Space Exploration Guided Notes

Contributed by:
Kapporet e_Learning Solutions
Guided Notes ppt. for 5/16-5/20
2. How have we
explored space and
what knowledge have
we gained through
space exploration?
3. Warm Up
•How do we know so much about the solar
system that we live in?
• What are some of the discoveries we have
• Do you think we will make more discoveries
in the future?
4. Space Exploration
5. Space exploration has allowed humans to learn
much about the workings of the solar system,
the composition of planets and moons, and
the effects of many types of solar radiation on
the Earth.
6. The moon is incredibly far away,
and years ago people could only
dream of traveling into space. The
problem was that no machine
could generate the force needed
to overcome Earth’s gravity and
reach outer space.
A rocket is a machine
that uses escaping gas to
8. About 100 years ago, a
Russian high school teacher
named Konstantin
Tsiolkovsky proposed that
machines called “rockets”
could take people to outer
A rocket is a machine that
uses escaping gas to move.
9. Although Tsiolkovsky proved scientifically that
rockets could reach outer space, he never built any
rockets himself. That was left to American physicist
Robert Goddard, who launched the first successful
liquid-fuel rocket in 1926 to an altitude of 41 feet.
10. Some of NASA’s rockets
12. Why must rockets launches be so
powerful? Why must the propulsion
of the launch be so great?
13. Why must rockets launches be so
powerful? Why must the propulsion
of the launch be so great?
14. Orbital & Escape Velocity
The gravitational
pull of the Earth is
the main factor
that a rocket must
Rockets must
reach a certain
velocity, or speed
and direction, to
orbit or escape
15. Orbital Velocity
For rockets to orbit Earth, it
must have enough thrust
to reach orbital velocity,
which is ….
16. Orbital Velocity
For rockets to orbit Earth, it
must have enough thrust
to reach orbital velocity,
which is ….
17,927 miles / hour
17. Orbital Velocity
For rockets to orbit Earth, it
must have enough thrust
to reach orbital velocity,
which is ….
17,927 miles / hour
** If the rocket goes any slower, it will fall back to Earth
18. Escape Velocity
For a rocket to travel
beyond Earth’s orbit – to
completely break away from
the planet’s gravitational
pull – it must achieve
ESCAPE velocity
which is…
19. Escape Velocity
For a rocket to travel
beyond Earth’s orbit – to
completely break away from
the planet’s gravitational
pull – it must achieve
ESCAPE velocity
24,606 miles / hour
21. The Birth of NASA
In 1957, The Soviet Union, (Russia-today),
successfully launched the world’s first satellite.
This panicked the US, and started The Space Race.
22. The Birth of NASA
We combined all of our space agencies to form
NASA on October 1, 1958
NASA stands for: National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
23. N.A.S.A
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The US government established NASA in 1958
An artificial satellite is any human-made
object placed in orbit around a body in
25. The first artificial satellite “Sputnik I” was launched
into space by the Soviet Union in 1957.
26. The United States successfully launched its first
satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
27. Satellite technology increased rapidly,
and by 1964, communication satellites
were able to send messages around
the world.
Today there are thousands of satellites orbiting the
earth, and more are launched every day.
28. artist’s depiction
A Space Shuttle
is a reusable
space vehicle
that takes off
like a rocket
and lands like
an airplane.
The first Space Shuttle “Columbia” was
launched by NASA in 1981
What does the surface of Mars look like? Does life
exist anywhere else in the solar system? To answer
questions like these, scientists send space probes to
explore the solar system.
A Space Probe is an un-crewed vehicle that carries
scientific instruments to planets or other bodies in
space. Unlike satellites which stay in Earth’s orbit,
space probes travel away from the earth.
Space probes can be used on missions
that are too dangerous or long to
send humans.
Because Earth’s moon and the inner planets
are much closer than the other planets and
moons in the solar system, they were the first
to be explored by space probes.
Visiting the moon …… The Luna 10 Space Probe
Mars Pathfinder Mission
34. The planets in the outer solar system are very
far away, and probes can take 10 years or more
to complete their mission.
Pioneer Probes 10 & 11 …. To Jupiter and Beyond!!!
In 1609, an astronomer named Galileo heard
about the invention of the spyglass, a device which
made distant objects appear closer. Galileo used
his mathematics knowledge and technical skills to
improve upon the spyglass and build a telescope.
Telescope: an optical instrument for making
distant objects appear larger and brighter by use
of a combination of lenses and curved mirrors.
NASA has a fleet of telescopes that have
allowed us to learn more about our
Some of these include:
• The Hubble Telescope (soon to be replaced by James Webb)
• The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
• The Chandra X-ray Observatory
• The Spitizer Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope was the first great
observatory launched by NASA in 1990.
Hubble faces toward space. It takes pictures of planets, stars
and galaxies. Hubble has seen the birth and death of stars. It
has seen galaxies that are billions of light years away. Hubble
has also seen comet pieces crash into the atmosphere above
The atmosphere above
Earth changes and blocks
some of the light that
comes from space.
Hubble orbits high
enough above Earth to
avoid this problem.
Hubble sees space better
than telescopes on Earth.
The Hubble Telescope orbits Earth with a speed of 5
miles per second. Hubble makes a full orbit around the
Earth every 97 minutes.
• The size of the Hubble Space Telescope is
approximately as a large school bus.
• Hubble Space Telescope travels 241 million
kilometers yearly in the orbit around the Earth.
• Hubble has made more than 1 million
observations since 1990!
The Hubble Telescope allows scientists
to learn more about planet Earth and its
place in our solar system and universe.
The Compton Gamma Ray
Observatory (CGRO) was
the second great
observatory launched by
NASA in 1991. It featured
four main telescopes in
one spacecraft, covering
X-rays and gamma rays.
The observatory operated
for 14 years until its
deorbit on June 4, 2000
The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the third
great observatory launched by NASA on July 23,
NASA’s Chandra X-ray
Observatory is a telescope
specially designed to detect
X-ray emission from very
hot regions of the Universe
such as exploded stars,
clusters of galaxies, and
matter around black holes.
The Chandra X-ray
Observatory is the world's
most powerful X-ray
•The Chandra X-ray Observatory’s
operating orbit takes it 200-times
higher than the Hubble Space
• During each orbit of the Earth,
Chandra travels one-third of the
way to the Moon.
• Cost: US$1.65 billion
The Spitzer Space Telescope
(SST) is an infrared space
observatory launched in 2003. It
is the fourth and final of the
NASA Great Observatories
The planned mission period was
to be 2.5 years until the
onboard liquid helium supply
was exhausted. This occurred
on 15 May 2009. Without liquid
helium to cool the telescope to
the very low temperatures
needed to operate, most of the
instruments are no longer
49. The James Webb
Telescope Launch
Space Station: a long-term orbiting
platform where scientists can work
in space.
An International Space Station was
built to allow space to be studied
The ISS was
launched in
The ISS is a collaboration of 15 nations working
together to create a state-of-the-art orbiting research
facility. The Station is much more than a world-class
laboratory; it is an international human experiment.
55. Humans have:
• traveled to the moon
56. Humans have:
• traveled to the moon
• landed probes on Mars, Venus, comets,
and many other bodies in space
57. Humans have:
• traveled to the moon
• landed probes on Mars, Venus, comets,
and many other bodies in space
• sent probes speeding past Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus and Neptune and Pluto
58. In preparing for the challenges of space exploration,
people have developed tools and products that have
become very important in enriching our lives.
59. Many of our modern conveniences are the result of
products developed for use in the space program.
60. Military Satellites
The US and Russia first developed Military satellites
to spy on each other during the Cold War era.
These satellites were equipped with extremely
powerful cameras which could photograph the
Earth’s surface with amazing detail, even from
hundreds of kilometers up in the air.
Today, this same technology is used by biologists to
track the movement of dolphins & whale
migration, and to monitor ice cap melt. It is also
used by cartographers to make detailed maps of
the Earth’s surface.
61. GPS
GPS (Global Positioning System) is another
example of military satellite technology that has
become a part of everyday life.
62. Weather Satellites
Weather satellites provide a big-picture view of the
Earth’s atmosphere.
63. Communication Satellites
Radio waves and microwaves
are ideal for communications
because they can travel through
the air. The problem is that the
Earth is round, but the waves
travel in a straight line.
Communication Satellites help
solve this problem
64. Satellite TV Dishes
NASA developed this technology to reduce
noise in TV Signals coming from satellites
65. Enriched Baby Food
NASA sponsored research made major
improvements to commercially available baby
food called Formulaid.
66. Ear Thermometer
Manufacturers wanted a safer way to take a
person’s temperature, and who better to turn
to than NASA. Together, they developed a fast
and accurate thermometer that detects
infrared radiation from the eardrum and gives
a digital readout in less than two seconds
67. Microwaves
The microwave oven did not come about as a result of someone
trying to find a better, faster way to cook. During World War II, two
scientists invented the magnetron, a tube that produces microwaves.
Installing magnetrons in Britain’s radar system, the microwaves were
able to spot Nazi warplanes. By accident, several years later, it was
discovered that microwaves also cook food.
68. Super Soaker
The appearance of the Super Soaker triggered a garden arms race: gone
were the piddling squirters of yesteryear, replaced by high-powered
weapons of mass saturation. Thus it’s appropriate they were invented
by a nuclear engineer, Dr Lonnie Johnson, while working at the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory. He was messing around with a heat pump and,
after attaching it to his sink, realized the potential for childish mayhem.
69. Camera Phones
In the early 1990s, Eric Fossum was hard at work in NASA’s
Jet Propulsion Lab, trying to downsize the cameras used on
spacecraft. His solution was the CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, or
‘camera on a chip’. The miniaturized system paved the way
for the sensors found in today’s cameras and phones.
70. Recycled Pavement
NASA went green a long time ago when they
came up with an idea to reuse old tires by
freezing them to below -200 degrees
Fahrenheit. They then separated the rubber
from other materials resulting in a material
called crumb which is used to build highways
and roads
71. Invisible Braces
Invisible braces, which are made of a nearly
invisible translucent ceramic material is a
direct spinoff of NASA’s advanced ceramic
research to develop new, tough materials for
spacecraft and aircraft
72. Fire Fighter Equipment
Fire fighters wear suits made of fire resistant
fabric developed for use in space suits.
73. Smoke Detector
First used in the Earth orbiting space station
called Skylab to help detect toxic vapors. This
invention led to the 1979 introduction of
inexpensive photoelectric detection devices,
which go off when smoke blocks the light
74. Memory Foam
Memory Foam pads the helmets of football
players and is used to manufacture prosthetic
limbs. NASA scientists invented the substance
in 1966 to make airplane seats safer and more
75. Freeze Dried Foods
NASA conducted extensive research into
space food. One of the techniques
developed was freeze drying. In the
United States, Action Products later
commercialized this technique for other
foods, concentrating on snack food
resulting in products like Space ice
cream. The foods are cooked, quickly
frozen, and then slowly heated in a
vacuum chamber to remove the ice
crystals formed by the freezing process.
The final product retains 98% of its
nutrition and weighs much less than
before drying.
76. Scratch Resistant Lenses
A sunglasses manufacturer called Foster Grant
first licensed a NASA technology for scratch-
resistant lenses, developed for protecting space
equipment from scratching in space, especially
helmet visors.
77. How big is
our solar
78. How Big is our Solar
⦿ Does our solar system end after
Neptune and the dwarf planets?
no…not even close
⦿ How far out does our solar system go?
no one knows for sure,
but likely a LONG ways!
79. A Quick Look Past
We have focused on looking at the planets in our
Solar System, but there is much more past
80. A Quick Look Past
81. Kuiper Belt
Beyond the gas giant Neptune lies a region of space
filled with icy bodies. Known as the Kuiper Belt, this
chilly expanse holds trillions of objects, remnants of
the early solar system.
82. Kuiper Belt
The belt is similar to the asteroid belt found between
Mars and Jupiter, although the objects in the Kuiper
Belt tend more to be icy rather than rocky.
83. Kuiper Belt
Most of the known dwarf planets exist in an icy
zone beyond Neptune called the Kuiper Belt,
which is also the point of origin for many comets.
84. Oort cloud
In 1950, Dutch astronomer Jan Oort suggested that
some of the comets entering the solar system come
from a cloud of icy bodies that may lie as far as
100,000 times Earth's distance from the sun, a
distance of up to 93 trillion miles.
85. Oort cloud
This places it at half of the distance to the nearest star
to the Sun. The Kuiper belt is less than one
thousandth as far from the Sun as the Oort cloud.
86. Oort Cloud
The Oort cloud thought to be a massive spherical
cloud surrounding the planetary system and
extending approximately 3 light years, about 30
trillion kilometers from the Sun. This vast distance
is considered the edge of the Sun's gravitational
87. Oort Cloud
Although this shell
was first proposed
in 1950, its extreme
distance makes it
challenging for
scientists to identify
objects within it.
88. Kuiper Belt and Oort
90. How Far Have We Been?
91. So what is a light year???
92. A light year is the distance light
travels in a year.
93. What is a light year?
A light year is equal to 9.46 trillion kilometers!
6,000,000,000,000 miles!
94. between solar
systems, galaxies
and the universe?
97. What are
98. • What is a galaxy?
Galaxies are large collections of stars, gas and
dust held together by gravity.
• They may have millions to billions of stars, all held
into a cluster by gravitational attraction to each
99. Scientists have learned that there are
millions of galaxies in space, each
containing solar systems.
100. The number of galaxies cannot be counted—the
observable universe alone may contain 100
billion. Some of these distant systems are similar
to our own Milky Way galaxy, while others are
quite different.
101. Edwin Hubble
The first person to classify galaxies based on
their shape was Edwin Hubble.
102. Edwin Hubble classified galaxies based on their
103. The main shapes are:
104. Elliptical galaxies are
shaped as their name
suggests. They are
generally round but stretch
longer along one axis than
along the other. They may
be nearly circular or so
elongated that they take
on a cucumber-like
105. Elliptical galaxies
usually have
very bright
centers and very
little dust and
They contain
mostly old stars.
106. Spiral galaxies consist of a flat disk
with a bulging center and surrounding
spiral arms.
107. The spiral arms are made of stars, planets, dust,
and gas—all of which rotate around the bulging
center in a regular manner.
108. Irregular galaxies are not spiral or elliptical.
Irregular galaxies appear misshapen and lack
a distinct form, often because they are within
the gravitational influence of other galaxies
close by.
109. Irregular galaxies may also be the aftermath
of two colliding galaxies.
110. What is the Milky Way?
It is hard to tell what type of galaxy we live
in because the gas, dust, and stars keep
astronomers from having a good view of
our galaxy. Also, we can’t send anything to
the outside of the galaxy to look back in.
111. What is the Milky Way?
Astronomers believe The Milky Way is a
SPIRAL galaxy, a slowly rotating cluster of
more than 200 billion stars!
112. • Where is the Milky Way?
Our Solar System is located in one of the
many spiral arms of the Milky Way.
115. • Infrared image of a spiral galaxy (NGC 7331)
photographed by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
Scientists believe this galaxy looks like our own
with swirling arms and a central bulge.
116. • Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral
galaxy (NGC4114), located about 60 million
light years from Earth..
117. • Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral galaxy
(NGC3949), about 50 million light years from Earth,
located in the direction of the Big Dipper. Scientists
think this galaxy is similar to our own in shape and
structure, and they study it to get clues about the
Milky Way.
118. • Infrared edge-on image of the Milky Way
galaxy taken by the Cosmic Background
Explorer (COBE) during its orbit around Earth.
Image courtesy of NASA.
119. • Can you see the Milky Way?
Yes! On a very dark night, away from bright lights,
you can see a faint, hazy — or milky — band in the
sky. This is the Milky Way. The hazy appearance is
because there are so many stars that are very
distant; your eye cannot distinguish the stars as
separate points of light.
121. • Milky Way seen in the night sky over Australia.
Image courtesy of John Gelason, Celestial Images.
123. Are there other galaxies?
• Yes! There are billions of other galaxies in our
• This Hubble Space Telescope Deep Field image
shows at least 1500 galaxies in a frame of view
that “covers a speck of the sky”
124. • Spiral-shaped Messier 81 galaxy
125. • An Antennae-shaped galaxy
126. • Two merging galaxies
127. fill
Elliptical Galaxies of in o
no n b
tes ac
Description: Contents:
• mostly old stars
• bright centers
• planets
• roundish or • very little dust and
elliptical shape gas
128. Spiral Galaxies fill
of in o
no n b
tes ac
Description: Contents:
• flat disk • stars, planets, dust
• bulging center and gas
• spiral arms
129. Irregular Galaxies fill
of in o
no n b
tes ac
Description: Contents:
• no regular shape • stars, planets, dust
and gas
130. What is a light year?
131. The distances to some of the March night sky’s familiar stars
are shown in light years except for Saturn, which is only
"minutes" away.
132. What is a light year?
A light year is equal to 9.46 trillion kilometers!
6,000,000,000,000 miles!
133. We’ll never travel at the speed of light, but even if we could zoom there at the
respectable speed of a mile a second, the fastest speed ever reached by a manned
aircraft, our journey would last 760,000 years. Since most of us do our flying in a 747
jetliner, which has an average cruising speed of 565 mph, the trip would require
4,842,477 years. Give or take -
134. Star Size Comparison
136. How BIG is the
137. So how big is the universe? No one
knows if the universe is infinitely large,
or even if ours is the only universe that
exists. And other parts of the universe,
very far away, might be quite different
from the universe closer to home.
Future NASA missions will continue to
search for clues to the ultimate size and
scale of our cosmic home.
138. How Far Can
We See?
139. The image below is both the oldest and youngest picture
ever taken. It is the oldest because it has taken the light
nearly 14 billion light years to reach us. And it is the
youngest because it is a snapshot of our newborn universe,
long before the first stars and galaxies formed. The bright
patterns show clumps of simple matter that will eventually
form stars and galaxies. This is as far as we can see into the
It is time, not space, which limits our view. Beyond a certain
distance, light hasn't had time to reach us yet.
140. The Known Universe Scale of Universe Website!
141. Warm Up
Why do you think it looks black in
space all of the time?
How do astronauts see in space?
142. It isn't completely black in
space. There is a lot of light,
but that light is only visible
when looking at the source or
when looking at an object from
which the light has reflected.
*go to the next slide*
143. Look at this picture. There are no artificial lights being
used. The astronaut and the Earth below are both visible
because of the light that is being emitted by the Sun.
That light strikes the astronaut and Earth and reflects off
of them and then is intercepted by either the camera
(in this case) or the
eyes of any other
astronauts that are