# The Rectangular Coordinate System Contributed by: OBJECTIVE:
1. Interpret a line graph. 2. Plot ordered pairs. 3. Find ordered pairs that satisfy a given equation. 4. Graph lines. 5. Find x- and y-intercepts. 6. Recognize equations of horizontal and vertical lines and lines passing through the origin. 7. Use the midpoint formula.
Sec 4.1 - 1
2. Chapter 4
Graphs, Linear Equations,
and Functions
Sec 4.1 - 2
3. 4.1
The Rectangular Coordinate
System
Sec 4.1 - 3
4. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Objectives
1. Interpret a line graph.
2. Plot ordered pairs.
3. Find ordered pairs that satisfy a given equation.
4. Graph lines.
5. Find x- and y-intercepts.
6. Recognize equations of horizontal and vertical lines
and lines passing through the origin.
7. Use the midpoint formula.
5. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Rectangular (or Cartesian, for Descartes) Coordinate System
y
8
y-axis
Origin 6
x-axis
2
x
0 0
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 -2 2 4 6 8
-6
-8
6. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Rectangular (or Cartesian, for Descartes) Coordinate System
y
Ordered Pair
(x, y)
A
D A (5, 3) Quadrant I
x
B
C C (–2, –3) Quadrant III
7. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Caution
The parentheses used to represent an ordered pair are also used to
represent an open interval (introduced in Section 3.1). The context of
the discussion tells whether ordered pairs or open intervals are being
8. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 1 Completing Ordered Pairs
Complete each ordered pair for 3x + 4y = 7.
(a) (5, ? )
We are given x = 5. We substitute into the equation to find y.
3x + 4y = 7
3(5) + 4y = 7 Let x = 5.
15 + 4y = 7
4y = –8
y = –2
The ordered pair is (5, –2).
9. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 1 Completing Ordered Pairs
Complete each ordered pair for 3x + 4y = 7.
(b) ( ? , –5)
Replace y with –5 in the equation to find x.
3x + 4y = 7
3x + 4(–5) = 7 Let y = –5.
3x – 20 = 7
3x = 27
x=9
The ordered pair is (9, –5).
10. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
A Linear Equation in Two Variables
A linear equation in two variables can be written in the form
Ax + By = C,
where A, B, and C are real numbers (A and B not both 0). This form is
called standard form.
11. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Intercepts
y
y-intercept (where the line intersects
the y-axis)
x-intercept (where the
line intersects
the x-axis)
x
12. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Finding Intercepts
When graphing the equation of a line,
let y = 0 to find the x-intercept;
let x = 0 to find the y-intercept.
13. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 2 Finding Intercepts
Find the x- and y-intercepts of 2x – y = 6, and graph the equation.
We find the x-intercept We find the y-intercept
by letting y = 0. by letting x = 0.
2x – y = 6 2x – y = 6
2x – 0 = 6 Let y = 0. 2(0) – y = 6 Let x = 0.
2x = 6 –y = 6
x=3 x-intercept is (3, 0). y = –6 y-intercept is (0, –6).
The intercepts are the two points (3,0) and (0, –6).
14. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 2 Finding Intercepts
Find the x- and y-intercepts of 2x – y = 6, and graph the equation.
The intercepts are the two points (3,0) and (0, –6). We show these ordered
pairs in the table next to the figure below and use these points to draw the
graph. y
x y
x
3 0
0 –6
15. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 3 Graphing a Horizontal Line
Graph y = –3.
Since y is always –3, there is no value of x corresponding to y = 0, so the
graph has no x-intercept. The y-intercept is (0, –3). The graph in the figure
below, shown with a table of ordered pairs, is a horizontal line.
y
x y
x
2 –3
0 –3
–2 –3
16. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 3 con’t
Graphing a Vertical Line
Graph x + 2 = 5.
The x-intercept is (3, 0). The standard form 1x + 0y = 3 shows that every
value of y leads to x = 3, so no value of y makes x = 0. The only way a straight
line can have no y-intercept is if it is vertical, as in the figure below.
y
x y
x
3 2
3 0
3 –2
17. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Horizontal and Vertical Lines
To avoid confusing equations of horizontal and vertical lines remember
1. An equation with only the variable x will always intersect the
x-axis and thus will be vertical.
2. An equation with only the variable y will always intersect the
y-axis and thus will be horizontal.
18. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 4 Graphing a Line That Passes
through the Origin
Graph 3x + y = 0.
We find the x-intercept We find the y-intercept
by letting y = 0. by letting x = 0.
3x + y = 0 3x + y = 0
3x + 0 = 0 Let y = 0. 3(0) + y = 0 Let x = 0.
3x = 0 0+y=0
x=0 x-intercept is (0, 0). y=0 y-intercept is (0, 0).
Both intercepts are the same ordered pair, (0, 0). (This means
the graph goes through the origin.)
19. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 4 Graphing a Line That Passes
through the Origin
Graph 3x + y = 0.
To find another point to graph the line, choose any nonzero
number for x, say x = 2, and solve for y.
Let x = 2.
3x + y = 0
3(2) + y = 0 Let x = 2.
6+y=0
y = –6
This gives the ordered pair (2, –6).
20. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
EXAMPLE 4 Graphing a Line That Passes
through the Origin
Graph 3x + y = 0.
These points, (0, 0) and (2, –6), lead to the graph shown below.
As a check, verify that (1, –3) also lies on the line.
y x-intercept
and
y-intercept
x y
x
0 0
2 –6
1 –3
21. 4.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Use the midpoint formula
If the endpoints of a line segment PQ are (x1, y1) and
(x2, y2), its midpoint M is
 x1  x2 y1  y2 
 , .
 2 2 