trickling
down your forehead. Your cheeks are blotchy
red from running. You look up and meet eyes
with a brutal, ferocious animal. You draw your
bow, and let the arrow go..swoosh! You have hit
the animal. You drop to your knees and begin
praying to your one and only God, Wakan
Tanka. You thank him for once again feeding
your family for another lengthy winter.
4. Plains Indians
In the years before European settlers came to
the United States, Native American tribes lived
all across the land. Several tribes lived in what
we call the Plains, or the middle portion of the
country. I am going to focus on five Plains
Indian tribes. These include: the Ponca tribe,
the Omaha tribe, the Pawnee tribe, Sioux and
the Otoe-Missouri tribe. Some of these Native-
American tribes were nomadic hunters. That
means that they traveled all year round in
search of plants, animals, food, and fresh
water. They also traveled to visit and trade with
other tribes. When they traded, they traded for
stuff they didn’t have. For example they got
horses, shells, beads, and stone that was soft
enough to carve, and rock that could be
chipped into weapon heads, or points.
5. Chapter 3
Nomadic tribes used portable houses such as tipis and lived
in villages. Nomadic tribes lived in tipis when they were
away from their villages, such as when they were hunting.
Some tribes such as the Lakota, Arapaho, and Cheyenne
mostly lived in tipis because they were always on the go.
Tipis were often used by the Nomadic tribes because they
were light and portable. Women were often responsible for
taking care of and making the tipis. They were also
responsible for putting up the tipis and taking them down.
To make a tipis women made a frame of long tall poles.
They took the poles one from one and leaned them so they
were in a triangle pyramid shape. The women spaced the
poles so it formed a big circle on the ground. Then they
stretched the tipi cover over the poles. The tipi cover was
often buffalo hides that were sewn together. It took about
twelve buffalo hides to make one tipi cover. Making a tipi
cover was hard work. The poles had to be leaned together
just right so that the tipi did not fall over. The tipi cover
made of buffalo hides had to be fitted on just right to keep
rain and wind out.
6. Section 1
Tipis The Native Americans drew symbols on special tipis. A tipi could even tell a story.
They might paint a buffalo indicating that they had a good hunt, or the first time they
killed a buffalo. Nomadic tribes had to move their teepees, and to do this, they used a
travois. Horses pulled the heavier travois, while dogs carried the lighter ones. To make
a travois the Native americans tied a long tipi poles to the sides of a horse or a dog.
The other ends of the tipi poles were dragged on the ground behind the animal and
7. Section 2
Gallery 3.1 Earthlodges
Other tribes had permanent homes, such as Earthlodges.
Tribes such as these were sometimes called farming tribes.
Farming tribes had villages too, but their villages were
permanent. Twice a year most of the men in the village left
to hunt buffalo. Like the Nomadic tribes, when they
traveled they traded and visited. Non-nomadic tribes most
often lived in Earthlodges. Long skinny poles aligned the
insides of an Earthlodge. On the outside of an Earthlodge
grass and dirt were packed in to prevent rain and wind
from getting in. The poles supported the Earthlodge, and
kept it from collapsing during storms and rainfall. An
Earthlodge was large enough to hold up to forty people.
Women dug storage pits in the ground of every Earthlodge
to store dried food. The pits could hold enough food to last
a couple of years! Women also dug storage pits outside.
When they left the Earthlodge they would put a pack of
grass or leaves on top so nobody stole or messed with
their food. Earthlodges were cool on the inside when it was
Scouts would sit on top of Earthlodges. If something dangerous happened, they
hot out. When it was cold outside, the Earthlodge was would shout down to the people below to take cover. Scouts also scouted on the
ground looking for herds of buffalo to hunt.
warmed by a fire in the middle of the room. There was
usually a long doorway facing East. It faced East because
8. Chapter 4
The Plains Indians were very thankful and had a deep
respect for Earth and all living things. They believed
that all living things had spirits. The Plains Indians
believed that everything they saw on Earth was a part
of a web. They believed that they were also apart of
that web. The Indians protected and cared for their
land. The land on which they lived provided them with
everything they needed, and they were very grateful.
They prayed and thanked the animals after they hunted
them for providing them and their family with food.
They believed that the land was a gift from the Great
Spirit and it was sacred. They believed that every time
they hunted, ate, and skinned the animal that Mother
Nature was watching them and making sure that they
ate everything and used every bone, skin, and flesh.
9. The Native Americans followed the “rhythm” of the seasons. For together, they were often called the “three sisters”. The women
the farming tribes, the crops were planted in the Spring, and the also grew sunflowers. Small fields of sunflowers were used to
buffalo were hunted in the Summer and Winter. The nomadic mark the edges of each corn field. The village people would eat
tribes traveled to different places during the seasons as they the seeds and roots of the sunflower plants.
followed the buffalo. Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter were
Plains Indians had a lot of religious ceremonies. In a religious
all part of the circle of life, and every new season brought a new
ceremony, Eagle feathers were awarded to those who acted
ceremony. The Plains Indians’ ceremonies were very religious,
bravely. The Plains Indians had their own ceremony called the
and interesting. For the farming tribes Summer was an extremely
“Sun Dance”. The “Sun Dance” is for the Sun God and asking the
important time. It was important because that was when they
sun for strength and help their tribe. Each tribe had their own
planted their corn and danced in their Summer time ceremonies.
“Sun Dance”. It usually took place in summer and lasted for four
In April they had ceremonies before they planted their corn. Once
days and nights. The performer would have their face painted
in an Omaha Village, a dancer pretended to be a corn stalk, and
while others blew the eagle bone and played drums to call the
while the tribe sang, the dancer pretended to be a corn stalk
thunder bird. They did this for all four days, except for the last day
growing! Some Pawnee danced like they were hoeing or planting
when they went without food or water. The Sun Dance involved
crops while the rest of the tribe sang about corn and prayed.
those who pledged to sacrifice themselves. Medicine men
When the corn ceremonies were finished the women and the (Shamans) looked at the sun for God’s vision. In return they were
children would start to plant the seeds. The Indians would plant given the ability to heal people.
the corn in between the cornstalks. Out of all the crops and
plants, corn was planted first. When the corn began to grow, the
women would then plant the beans. The beans grew up and
around the corn stalk. After everything had sprouted and began
to grow, they would began to plant many different types of squash
and pumpkins. The vines from the plants covered the ground
between the cornstalks. The vines also helped keep the pesky
weeds away! When corn, beans, and squash were planted 8
10. Chapter 5
The Plains Indians did not waste anything! They used
everything from buffalo fat for soap, to their tendons
for sewing. How would you like to use buffalo fat for
soap? This shows the ways they used a buffalo: They
used the horns for cups, headdresses, ladles,
insturments and toys. They used the bladder for
pouches and medicine bags. They used the stomach
for buckets, cups, dishes, and other containers. Buffalo
hide was used for bedding, belts, cradles, dolls,
dresses, gun cases, leggings, moccasin tops, paint
bags, pipe bags, pouches, shirts, tipi covers, and winter
robes. They used buffalo chips for smoking
ceremonies, and fuel for cooking fires. They used
buffalo hair for halters, pillows, and ropes. The skull
was used for prayer and ceremonies.
11. The Plains Indians used every part of the buffalo. Here are some examples: Fat; Soap, and Cooking Oil. Bones; Knives, Arrow-
Heads, Shovels, Scrapers, Winter Sleds, Saddle Trees, War Clubs, Game Dice. Dung; Fuel. Stomach; Buckets, Cups, Dishes,
Cooking Pots. Hooves; Glue, Rattles. Hair; Headdresses, Saddle Pad Filler, Pillows, Ropes, Halters. Beard; Ornaments for
weapons. Tongue; Best Part of the Meat. Skull; Altar at Religious Ceremonies. Brains; Hide Preparation. Horns; Cups, Spoons,
Ladles, Headdresses. Tail; Decorations, Fly Brush, Whips. Muscles; Sinew, Meat for Jerky. Tanned Hide; Moccasins, Cradles,
Winter Robes, Shirts, Leggings, Belts, Dresses, Pipe Bags, Quivers, Tipi Covers, Gun Covers, Dolls. RawHide; Containers, Shields,
Buckets, Moccasin Soles, Belts, Headdresses, Medicine Bags, Drums, Ropes, Saddles, Stirrups, Knife cases, Quirts, Armbands,
Bullet Pouches.
12. Movie 5.1
Plains Indians
Click on the play button to see a Plains Indians Museum. In this video I will show you Native
American artifacts and replicas. Two real Native American artifacts in this video are the blue,
white, and orange beaded moccasins, and the hair pieces. Everything else shown is a replica.
For example a replica would be the talking feather, or the Indian doll with clothes. The
replicas are good examples of what the Plains Indians would use and have. Thanks for
watching! Click on the picture for further information:
13. Chapter 6
The Plains tribes had two big hunts every year, one in
the Summer and one in the Winter. Preparing for the
big Summer hunt could be a big job. They prepared by
making sure they had enough good arrows. Everyone
going on the Summer Hunt had to make sure their
horses were all rested. Not only the Indians needed to
prepare, but the animals needed to be ready as well.
Most of the time the younger boys were in charge of
taking care of the horses. They would prepare by
making sure they had a lot of rest, and had grazed on
the grass. It was important that they did these things
so when the Indians got into a good buffalo chase they
could keep up!
14. Section 1
The most popular and well known weapon Native Americans used would have to be the bow
and arrow. Nearly every Native American tribe used a bow and arrow. Some tribes, more
towards the South used bow and arrows for fishing. Bows and arrows are so accurate and
resourceful that they have been used since the Stone Age. The earliest arrowheads found are
13,000 years old! Most Native American bows were made of wood. The most powerful bows
were wrapped around with animal tendons to make them more flexible.
Plains Indians also used tomahawks. Tomahawks are axes formed from wood and sharpened
rock or stone. Tomahawks were prized for their versatility because they could be used in so
many different ways: thrown short distances, used as a tool, or in hand-to-hand combat.
Most of the village would go on the summer hunt, but others would stay behind because they
were too old or too ill to go on a long lengthy hunt. Before the Omaha villages left for the big
hunts they would have ceremonies. They would sing, dance, and pray for hours telling the
creation stories of the Buffalo. Ceremonies that were before the hunts were in prayer to the
Spirit of the great animal. Both nomadic and farming tribes had hunting ceremonies. Hunting
was very dangerous. It is very common to hear stories about men hit with a stray arrow or run
over by a buffalo herd. These tribes had ceremonies to say goodbye to their hunters, just in
case they did not return with the rest.
15. Section 2
D F Fruits
Plains Indians needed a lot of
dried food to go on a hunt. The
most common food the Plains
Indians ate was the buffalo.
When going on a hunt the
woman would hang the strips of
buffalo on a pole and let it dry. U
The buffalo would dry and
become jerky. If jerky was made
right it could be eaten for two I
Some fruits and vegetables
that the Plains Indians ate
included: squash, pumpkin,
apples, and cherries. These
could also be dried and taken
D S Apples!
on the hunt.
16. Chapter 7
The Plains Indians had many interesting
methods of communication; from writing
on buffalo hide, to using mirrors to signal
streaks of reflected light! The Plains
Indians did not have a written language
like us with letters and words, instead
they used drawings and cave walls, or
smoke. It might be just me, but I think
this would be a fun and challenging way
to speak.
17. Section 1
Fire Signal:
Fire signals were used at night. During a fire signal
the person trying to communicate or get help would
light the fire, and then run in front of it or around it.
Indian scouts could decode this signal easily.
Running around the fire meant danger was around
and to “go away, get out of here”!
Smoke Signal:
A common signal used in the Plains was a smoke
signal. Because the Plains were flat, smoke signals
could be seen for miles. By changing the puffs of
smoke, from short to long is how they sent and
translated their message. Some messages were a
warning, others were just as simple as “come home,
supper’ ready”.
18. Blanket Signals
Blanket signals were used by warriors. They were used to
communicate to someone that might not hear them, but could
see them. A waving that was in a wild manner meant danger
and to get away as fast as possible. It got the tribe a few extra
precious moments to get ready for an attack.
Mirror Signs
The Plains Indians did not invent the mirror, a white man
brought it to their camp. But they came up with a creative
way to use it as a signal. You would think that because the
Plains people traded for a mirror that they would want to
see themselves. Not even close. They used the mirror as a
signal. By pointing the mirror straight at the sun, reflective
rays would shoot into the sky warning people with in miles
that there was danger. This was also a very common signal
used because the mirror was portable and the signal could
be sent while on horseback.
19. Picture Signal
Plains Indians wrote on cave walls, rocks, and scraps of buffalo
hide. These pictographs told the stories of their daily life, their
heroes, and their battles. These drawings on cave walls and
rocks can also be warnings.
Sign Language
Not all Plains people spoke the same language. To
communicate with other tribes, including their own, they
developed a language using hand movements. This
language was and still is called “sign language”. Over time
the language spread and all Plains tribes were using it.
Usually each tribe also known as a band had a “talker”. This
was a person that could translate the sign language by
speaking it. The “talkers” understood over three thousand
signs! Some of the “talkers” could sign as fast as you can
20. Review 7.1
Question 8 of 8
Name one form of housing for the Plains Indians?
A. Log cabin
B. Sod house
C. Tipi
D. Brick house
Check Answer
21. Chapter 8
Pawnee tribe
The Pawnee traveled to Nebraska ages ago. The Pawnee
people called themselves Chahiks si Chahiks, which means
“men for men.” The Pawnee Indians spoke a Caddoan
language. The Pawnee Indians lived or could be found among
these rivers: Platte, Loup, and Republican Rivers. Pawnee
Men and women had very distinctive roles in everyday life.
While the women did labor, younger women would watch them
and learn their responsibilities. The elderly women were in
charge of looking after the younger children of the tribe while
the women worked. The men were classified into three
groups. There were the medicine men, priests, and the
warriors or hunters.
22. Section 1
The Pawnee Indians maintained a good relationship in between the Gods and nature. The Pawnee Indians
believed that to have a good crop that they had to plant the crops according to the position of the stars. This was
Because they believed that the stars were associated with the Gods. The Pawnee Indians believed in Gods. Their
main God was Tirawa. The Pawnee Indians believed that the stars at night were night Gods and that the sun
mated with the moon and created the first boy who was on Earth. The Pawnee Indians are a very important tribe
in Nebraska History. They were known to sacrifice maize and other crops to the the Gods. They even sacrificed
humans at times, until the eighteenth century. When the white settlers came to the plains, they brought diseases
that were new to the Indians. Pawnees had to deal with loads of sicknesses. The wide-spread disease of both
Small-pox, and Cholera were responsible for wiping out most of the Pawnee Indian tribe in the nineteenth
century. In 1900 there were only 600 Pawnee Indians left. However, in 2005 there was a population of 2,500
Pawnee Indians. That’s almost 2,000 more Pawnee Indians! The Pawnee Indians mainly ate buffalo and corn.
They mainly ate corn because it was sacred to them. They even called it “mother”. The tribe’s main source of
food came from when the Pawnee men went on the big Summer hunt. The Pawnee Indian tribe lived in a home
called an Earthlodge. It was a dome shape and was packed with dirt from the earth and sod. They wore clothes
made out of Buffalo skin. In the summer the men would wear a breechcloth and moccasins. In the winter it
would get much colder so the men and women would add leggings and a robe made out buffalo skin. Their
summers were very hot and their winters were very cold. The Pawnee Indians lived in a very resourceful area
with small streams perfect for sleeping, and rich soil for nutritious plants in the woods. The Pawnee Indians were
nomadic. This meant they didn’t plant or have permanent houses. Their villages weren’t even permanent!
23. This is a good example of
what the Native
Americans wore and
how they wore their
feathers. The most
common feathers they
would wear were: Bald
Eagle feathers, and
Turkey Feathers. 22
24. Interesting Facts:
Fun Facts-
·The Pawnee men would shave their heads, except for a small scalp lock which they later put paint and grease into to make it
stand up and look like a horn.
·There are 2,000 Pawnee people left today.
·Before the Pawnee had horses they would chase the buffalo down hills because they thought this made hunting the buffalo
·In 1856 the Pawnee population was almost wiped out by smallpox, Cholera, and Sioux attacks.
·The Pawnee Indians were excellent hunters.
·There were four Pawnee tribes: The Chaui, Kitikahki, Petahauiria, and Skidi.
·The name of a famous Pawnee leader was Crooked Hand who was famous for getting out of his sick bed and organizing a
fighting force by gathering elderly, children, and sick warriors to fight the Sioux.
•Forced to move onto a reservation in the 1800’s.
25. Review 8.2
Question 5 of 5
Around what time were the Pawnee Indians forced to
move onto a reservation in Oklahoma?
A. 1800’s
B. 1900’s
C. 1750’s
D. 2000’s
Check Answer
26. Chapter 9
Ponca tribe
The Ponca tribe was never really a very
large tribe. The tribe’s size was estimated
to be about 800 Indians in 1780. By
1804 their numbers dwindled down to
200 Ponca Indians. Even today the tribe
is somewhat small with only 3,500
Indians. The Northern Ponca Indians are
still living in Nebraska today.
27. Section 1
The Southern Ponca Indians were forced to move onto an Indian reservation during the 1800’s. The Ponca tribe had to
walk 500 miles from Nebraska to Oklahoma. So many people died that it was called the “Trail of Tears”. The Trial of
Standing Bear was a very important moment in the Ponca tribe history. The Ponca tribe was forced out of their homeland
and was moved to a reservation in Oklahoma. The Trial of Standing Bear happened in 1879. They went from Northeastern
Nebraska to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many people died along the way, including Standing Bear’s daughter, and when
they reached their destination, Standing Bear’s son died. Standing Bear’s sons dying wish was to be buried in his
homeland Nebraska. Standing Bear and a small band of his men began the dangerous journey home to bury his beloved
son. They realized what they were doing was in defiance of government orders of not leaving the reservation. They were
soon arrested and about to be returned to their Indian reservation, when their story got published in the Omaha Daily
Herald. Standing Bear was held for trial at a fort near Omaha. The outcome of everything that had happened was
important. His son and daughter had died, and Standing Bear had gone against the white man’s rules. But it had all paid
off. The word “Indian” was finally equal to a person.
Standing Bear
Voiced by
Jaxon Holler.
28. Ponca Population Over Time
2014 27
29. Section 3
Type ·Here are some words that the Ponca Indians would say often in their daily
to life:
enter ·Wasabe. ‘grizzly bear’
·Deagheta. ‘many people’
·Nakoponza. ‘elk’
·Mohkuh. ‘skunk’
·Moukou. ‘medicine’
·Washaba. ‘buffalo’
·Wazhazha. ‘snake’
·Nohga. ‘medicine’ (another word for ‘medicine’)
·Wahga. ‘ice’
·Waga. ‘Jerky, meat”
30. Interesting Facts:
•The Ponca Indian tribe ran into and met Lewis and Clark in the year 1804. When they met Lewis and Clark, their numbers
dwindled down to around two hundred Ponca Indians.
•The Ponca didn’t speak the same as the English. They spoke a language that is confusing to many but unique in its own way.
•You pronounce Ponca like pawn·kah
•The Ponca Indians were a nomadic tribe.
•The children enjoyed having contests that included eating the most wild goose berries, running the fastest, and making
arrows quickly.
•They were friends with the Omaha tribe.
•The Ponca tribe lived near the Niobrara river.
•Ponca, Otoe, and Omaha were all very close and spoke languages that were alike.
•Ponca were thought of as the most successful Indian farmers.
•One of their favorite desserts was wild honey mixed with nuts.
31. Review 8.3
Question 5 of 5
What came out of the trial in Omaha, Nebraska?
A. Ponca people didn’t have to move onto a
B. They got to leave.
C. Indians were considered people.
D. They got to go to school.
Check Answer
32. Chapter 10
Omaha tribe
The Omaha tribe originated or began in the early
1500’s. The Omaha tribe settled by the Missouri river,
also known as the mouth of the river. Their name
means “Upriver People”. The Omaha Indians are the
original tribes of Nebraska and Iowa. Most Omaha
people are still living there today. Most Omaha people
speak English today, however many Omaha, especially
elders also speak their Native Omaha-Ponca Language
which they share with their close to tribe the Poncas.
An easy Omaha word is “aho” which is a friendly
greeting. Today, the Omaha language is considered an
endangered language because most children aren’t
learning it anymore. But their are Omaha people that
are fighting to keep the language alive.
33. Section 1
Omaha Tribe The Omaha tribe children did just as any other children would do they would played
with each other, went to school, and helped around the house. Most Omaha children
liked to go hunting and fishing with their fathers. In the past, Indian kids had more
chores and less time to play. You could say they were like colonial children! But when
they did have time to play they would play with dolls, toys, they even played a game
called hoop game. In this game you have a long dart and you try and make it into a
circular hoop while the third player is rolling the hoop along the ground, while the two
other players tried to make their dart go through the circular hoop. The Omaha tribe
lived in an Earth lodge in the winter, in the summer they changed their houses into
tipis so they got more air. The Omaha tribe is famous for their arts and crafts, mainly
for their quilling, beading, and hide paintings. The Omaha Indians believed in
34. Section 2
Omaha Legend
The Omaha have many legends that they passed down to their young. This legend is one of the most common legends
known from the Omaha Tribe.
“The Omaha people began in water. Their eyes opened and they could not see anything. They came out of the water, but
they didn't have clothes on. After days passed, they wanted clothes. They got fiber from weeds and grass and wove them
together for clothing.
After this they started to make grass houses. The Omaha people lived by a lot of water in the forest where there were
animals. They did not have any arrows, so they hit the deer with sticks. The Omaha people wandered away from the edge
of the water. The people thought about what they would do to help themselves. They found a stone that was flaked and
they made knifes and arrows out of it.
Then one man found some white, blue, and red kernels. He thought he had found something worth something so he hid
them in a mound. When he went to check on them, he saw stalks of corn which he shared with the people. They found out
it was good for food.
In early days, the Omaha people wore grass clothes and threw buffalo hides away and didn't use them for anything. They
figured out how to scrape the buffalo hides and use them for clothes. They used grass also for tepee covers but that
would not work so then they used deer skin. That was too little so then they tried elk skin. But in the rain it turned hard.
Then they tried buffalo skin. That was just right!”
35. Interesting Facts:
·Omaha is pronounced “oh-muh-hah” but in their own language the name sounds more like “u-mahn-hahn”, with nasal
·They mostly lived in Earthlodges, but also lived in tipis when they were on a buffalo hunt.
·The Omaha tattooed someone when they won a battle, the wife was sometimes tattooed too. If the wife was tattooed she
would become a more valuable wife.
·The Omaha believed that the sky and sun were father and Earth was mother.
·When it rained the Omaha tribe believed that if they didn’t tell stories or legends they would have bad luck.
·Girls would play stick ball and boys would play dare. Dare could be very dangerous. If you didn’t do the dare that they
dared you, you would owe the darer something.
·The men of the Omaha tribe wore leggings and moccasins. They would wear a feather if they won a battle.
·The women of the Omaha tribe wore leggings and dresses and braided their hair.
36. Review 8.3
Question 5 of 5
(In the sacred legend) Did they waste anything?
A. Yes
B. No
Check Answer
37. Chapter 11
At one time the Otoe and the Missouri,
the Winnebago, and the Iowa tribes were
once all part of one single tribe that lived
in the Great Lakes region of the United
States. In the sixteenth century the tribes
separated from each other and migrated
West and South.
38. Otoe Missouria
1 whole pumpkin
1 bag dried sweet
The Otoe Missouria were predominately hunter-gathers. They
Directions: Remove seeds and “guts” from pumpkin. Cut mean from
both grew and harvested. They grew and harvested corn, rind. Cube pumpkin meat and place pumpkin in pot on stove. Cook until
beans, and squash. But their diet was mainly made up of the soft. Boil dried sweet corn. Corn is cooked when it is soft. Once cooled,
animals that surrounded the plains. As an Otoe-Missouria combine cooked pumpkin and corn. Add cinnamon and sugar to taste.
tradition the tribes would migrate to follow the buffalo. They
This amount varies depending on the size of your pumpkin and your
stayed in the general areas of Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, and
preference. Add sugar slowly. You do not want to add too much sugar
Missouri. Where the Otoe-Missouria tribe settled had very
desirable land on which many wanted to farm. As more and so that the flavor of the pumpkin is overwhelmed by sweetness. The
more people came, the Otoe-Missouria fought to protect their combination should result in a gently sweet, pumpkin combination with
land. Although the Otoe-Missouria were a small tribe they a pleasant spice hint. VARIATION: Another tribal member recommends
fought bravely until the 1850’s when the United States using brown sugar instead of white sugar and cinnamon. Remember
government confined the Otoe-Missouria tribe and took them
that our ancestors didn’t use measuring cups and spoons. Learn to
to the Big Blue Reservation. Being on the reservation was
trust your own palettes and experiment with the balance of flavors.
hard. The Otoe-Missouria couldn’t hunt for buffalo. The Otoe-
Missouria watched as the white settlers sawed off their land
acre by acre and sold it to non-Indians.
39. This is a diary entry from what life was like on a Native American reservation;
“My Indian name is translated to ‘Standing on the Earth’... We practically always had white people with
us because my father always hired hands of different nationalities. Mother was busy housekeeping and
she had to cook for and take care of the hired hands. My father was hardly home because he was the
captain of police and all his time was at the agency. So mother and grandmother had to carry on the
home work and I was just a little girl…When my father and mother got married and they got started, he
was kind of a policeman. They had range riders. The north, west, and south boundaries of the
reservation, there was an Otoe would ride that line every day. Dad got that job on the west line over
there, riding it north and south. This was before allotment, and they could live wherever they wanted to
on the reservation, so to be close, Grandma said best to move over there. So they built a cellar over
there near the west line. And course Dad’s ‘brother’ Burgess was handy -- he learned carpentry at
Hampton -- so they bought lumber and they built kind of a three-room shack over there. Every day my
father rode the line. We was just about three-eights mile from the line. He’d go north one day and back,
next day he’d go south and back. Then when they had the allotment they chose theirs over there, and
when they built them government houses, they got one of those. They built on my father’s place, on his
40. (a member of the Iowa tribe) had my father to start farming. Several years, they added on to that
house -- both sides. When I was born and began to remember, we had a big house. Five rooms on the
main floor.”
41. Interesting Facts:
•November 4th is Native American Day.
•The Otoe and Missouria tribe originated in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. It is thought that
they were one tribe with the Iowa, Winnebago and Ho-chunk people until the 1600’s.
•Otoe and Missouri people first came in contact with the Europeans in the 17th century.
•in 1777 the population of the Otoe-Missouria tribe was 750 warriors and individuals.
•The Otoe and the Missouri were moved to a reservation in the 1800’s.
•The Otoe people speak English today.
•Even though the Otoe-Missouria speak English today, they used to speak their native language, Chiwere.
•Ever thought? I wish I was an Indian so I didnt have to go to school! Think again! They do!
•Just like every other kid the Otoe-Missouria children play, go to school, and do chores!
•Normally in Native American tribes elderly men were the story tellers but in this tribe the woman’s role in
a day was to sit around the camp fire and tell stories.
42. Review 8.3
Question 5 of 5
Do the Native American children go to school?
A. Yes
B. No
Check Answer
43. Chapter 12
Sioux tribe
The picture to the right shows the
famous, well known Sioux chief, Sitting
Bull. Sitting Bull had a very hard life:
battles, overcoming challenges, and
proving himself to everyone in the tribe
by performing a courageous act at a
ceremony. If you want to find out more
about this fascinating, determined,
exciting chief, then keep reading.
44. Section 1
Time Line Double-Tap on the pictures of Sitting
Bull for an interactive timeline of
Sitting Bull’s life.
45. Sitting Bull’s Famous quote:
Figure 12.1
Press Here for 3
more quotes.
46. Interesting Facts:
•The Sioux and the Cheyenne teamed up and beat George A. Custer in the battle of the Little
Big Horn.
•The Sioux were nomadic.
•Lived in Northwest part of Nebraska.
•Frequent attacks by white soldiers and the dwindling buffalo herds destroyed the way of life for
many plains Indian tribes.
•The Sioux were farmers, gatherers, and hunters.
•They farmed corn.
•They gathered fruit and berries.
•They mainly hunted buffalo.
•Sioux are known for their Powwows. A powwow is a ceremony with festive dancing, food, and
sacrifices. 45
47. Review 8.3
Question 4 of 5
Who was Sioux’s tribes amazing chief?
A. Standing Bear
B. Red Cloud
C. Sitting Bull
D. Crazy Horse
Check Answer
There are five very important people that contributed to this book. I would like to
dedicate this book to my wonderful parents Tim and Courtney Kotrous, for
helping me through this process and supporting me one thousand percent. I would
also like to dedicate this book to my HAL teacher Mrs.Brookhouser. Without her
this book wouldn’t have been possible. Thank you for helping me with all of my
never ending grammar questions and helping with the writing process. I would
also like to dedicate this book to Robbie Jensen for answering all of my technical
questions and devoting his time to help the writing HAL students. Finally, I would
like to dedicate this to my best friend, Josie Brady, for distracting me from
working and keeping the making of this book fun! Thank you all for contributing
to the making of this book!
49. Citations
Title page: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
Buffalo herd running down a hill being chased by Native Americans.
Other pictures are off of http://search.creativecommons.org/
Chapter 1 Title Page: http://search.creativecommons.org/
All images on chapter 1 title page pictures are off of http://
Introduction: Indian waving blanket over fire. http://
signal.htm Native American tribe picture in front of tipi. http://
sirismm.si.edu/siris/top_images/naa.top.03_2011.htm Six Native
Americans in rows. http://sirismm.si.edu/siris/top_images/naa.top.
03_2011.htm Talking feather: http://www.blowgun.com/shop/
Housing: http://search.creativecommons.org/
Plains Indians: http://search.creativecommons.org/
Tipis: http://www.old-picture.com/old-west/Lakota-Sioux-Camp.htm
background picture.
Earthlodges: First picture in gallery- http://www.geospectra.net/
lewis_cl/knife_riv/k_river.htm Third picture in gallery- http://
earthlodge.html second picture in gallery- http://
search.creativecommons.org/ Fourth picture in gallery- http://
Beliefs: Background picture, Beliefs section picture, First
Environmentalist: http://search.creativecommons.org/ 48
50. Citations
First Environmentalist section page: http://www.sd4history.com/Unit3/
Hunting: Baby Buffalo, Baby Buffalo Skeleton, Birds Flying, and the
picture of the buffalo are all off of: http://
search.creativecommons.org/ The small and large picture of Native
Americans hunting buffalo is off of: http://
Communications: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
color_by_Karl_Bodmer_1833.jpg Background Picture.
Signals: Fire and Smoke- Fire: http://history.howstuffworks.com/
native-american-history/smoke-signal.htm Smoke: http://
Signals: Blanket and Mirror- Blanket: http://www.allposters.com/-sp/
Mirror: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/lightandcolor/reflection.html
Signals: Pictures and Sign Language- http://search.creativecommons.org/
Pawnee: Pawnee Tribe- www.nationalgeographic.com Pawnee Section,
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-pawnee.html and Pawnee Fun
Facts- http://search.creativecommons.org/
Ponca: Corn pictures- http://search.creativecommons.org/ Rest of
picture are off of- http://sirismm.si.edu/siris/top_images/naa.top.
Ponca section: Dream catcher logo- http://sadredearth.com/ethnic- 49
51. Citations
Languages: http://search.creativecommons.org/
Omaha Tribe: Background picture- http://sirismm.si.edu/siris/
top_images/naa.top.03_2011.htm Omaha section page- http://
Omaha sacred legend- http://sirismm.si.edu/siris/top_images/naa.top.
03_2011.htm Otoe-Missouria: Background picture- http://
Sioux Tribe: Background picture- http://www.google.com/url?
Timeline: First picture- http://thedigestersdilemma.com/diet-sodas-
Second picture- http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-
June-08/On-this-Day--Custer-Killed-in-Battle-of-Little-Bighorn.html Third
picture- http://civfanatics.com Fourth picture- http://www.finch-and-
Fifth picture- http://www.printsoldandrare.com/indians/
Six picture- http://www.classwarfareexists.com/signature-quotes-sitting-
bull/ Seventh picture- http://my.opera.com
Famous quote by Sitting Bull picture- http://3chicspolitico.com/2013/03/02/
Dedications: Heart- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heart-SG2001-
52. A plot of land rented to a gardener.
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53. To connect or bring into relation, as thought, feeling, memory, etc.
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Chapter 8 - Pawnee Tribe
54. Having a large, irregular spot or blot.
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55. Something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.
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56. A room, or set of rooms, for the storage of food, fuel, etc. Usually all the way
underground or partly. Sometimes underneath a building.
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57. Also called Asiatic Cholera, an acute infectious disease, endemic in India
and China and occasionally endemic elsewhere. Characterized by profuse
diarrhea, vomiting, cramps.
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58. Arranged or distributed in classes or according to class.
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59. Serving to distinguish; characteristic; distinguishing: the distinctive stripes
of the zebra.
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60. To become smaller and smaller; shrink; waste away.
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61. To form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding the worth, amount,
size, weight, etc.
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62. Happening or occurring at short intervals.
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Chapter 12 - Interesting Facts/Sioux Tribe
63. To feed on growing grass and pasturage, as do cattle, etc.
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Chapter 6 - Hunting
64. The melted or rendered fat of animals, especially when in a soft state.
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65. A non historical or unverifiable story handed down by tradition from earlier
times and popularly accepted as historical.
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Chapter 10 - Interesting Facts/Omaha Tribo
66. Timber sawed or split into planks, boards, etc.
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67. To keep an existence or continuance; preserve; retain.
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68. The status of belonging to a particular nation, whether by birth or
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69. To take its origin or rise; begin; start; arise.
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70. A record consisting of pictorial symbols, as a prehistoric cave drawing or a
graph or chart with symbolic figures representing a certain number of
people, cars, and factories.
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71. The total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district area.
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72. Capable of being transported or conveyed by hand: a portable typewriter.
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73. Of high price or value; very valuable or costly.
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74. A narrow beam of light.
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75. To cast back light, heat, sound, etc. from a surface.
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76. A tract of public land set apart for a special purpose, as for the use of an
Indian tribe.
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77. Able to deal skillfully and promptly with new situations, difficulties, etc.
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78. answerable or accountable, as for something within one'spower, control, or
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79. to walk, go, or travel without a fixed purpose or direction;ramble; wander;
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80. devoted or dedicated to a deity or to some religious purpose;
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81. Top of a person’s head.
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82. such an integument stripped from the body of an animal,especially a small animal;
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83. An acute, highly contagious, febrile disease, caused by variola virus, and
characterized by a pustular eruption that often leaves permanent pits or
scars: eradicated worldwide by vaccination programs.
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84. A long, narrow mark, smear, band of color, or the like: streaks of mud.
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Chapter 7 - Communications
85. The act of practice of marking the skin with inedible patterns, pictures,
legends, etc., by making punctures in it and inserting pigments.
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86. A cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to
connect a muscle with a bone or part.
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Chapter 5 - First Environmentalist
87. To turn from one language into another or from a foreign language to one’s
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Chapter 7 - Picture/Sign Langauge