Traits, Genes and Alleles: Explained

Contributed by:
Sharp Tutor
This presentation gives an introduction to:
1. Traits
2. Genes
3. Alleles
A gene is a portion of DNA that determines a certain trait. An allele is a specific form of a gene. Genes are responsible for the expression of traits. Alleles are responsible for the variations in which a given trait can be expressed.
1. “Traits &
2. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
Genes encode proteins that produce a
diverse range of traits
3. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
A gene is a piece of DNA that
tells a cell to make a certain
• Each gene has a locus,
a specific position
on a pair of
homologous chromosomes
4. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
An allele is an alternative form of a gene
-Each parent donates one allele for every
• For shape, there is a
wrinkled allele and a
round allele. They
receive one allele from
each parent.
5. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
• Homozygous (pure)
• when both letters are the same
• ex: TT, tt
• Heterozygous (hybrid)
• when letters are different
• always write the big letter first
• ex: Tt , Xx , Bb
• Dominant Alleles are always upper case and
recessive alleles are always lower case.
6. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
E. Mendel’s observed traits
1. Rule of Dominance: When a
dominant trait is present the
recessive trait is hidden
7. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
Genes influence the development of traits.
• All of an organism’s genetic
material is called the genome.
• A genotype refers to the actual
• A phenotype is the physical
expression of a trait.
8. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
C. Genotype:
1. The gene combination of an
• It consists of 2 alleles
• For example:
– PP
– Pp
– pp
9. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
Phenotype :The appearance.
• The genotype determines the phenotype.
10. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
Probability: The likelihood of an event.
• A probability is expressed as a percentage or a
• Genotypic Ratio: The ratio of genotypes that will
• Phenotypic Ratio: The ratio of phenotypes that will
• We can find the probability of a certain genotype or
phenotype by constructing a Punnett Square.
11. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
• When a dominant allele always gets its way (the
dominant phenotype is present no matter its partner)
– Example:
Pp = Purple Flower
PP = Purple Flower
• Some times dominant traits don’t completely get
their way……the alleles compromise. This results in
a phenotype that is a mix of both parents. This is
– Example
Pp = light purple flower
12. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
• In a few instances both alleles need to be expressed.
This is called Codominance.
– Example
A mom chicken is black and dad chicken is white, but
the baby chick comes out black and white.
13. 6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles
• Most traits occur
in a range and do
not follow simple