Greco-Rome Society and its History

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The purpose of this booklet is to examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 BCE. Origin and Structure of the Greek Polis.
1. Greco-Roman Society
• Standard: Examine the political, philosophical,
and cultural interaction of Classical
Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400
• Essential Question: How did Classical
Mediterranean societies interact politically,
philosophical, and culturally from 700 BCE to
400 CE?
2. Greece
You are
3. Origins of Rome
• Element: Compare the origins and structure of
the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the
Roman Empire.
• Vocabulary: Roman Republic
4. Geography
• located on the Italian
• can sail all over the
Mediterranean Sea
5. Geography
• fertile coastal plains
• Good land for farming
• able to trade by sea
6. Greek Origins
“In those days the countryside there was wild
and empty. The story goes that when the waters
receded, the basket in which the twins had been
abandoned was left on dry land. A she-wolf, on
her way from the hills round about to drink,
came across the howling infants. She gave them
her teats to suck, and was so gentle with them
that the king’s shepherd found her licking them
with her tongue”
8. Virgil’s “Aeneid”
• sponsored by Augustus
• Aeneas, the refugee from Troy
– ancestor of the people who became Romans
• Augustus liked to trace his ancestry back to
Iulus, son of Aeneas and supposed ancestor of
the Iulii - the Julian family
9. Emergence
• Indo-European peoples
• moved into Italy
• about 1500 to 1000 B.C.
• spoke Latin
• lived as herders and farmers on Rome’s hills
10. Emergence
• after 800 B.C., other people, including the
Greeks and Etruscans, settled in Italy
• early Rome was ruled by kings, some of whom
were Etruscan
12. Greek Influence
• Government
• Architecture
• religion
13. Etruscan Rule
• Established a
• Ruled over early
• Cruel to the Romans
Early Etruscan Home
14. The Repbulic
•509 B.C. overthrew the last Etruscan king
•established a republic
– the leader is not a king
– certain citizens have the right to vote
15. The Republic
The Threat:
•Enemies surrounded Rome
•long period of continuous warfare
•267 B.C. controlled almost all of Italy
•defeated the Greeks and remaining Etruscan
16. The Republic
Roman Confederation:
•some people had full Roman citizenship
•other groups were allies who controlled their
local affairs but gave soldiers to Rome
•could become Roman citizens
17. The Republic
•many of the conquered peoples felt invested in
Rome’s success
18. The Republic’s Military
• divided into smaller
groups called legions
• Soldiers called
• Because of the strength
of the military, Rome
began to expand
19. Mediterranean Dominance
•a strong power in the Mediterranean
•founded around 800 B.C.
•coast of North Africa
•large trading empire in the western
21. Mediterranean Dominance
•Carthage’s greatest
•Almost destroyed Rome
during the Second Punic
22. Punic Wars
•three wars fought between Rome and Carthage
•the victories of Hannibal during second Punic War almost
destroyed Rome
• Rome created new armies and a navy
23. Punic Wars
•Rome defeated Hannibal’s forces
•Spain became a Roman province
•Rome controlled the western Mediterranean
•completely destroyed Carthage in 146 B.C.
24. Roman Expansion
• second century B.C. conquered Macedonia
and Greece
• 133 B.C. Pergamum became Rome’s first
province in Asia
• Rome gained and maintained control of the
Mediterranean Sea
26. Structure of Rome
View of Kings:
•distrusted kingship because of their experience with
Etruscan kings
•built a different form of government
•early Rome divided into two groups, the patricians
and the plebeians
27. Structure of Rome
•large landowners
•formed Rome’s ruling class
•citizens and could vote
•could be elected to public office
28. Structure of Rome
Could rule up
Dictator 1 to 6 months in
times of war
300 men
Majority of
29. Structure of Rome
Consuls 2 Preside over
300 men senate,
generals, 1 yr
Majority of
30. Structure of Rome
2 Served for
Senate 300 men life, most
Majority of
31. Structure of Rome
Dictator 1
Consuls 2
Senate 300 men
Patricians Majority of
32. The Senate
1. Rome’s law-making body
2. Patricians only
3. three hundred
4. served for life
33. Centuriate Assembly
• most important people’s assembly
• elected the consuls
• passed laws
• organized by classes based on wealth
• wealthiest citizens were the majority
34. Plebeians
• common people
• the less wealthy landholders, craftspeople,
merchants, and small farmers
• gained some political power
• considered citizens and could vote
• included the right to elect their own officials,
called tribunes
• tribunes could veto, or block, laws that they felt
harmed plebeians
35. Structure of Rome
300 men Representatives
Tribunes for the
Majority of
36. Structure of Rome
300 men
Plebeians Majority of
37. Structure of Rome
300 men
Plebeians Majority of
Slaves power
38. Structure of Rome
•By 287 B.C., all male Roman citizens were
supposedly equal under the law
•few wealthy patrician and plebeian families
formed a new senatorial ruling class
•dominated political office
39. Julius Caesar
• Description:
• Civil War breaks out in
the Republic
• First Triumvirate formed
in 60 BC
• Government run by
three men who shared
• Julius Caesar, Crassus &
40. Julius Caesar
•Julius Caesar is elected consul
in 59 BC
– grants himself governor of
Gaul from 58 – 50 BC
– wins decisive battles securing
Roman borders in the North
– Caesar seen as a military hero
– “Veni, vidi, vici…” = I came, I
saw, I conquered
41. Civil War
• As Caesar became more powerful the
Triumvirate falls apart
• Senate demands that Caesar return to Rome
w/out his army
• under the influence of a competitive Pompay
42. Civil War
• Civil war ensues
– Caesar marched to Rome in 49 BC and Pompay fled
– civil war will last a few years
– Caesar wins
• Caesar hailed as dictator for life in 45 B.C.
43. Ides of March
• many feared Caesar would assume title of king &
set up a dynasty
• 60 members of Senate plot to kill him
• Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius
• March 15, 44 BC Caesar is stabbed 23 times that
result in death in the senate chamber
• Rome plunges into another civil war
44. Julius Caesar
•Caesar’s Reformation:
– Granted citizenship to people of provinces
– Expanded Senate
– Aided poor by creating jobs (public works)
– Started colonies for people without land
45. Augustus Caesar
• Description:
• Real name Octavian
• Grand Nephew of Julius Caesar
• the Second Triumvirate formed 43 BC
– Caesar’s supporters banded together to eliminate
– Octavian, Mark Antony & Lepidus
– took back control of Republic
46. Civil War
• Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement
• Octavian and Mark Antony then become rivals
47. Civil War
• Mark Antony meets Queen Cleopatra of Egypt
while leading troop’s in a campaign in Anatolia
– Followed her back to Egypt
– Octavian accuses Antony of trying to rule Rome
out of Egypt
• Another civil war breaks out
48. Civil War
• Battle of Actium 31 BC
• Octavian defeats the combined forces of Antony and
Cleopatra at this naval battle
• Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide
49. Austus Caesar
•Octavian becomes unchallenged ruler
•500-year old republic comes to an end
•Octavian changes his name to Augustus
(exalted one) and becomes Rome’s first
emperor in 31 BC
•Augustus laid the foundation for the period
called the “Pax Romana”
50. Augustus Caesar
51. “Pax Romana”
• 200 years of Roman peace and prosperity
• Established by efficient government
– Stabilized frontier
– Development of splendid governmental buildings
– Civil Service (plebeians and former slaves)
52. Roman Culture
• Element: Analyze the contributions of
Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law,
gender, and science.
• Vocabulary: Roman culture
53. Roman Culture
• Impact:
• Most important contribution to society
54. Twelve Tables
• 451 B.C.
• Ancient Rome’s law
• written down and
placed in public
• everyone would
know the law
The Law of the Twelve Tables
55. Roman Law
the Law of Nations:
•code of law developed later
•considered as natural law, or universal law
based on reason
56. Basic Principles:
1. People equal
under law
2. right to a trial
3. innocent until
proven guilty
57. Slavery
•relied on slavery
•large numbers of war captives were brought to
Italy as slaves
•Greeks were prized as tutors, musicians,
doctors, and artists
58. Slavery
Expectations of Slaves:
•work in shops, made crafts, and performed
household tasks (cleaning and gardening)
•built roads and public buildings
•farmed large estates of the wealthy
59. Slavery
Conditions for slaves:
•it was cheaper to work slaves to death and
replace them than to care for them
60. Slavery
Slave Revolt:
•the gladiator Spartacus
•73 B.C. Seventy thousand slaves joined
•defeated several Roman armies before being
defeated in 71 B.C.
•Spartacus was killed and thousands of his
followers were crucified
61. Daily Life in the city of Rome
•the largest population of any city in the empire
•overcrowded and noisy
•wagons and carts were banned from the
streets during the day to ease the congestion
62. Daily Life in the city of Rome
Gap between rich and poor
•rich lived in comfortable villas
•poor lived in apartment blocks called insulae
63. Daily Life in the city of Rome
•six stories tall
•poorly constructed and often collapsed
•fires were a constant threat
•high rents forced entire families to live in one room
•did not have any plumbing or central heating
•uncomfortable conditions caused many Romans to
spend most of their time outdoors in the street
64. Daily Life in the city of Rome
•poor received free grain from the emperor
•Grand public spectacles entertained the people
•part of religious festivals
•featured horse and chariot races at the Circus
•dramatic performances in theaters
•very popular gladiatorial shows
65. Roman Culture
•most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age was
•wrote his epic poem the Aeneid in honor of
•character Aeneas displays the virtues of the ideal
Roman—duty, piety, and loyalty
•Aeneas started the city on its divine mission to rule
the world
66. Roman Culture
•enjoyed Greek art
•Greek statues adorned their cities and homes
•Reproductions became popular
•Roman sculptors added realistic, even
unpleasant, features to the idealized Greek
67. Roman Culture
•excelled in architecture
•continued to use Greek styles (colonnades and
rectangular buildings)
•created forms based on curved lines: the dome,
arch, and vault
•first people to use concrete on a massive scale
68. Roman Culture
•first-class engineers
•built enduring roads, bridges, and aqueducts
•built 50,000 miles of roads throughout the
•many aqueducts supplied one million people
with water
69. Christianity
• Element: Describe polytheism in the Greek
and Roman world and the origins and
diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world.
• Vocabulary: polytheism, christianity
70. Origins
•A.D. 6
•covered the lands of the ancient kingdom of
•a Roman province
•under direction of a procurator
•Unrest was common even among factions of
72. Jesus
•a Jew
•began to preach in the
midst of the conflict
73. Jesus
•inner transformation was more important than
adhering to laws or rituals
•Individuals should follow the Golden Rule and
treat others as they would like to be treated
•People should love God and love each other,
treating all as neighbors
74. Jesus
•Judaean authorities turned Jesus over to the Romans
•feared he might cause people to revolt against Rome
•the procurator, Pontius Pilate, ordered Jesus
•followers of Jesus believed he overcame death
•believed Jesus was the Messiah, the long-expected
savior of Israel
75. Jesus
•virtues that became the basis of medieval
Western civilization: humility, charity, and love
of others
76. Key Figures
Simon Peter:
•a prominent figure in
early Christianity
77. Key Figures
Simon Peter:
•Peter and the other disciples taught
– Jesus was the Savior and Son of God
– Jesus come to Earth to save all people
– Jesus’ death had made up for people’s sins and
made salvation possible
– Individuals had only to accept Christ (“the
anointed one”) as their Savior to be saved
78. Key Figures
Paul of Tarsus:
•followed Jesus’ command
to preach the gospel to
both Jews and non-Jews
•founded many Christian
communities in Asia
Minor and along the
Aegean Sea
79. Key Figures
•word spread that Jesus had overcome death
•result: people converted
•example: 60 days after Jesus’ crucifixion,
Jerusalem alone had ten thousand converts
80. Diffusion
•teachings were passed down orally
•some were preserved in writing by Jesus’
disciples and followers
•Between A.D. 40 and 100, these writings
became the basis of the written Gospels (“the
good news”)
81. Diffusion
•tell of Jesus’ life and teachings
•form the basis of the New Testament
•the second part of the Christian Bible
•A.D. 100 Christian churches throughout empire
82. Diffusion
View of Christianity in the Beginning:
•Christianity seen as harmful to the public order
•act of treason = Christians would not worship
the Roman gods
•believed in one God only and would not
worship false gods or the emperors for fear of
endangering their salvation
83. Diffusion
•Roman persecution of Christians
•began A.D. 54–68
•blamed Christians for the fire that destroyed
much of Rome
•subjected Christians to cruel deaths
84. Impact
•strengthened by Roman persecution
•forced it to become organized
•control of bishops over Christian communities
•the clergy (church leaders) were distinct from
the laity (everyday church members)
85. Impact
Structure (continued):
•attracted many followers
•more personal than the Roman religion
•offered eternal life and salvation
•gave people a sense of belonging to a
•appealed to every class and especially the poor
and powerless
86. Impact
Roman Reformers:
•Christianity prospered in the fourth century
•first Christian emperor
•AD 313 Edict of Milan proclaimed official
toleration of Christianity
Theodosius the Great:
•Rome adopted Christianity as their official religion
87. Collapse of the Roman Empire
• Element: Analyze the factors that led to the
collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
• Vocabulary: Collapse of the Western Roman
88. The Decline
•A.D. 180 the death of Marcus Aurelius
•long period of civil wars
•political disorder
•economic decline
89. The Decline
Late Roman Empire:
•end of the third and the beginning of the fourth
•emperors Diocletian and Constantine
•a new governmental structure
•a rigid economic and social system
•a new religion, Christianity
90. The Decline
•ruled from 284 to 305
•believed empire was too large
•divided the empire into four sections, each with
its own ruler
•Diocletian’s military power gave him ultimate
authority over the other three rulers
91. The Decline
•ruled from 306 to 337
•extended many of Diocletian’s policies
•by 324 was the sole ruler
•built a new capital city in the east on the site of Byzantium
on the shores of the Bosporus
•Constantinople: became the center of the Eastern Roman
Empire and one of the world’s greatest cities
•filled his “New Rome” with a forum, large palaces, and an
92. Impact (1)
• expanded bureaucracy, more money needed
• enlarged the army to five hundred thousand
• expansion of the civil service and the military
drained the treasury
• the lack of population growth meant that the
tax base could not be increased
93. Impact (2)
• emperors issued edicts forcing people to stay
in their assigned jobs
• policies based on control and coercion
• Empire continued for another hundred plus
94. Common Causes for the Collapse
1. Barbarian Invasion
2. Decline in Morals and Values
3. Environmental and Public Health Problems
4. Excessive Military Spending to Defend the
5. Inferior Technology
95. Common Causes for the Collapse
6. Inflation
7. Political Corruption
8. Rise in Christianity
9. Unemployment
10.Urban Decay
96. Fall of Western Rome (1)
• divided into two parts
• had two capitals, Rome in the west and Constantinople
in the east
• second half of the fourth century, Huns from Asia
moved into eastern Europe and put pressure on the
German Visigoths
• Visigoths moved south, crossing the Danube River into
Roman territory
• Initially Roman allies, the Visigoths revolted and
defeated a Roman army in 378
97. Fall of Western Rome (2)
• More Germans crossed into Roman lands
• 410 the Visigoths sacked the city of Rome
• 455 another group called the Vandals also sacked
the city
• 476 the western emperor, Romulus Augustus, was
deposed by the Germanic head of the army
• the end of the Western Roman Empire
• Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire,
continued to thrive
98. Roman Empire
• Western Rome: collapses and begins the
“Dark Ages” of Europe
• Eastern Rome: will continue on and will be
known as the Byzantine Empire