Writing Composition: The Research Process

Contributed by:
In this lesson, students will learn the research process used by scientists and journalists to creatively compose their work drawn from observations and experiments.
1. Basic steps of doing research
What is the Research Process?
The Research Process is a process of multiple scientific steps in conducting the research
work. Each step is interlinked with other steps. The process starts with the research problem
at first. Then it advances in the next steps sequentially. Generally, a researcher conducts
research work within seven steps. In research work, primarily, you require a Research
Proposal. It is because the proposal approves the research project whether you achieve the
ability to conduct research or not. So when you write a research proposal, present the detailed
plans and specific objectives of your research correctly.
Steps of the research process
Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out
research and the desired sequencing of these steps. The chart shown in Figure well illustrates
a research process. The chart indicates that the research process consists of a number of
closely related activities.
Fig: a research process
Step 1: Identify and defining the Research Problem
The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research
problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that
is needed by the agency or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. However, the
research problem comes up with the ongoing phenomenon or issues. Formulate Your
Question :
 Your research may start as a general idea or a specific question, statement or thesis.
 Know what you want to focus on before you begin.
A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a
difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory,
or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate
investigation. In some social science disciplines the research problem is typically posed in the
form of a question. A research problem does not state how to do something, offer a vague or
broad proposition, or present a value question.
2. Step 2: Review the Literature
Once the research problem is identified and defined, the next step is to review the existing
research. The researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the
researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides
foundational knowledge about the problem area. The review of literature also educates the
researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were
conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area.
Get Background Information
 Read about your topic using websites or encyclopedias.
 It introduces you to the topic, helps you to focus on its key elements and can help you
decide to broaden or narrow your focus.
 These sources often include bibliographies that you can “piggyback” to find more
sources on your topic.
In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the programmer to discover horrifying
statistics related to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health issues, death
rates, and projected medical costs. In addition, the programmer finds several articles and
information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that describe the benefits of
walking 10,000 steps a day.
The information discovered during this step helps the programmer fully understand the
magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a
strategy to combat obesity (i.e., walking).
Step 3: Formulating a Hypothesis
In this step, the researcher makes the problem precise.
 The research work is topic focused and refined.
 Then the researcher steps forward to how the problem would be approached? The
nature of the research problem can decide to formulate a definite hypothesis.
 A hypothesis is tested. Effective research work formulates a hypothesis in such a way
that collected factual data will provide evidence that either supports or disproves
them. Formulation of Hypothesis in Research will make you more expert.
 In the end, the hypothesis turns into a practical theory.
3. In order to develop working hypotheses researcher should adopt the following
a. Discussions with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and the
objectives in seeking a solution;
b. Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem for
possible trends, peculiarities and other clues;
c. Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems; and
d. Exploratory personal investigation which involves original field interviews on
a limited scale with interested parties and individuals with a view to secure
greater insight into the practical aspects of the problem.
Step 4: Research Design
The researcher then must find out a research design. Research design decides how the
research materials will be collected. One or more research methods, for example, experiment,
survey, interview, etc are chosen depending on the research objectives.
 In some research contexts, a survey may be suitable. In other facts, interviews or case
studies or observation might be more appropriate.
 Find the ways How to Choose a Research Design? Research Design actually provides
insights into “how” to conduct research using a particular Research Methodology.
Basically, every researcher has a list of research questions that need to be assessed
that can be done with research design.
In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant
evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. But how all these can be
achieved depends mainly on the research purpose. Research purposes may be grouped into
four categories,
a. Exploration,
b. Description,
c. Diagnosis, and
d. Experimentation.
There are several research designs, such as,
 Experimental and hypothesis testing
#Experimental designs can be either informal designs (such as before-and-
after without control, after-only with control, before-and-after with control)
## formal designs (such as completely randomized design, randomized block
design, Latin square design, simple and complex factorial designs), out of
which the researcher must select one for his own project.
4.  Non-experimental hypothesis testing.
Step 5: Carry out the Research Process
While the research design is decided, then the researcher collects data, records information.
The researcher proceeds with the research. Practical difficulties may arise in this stage. For
example, the research method may not suit properly. The interviewer might be unwilling to
let carry out the research as planned. Moreover, a false interpretation could potentially bias
the result of the study. So, when you collect data, you need to know the effective techniques
of data collection in order to gather necessary and relevant information with regard to
Step 6: Preparing Research Results
Now work out the implications of the data you gathered. Your challenges are not over yet.
Rather problems might just begin! It is hardly easy to clear out the implications of the
gathered materials. While it is possible to clarify the research questions, some investigations
are less conclusive. So, interpret your research results in order to report the findings.
No matter what kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full
of ideas that originated from your analysis. Ideally, you’ll write them down as they come to
you. Now you need to convert the mass of those elements and ideas into a written text that
makes sense to the reader and can do justice to your quest.
Step 7: Reporting Research Findings
The final step of the research process outline is to report the research findings. Describe the
significance of the research study. Work out how do they relate to the previous research
findings. Usually, the research report published as a journal article or book. This is the last
stage in terms of the individual research project. Mostly, a research report discusses questions
that remained unanswered & suggest further research in the future in general.
This also signifies how do you write your research paper. You must write your research
findings in a proper way. So, I do suggest going through Research Report Writing Steps with