Supervision of Teachers to Ensure Quality Teaching

Contributed by:
Sharp Tutor
Good teachers:
1. Establish a climate of learning
2. Gain student’s attention
3. State what is to be learned
Here we show how to achieve them
1. Supervision of Teachers to
Ensure Quality Teaching
Dr. Timothy L. Heaton
Associate Professor of Education
Cedarville University
Cedarville, Ohio 45314
2. Labor before Labor Day!
Picking up Clues
Begin Informal Supervision before school begins:
1. Observe teacher’s preparation in rooms
( planning, activities, dressing the room)
2. Observe teacher’s frustrations ( workbooks
haven’t arrived, Johnny Wonder is in their class
this year, or they repeatedly say;” I have HOW
many students with I.E.P.s?”
Talk to teachers informally about their curriculum
( What do they like about their new Math series,
what do they find problematic?)
3. At the First Teacher’s Meeting
1. Explain the process of informal and formal
formative evaluations and the final yearend
summative evaluations.
2. Put the process in writing
3. Ask the teacher to list their goals for their
teaching this year….be specific.
4. Begin daily informal observations of all classes
and all teachers during the first two weeks of
school ( Just walking down the hall, sticking your
head in the door, peeking in during lunchroom
duty, looking out your window while teacher is on
recess duty.
4. Supervision vs. Evaluation
1.Aimed at Improvement
2. Assumes that the teacher will be
3. Assumes that contract will be renewed.
1. Aimed at judgment
2. Does not assume that success is
3. Contract renewal not automatic
5. Observing Quality Teaching
Good teachers:
1. Establish a climate of learning
2. Gain student’s attention
3. State what is to be learned
6. Good Teachers motivate students
Establishing importance of lesson
Relating new information to prior
student’s experiences
Relating new information to prior
student knowledge
Using appropriate cooperative
learning techniques.
7. Good Teachers Sequence Lesson
Delivery by:
1. Reviewing needed basic skills
2. Presenting concrete material before abstract concepts.
3. Using manipulatives and visual approaches before oral
4. Developing the lesson from the simple to the complex
5. Checking for student understanding at intervals.
6. Use good questioning techniques
7. Periodically review lesson progress to date
8. Confirm what has been learned during the lesson
9. Use guided practice when appropriate.
8. Good Teachers Involve students
actively by:
Not personally dominating the lesson
Inviting student contribution and
Planning for activities which require
student involvement and initiative
9. Good Teachers Manage their
Classrooms well by:
1. Planning procedures which will
reduce disruptions to class.
2. Clearly communicating rules and
3. Being aware of all students and
intercepting misbehavior at earliest
possible stage.
4. Enforcing rules fairly and
10. Good Teachers Use Effective
1. Asking few “yes/no” questions
2. Asking questions which require
higher order thinking such as
application, analysis or synthesis.
3. Insuring that questions have their
opportunity to provoke responses in
every student’s mind before being
answered( wait time).
11. Types of Supervision and
1. Teacher-generated analysis:
The teacher plans lesson, teaches
lesson while supervisor watches,
reflects on their lesson…what was
good, what wasn’t, what would they
change next time.
12. Collaborative Analysis
Teacher plans lesson, goes over
lesson with supervisor who critiques
Teacher teaches critiqued lesson
Both Supervisor and Teacher do
analysis of the lesson taught
Supervisor and Teacher’s comments
are included in final review.
13. Supervisor-generated conference
Teacher plans lesson
Teacher teaches lesson
Supervisor sees lesson and plans for
the first time during the observation
Supervisor gives teacher analysis of
teaching with comments on what
went well and what didn’t and how to
14. Basic Info for All conferences
1. Build a positive climate, so the teacher
feels open and comfortable talking.
2. Present data in order for learning to
3. Wait for teacher’s comments and see if
they understand meaning of your
4. Ask awareness questions to elicit
teachers reaction to your data on the
review and talk further explaining what
the data means.
15. Dealing with Teacher Resistance:
1. Unwillingness to concur with
truthfulness of data regarding
teacher’s classroom performance
2. Disagreement regarding
interpretation of data which may
require the teacher to change
behavior/teaching style.
3. Blameshifting to other things
which caused lesson to go poorly.
16. What to do about Teacher
1. Be firm and patient in presenting the
2. Be unilaterally prescriptive….keep
personalities out…just deal with facts.
3. invite the teacher’s collaboration in the
collection of new data.
4. schedule another observation
5. suggest another method of data
collection including another person
supervising the lesson.
17. Glickman’s Developmental
1. Directive Control behaviors
2. Directive Informational Behaviors
3. Collaborative Behaviors
4. Nondirective Behaviors
18. Directive Control
Identify problem
Ask teacher for input into problem
Understand teacher’s viewpoint
Mentally determine best solution
Tell expectations of solution to teacher
Ask teacher for input into expectations
Detail and Modify expectations
19. Directive Informational
Identify goal
Ask teacher for input into that goal
Understand teacher’s viewpoint
Mentally determine possible action
Tell other options for teacher to consider
Ask teacher for input into options
Give final options and choices
Ask teacher to choose which choice would
be best.
20. Collaborative
Identify problem as the teacher sees it.
Understand teacher’s perception
Verifying the teacher’s perception
Providing supervisor’s perception
Seek teacher’s understanding of
supervisor’s perception.
Exchange suggestions of options
Accept any conflict and work on finding an
acceptable solution
21. Nondirective
Wait until teacher’s initial statement is made.
Verbalize your understanding of initial problem.
Probe for underlying problem
Show willingness to listen further
Constantly paraphrase understanding of teacher’s
Ask teacher to think of possible actions
Ask teacher to consider consequences of various
Ask teacher to commit to a decision
Ask teacher to set time and criteria for action
Restate teacher’s plan
22. Other supervision options
Peer Coaching
Lead Teacher
Professional Dialogues with other faculty
Professional development
Action research
Use of Student evaluations
Videotaping for self-supervision
Videotaping for supervisor