8. nervous Functions of the Cerebral Cortex Intellectual processes: thought, intelligence. Processes sensory information and integrates with past experience to produce appropriate motor response.
9. nervous Diencephalon - 2 Major Parts Thalamus – Relays stimuli received from all sensory neurons to cortex for interpretation – Relays signals from the cerebral cortex to the proper area for further processing Hypothalamus – Monitors many parameters temperature, blood glucose levels, various hormone levels – Helps maintain homeostasis – Signals the pituitary via releasing factors – Signals the lower neural centers
11. nervous Cerebellum Located behind the brainstem Helps monitor and regulate movement Integrates postural adjustments, maintenance of equilibrium, perception of speed, and other reflexes related to fine tuning of movement.
12. nervous Brainstem Composed of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Maintains vegetative functioning – Where is respiratory control center? – Where is cardiovascular control center? Reflexes
13. nervous Brain Stem
14. nervous Spinal Cord Containsboth gray and white matter Gray matter is H-shape in core of cord
16. nervous Gray Matter Regions of brain and spinal cord made up primarily of cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells Interneurons in spinal cord – small nerves which do not leave the spinal cord Terminal portion of axons
17. nervous White Matter Contains tracts or pathways made up of bundles of myelinated nerves Carry ascending and descending signals – Ascending nerve tract from sensory receptors through dorsal root, up cord to thalamus, to cerebral cortex – Pyramidal tract transmits impulses downward eventually excites motoneurons control muscles. – Extrapyramidal originate in brain stem descend to control posture.
20. nervous Peripheral Nervous System Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves & 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Each spinal nerve is a mixed nerve containing: – Somatic afferent – Visceral afferent – Somatic efferent – Visceral efferent Which is a motor fiber?
21. nervous Somatic Nervous System Somatic afferent (sensory): carry sensations from periphery to spinal cord. Includes exteroceptive (pain, temperature, touch) & proprioceptive. Somatic efferent (motor): communicate from spinal cord to skeletal muscles.
22. nervous Autonomic Nervous System Subdivisions Sympathetic – responsible for increasing activity in most systems (except GI) – adrenergic fibers release epinephrine Parasympathetic – responsible for slowing activity in most systems (except GI) – cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine
26. nervous Motor Unit A single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers which it innervates. Represents functional unit of movement. Ratio of muscle fibers to nerve relates to muscle’s movement function.
27. nervous Neurons Two basic types 1. Motor 2. Sensory Three basic parts 1. Axons 2. Dendrites 3. Soma or Cell Bodies
28. nervous Sensory Nerves Enter the spinal cord on the dorsal side Cell bodies lie outside the spinal cord in Dorsal Root Ganglia
29. nervous Motor Nerves Exit the spinal cord on the ventral side Cell bodies lie within grey matter of spinal cord Somatic – innervates skeletal muscle Autonomic (visceral) – innervates organs / smooth muscle
30. nervous Neuron Part: Axons Carry impulses away from the cell body
31. nervous Myelin Schwann cells wrapped around the axon of some neurons – appear as multiple lipid-protein layers – are actually a continuous cell – increase the speed of action potential conduction
32. nervous Nodes of Ranvier Gaps between Schwann Cells – impulse jumps from node to node – saltatory conduction
34. nervous Neuron Parts: Dendrites and Cell body Dendrite: receives stimuli and carry it to the cell body Cell body: site of cellular activity
35. nervous Synapse Junction between the dendrites of one neuron and the axon of a second neuron Nerves communicate by releasing chemical messenger at synapse
36. nervous Synapse Important neurotransmitters: Monoamines Neuropeptides Nitric oxide
37. nervous Motor Nerves - Size Alpha motor nerves – Larger fibers – Conduct impulses faster – Innervate regular muscle fibers Gamma Motor nerves – smaller fibers – conduct impulses more slowly – Innervate proprioceptors such as muscle spindles
38. nervous Nerve Properties Related to Function Irritability – able to respond to stimuli Conductivity – able to transmit electrical potential along the axon
39. nervous Resting Membrane Potential Difference in charge between the inside and outside of the cell – sodium in greater concentration outside – potassium in greater concentration inside – anions in greater concentration inside – membrane permeability greater for potassium than sodium – Na+ / K+ pump moves sodium out, potassium in
41. nervous Generating Action Potentials Voltage gated ion channels – sodium channels open --- sodium rushes in – sodium channels close --- stops inward flow of sodium – potassium channels open --- potassium rushes out Net effect - Depolarization then Repolarization – electrical flow created by ionic flow, not electron flow
44. nervous Neuromuscular Junction Motor neuron cell body and dendrites in gray matter of spinal cord Axons extend to muscle Axon’s terminal end contains a synaptic knob Synaptic knob has synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine
45. nervous Neuromuscular Junction Axon leaves spinal Extends to skeletal Terminal branches end in synaptic
46. nervous Motor End Plate Area beneath the terminal branches of the axons Contains acetylcholine receptor complexes Acetylcholine binding opens the receptor complex Cholinesterase degrades acetylcholine into acetate and choline
48. nervous Tension Generating Characteristics All or None Law – when a neuron reaches threshold it generates an action potential which is conducted the length of the axon without any voltage change – when the nerve fires, all the muscle fibers it innervates contract
49. nervous Summation of Local Graded Potentials Temporal Summation – additive effect of successive stimuli from an axon Spatial Summation – additive effect of stimuli from various axons
50. nervous Gradation of Force Force of muscle varies from slight to maximal: – Increase number of motor units recruited – Increase frequency of motor unit discharge.