Ecology: The study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment and each other

This is an MCQ-based quiz for GRE on the topic of Ecology.

This includes organisms, communities, populations, and ecosystems.

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A bacterium is found to survive off of organic molecules created by other organisms. It relies on these as both carbon and energy sources. Which term best describes this bacterium?

None of these Chemoautotroph Photoautotroph Chemoheterotroph Photoheterotroph

When measuring biodiversity, there are several possible indices to use, such as alpha diversity or beta diversity. What does beta diversity, or species evenness, measure?

The number of individuals in a population The species richness in a patch of uniform habitat The number of individuals per square kilometer The rate of change in species composition from one habitat to the next The diversity of the entire geographic area

What does a J curve represent on a population growth chart?

The correlation between a species and its competitors in a specific niche A species has reached carrying capacity and leveled off due to limited resources A species cycles up to carrying capacity, and then back down to the minimum The maximum point of growth of a species A species has reached the carrying capacity but continues to grow, creating a population explosion and a competition for resources

Which of the following most accurately describes a deme?

A group of conspecific individuals separated demographically, genetically, or spatially from other groups A group of individuals more genetically similar to each other than to other individuals, even if spatially isolated A collection of populations of organisms isolated genetically but still living in the same area and sharing many characteristics A set of individuals geographically isolated from other groups A set of spatially disjunct populations in which some immigration still occurs

K-strategist populations are more commonly regulated by ____________ limiting factors, and r-strategist populations are regulated by ___________ limiting factors.

density-independent, density-independent none of these density-independent, density-dependent density-dependent, density-dependent density-dependent, density-independent

Detritivores employ an evolutionarily successful feeding strategy of animals, in which they feed primarily on other animals" waste. Why is this an efficient approach?

There is less competition for detritus than other resources Nutrient content is much richer in detritus Dung is much easier to digest because its already been digested by another animal There are no special adaptations required to be a detritivore There is more detritus than live biomass

There are a huge number of herbivores in the world, with insects being the largest and most diverse group. Given how successful these herbivores are and how abundant their plant resources are, why haven"t all plants in the world been eaten by now?

Herbivore population sizes are controlled by the climate Herbivores generally only eat one plant Most herbivores are very small Herbivores are not diverse enough nor do they have enough adaptations to eat all plants Herbivores are limited by their predators

Only 10% of the energy at each level of the trophic pyramid is available energy for the following trophic level. Why is so much energy lost between each level?

Not everything absorbed into the body is used for growth All of these The conversion of food into biomass results in heat loss All the available food cannot be eaten Not all ingested food can be absorbed into the body

A species designated as "r-strategist" is characterized by all of the following except __________.

Long life expectancy High reproductive rate Low age of maturity Little time spent by parents caring for and raising offspring Small size

Eusocial insects, like many species of ants, are some of the most well known and successful social animals in the world. What factors are necessary for an insect species to be eusocial?
I. Cooperative brood care between different individuals
II. Division of labor by reproductive capability
III. Overlap of generations
IV. Adults care for their own offspring for some time

III and IV

I and II

II only

I, II, III, and IV

I, II, and III

Quiz/Test Summary
Title: Ecology: The study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment and each other
Questions: 10
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