2. The following chart demonstrates some uses for single-word modal auxiliaries. Notice that in some cases when the verb tense changes, the modal is replaced with another word or group of words. Empty spaces denote non-existent forms.
ery ey ed Sie ina eens can |1.Abilty He can play the piano. |He could play the He willbe able to play |He cannot play the piano. the piano, piano. 2. Opportunity can go now that ve [Iwas able fo gowhen! |leangowhen finish |! cannot go. finished working, finished working, ‘working later tonight. 3. Permission Their parents say they |Theirparents said they | Theirparents will surely |They cannot have a can haves party. | were allowed to havea | say that they ean have | party party party 4. Informal request Can! borowyour | Cant borow your (refersto near future) book? book? 5. Possibility ttean be fiting to study Itean't be tiring to sit (usally o ‘and work at the same ‘round and watch TV generalization) time. all day! Could |1.Past of can Before | hurt my wrist | Even before | hurt my could toss pizza dough. ‘wrist, Coukdn’t toss pizza dough. 2. Conditional leoukd have made an |Icould make an | couldnt make an omelet ifwe had had | omeletif we have the | omelet evenif we had the ingredients ingredients the ingredients. 3. Suggestion You could have taken a | You could take along long weekend to visit | weekend to visit your jyour family farnly. 4-Polte Request ‘Could you phoneme | Couldn't you phone me (refersto near future) when you anive? when you artive? 5. Possibility / ‘Ms.Stevens could be |Ms. Stevens could have |Ms.Sievens could | Ms. Stevens couldn'tbe Impossibility the electors’ choice for|been the electors’ | become mayor the electors choice for mayor. choice for mayor mayor. way —_|1.Permission Youmay submit your |Youwere allowedto | When youfirish. you | You may not submit paper via email now. | submit your papervia_| may submit your paper | your paper via emall email via email 2.Polte Request ‘May | use your phone? (refers to near future) 3. Possibility The bakey maybe |The bakery may have |The bakery may open |The bakery may not open now, opened eatiertoday. _| later today. open. might [1 Request (fers to Might | use your near future) phone? 2. Conditional Ifyou give me a Ifyou had given mea |ifyouwil gvemea | Evenif yougive me a chance, | might ‘chance,|mighthave | chance, | might chance, | might not impress youl impressed you! impress you! impress you. 3. Suggestion You might have called | You might call to say | You mightnot want to tosayyouweren't | you aren't coming. _ | callto say you aren't ‘coming, coming. 4. Possibility ‘My dog might be the |My dog mighthave [My dog might make a. | My dog might not make ‘one who made the | made the mess. mess ames.
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ea RESENT FORM. ere FUTURE FORM ou must |. Certainty She must be the best | She must have been the She must not be the ‘athlete in ourschool’s | best athiete in our best athlete in our history schoo''s history schoo’ histor 2 Strong Tobe healthy, youmust |To have stayed healthy, [To be healthier you [To be healthy, you recommendation | eatwel. you should have eaten |should eat better. | musint eat poorly 3. Necessity Vaitorsmustsign in at | Inthe past, visitors had fo [in the future, visitors | Vaitors don't have fo reception signinat reception. | mustsign inat signin at reception, (Must not | 4 Prohibition You must not dizupt his Shalt _| 1. Inevitabilty ‘One day,we shall | Humanity shall never ‘overcome our ‘abandon the quest for dependence onci. | immortality 2. Promising Ishall ensure that | shall not et you down. (Bish usage) everything goes ‘according fo plan. 3. Future Action ‘Ourirain shail arive | Our train shall not arive (Bish usage) ahead of schedule. | chead of schedule after al
Should | 1.Recommendation |For stong bones, you —_| For stronger bones, you _| For strong bones, you _| You shouldn't drink too
should drink milk, should have drunk milk. | should start drinking | much mik. 2. Obligation | should return this library book. 3. Expectation She shouldbe at the | She should have arived | She should arrive at the | She shouldn't be at the ‘itpatt right now. ‘at the airport by now. | airport before 9 o'clock | apart yet. wil ]1. Future Action We will go fo the movie | We will not go to the tonight. movie tonight. 2. Promising | will ensure that | will not disappoint you. ‘everything goes ‘according to plan.
Would |1. Past of will You said we would go to You said we wouldn't the movie. go. 2. Conditional IFlwere in trouble, | would | | had been in trouble, |_| If got into trouble,|__ | Evenif | got into trouble, ‘ask him for help. would have asked him for | would ask him for help. || would not ask him for help. help. 3. Repetition in When we were kids, we When we were kids, we the past / would aways play street would not play street habitual action or behaviour hockey in the alley. hockey in the alley.
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4. PHRASAL MODAL AUXILIARIES Like single-word modal auxiliaries, phrasal modals are always followed by the simple (or “stem”) form of the vert. Unlike single-word modals, however, most phrasal modals contain the verbs be or have, which must be conjugated to identify tense and number (| am, you are, he/she/itis,| was, you were, he/she/it was, etc). Exceptions are used fo and ought fo, which require no change in verb form. Had better is never conjugated, and it does not include the word fo as the other phrasal modals do. Like single-word modal, itis followed immediately by the simple form of the vert. Here are some examples of how phrasal modal auxiliaries influence meaning: Statement Meaning lam able to go. c— _Icango./ Ihave pemnission to go. lam going to go. > _ iwilbe going (in the future). lam supposed to go. [==> tis understood/expected/agreed-upon that | will go. lam to go. > am expected/obliged to go. / Ihave been ordered Ihave to go. o> lamobiiged to go. Ihave got to go. > _ 1am obliged to go (extra emphasis on the obligation). lought to go. > ttisrecommended/advisable that | go. lused to go. > went on aregular basis (habitual action in the past). Ihad better go. > tris advisable that | go. Copyright Marianopolis College. Used with permission.
5. The following chart demonstrates some uses for phrasal modal auxiliaries. Notice that in some cases when the verb tense changes. part of the modal is replaced with another word or group of words. Empty spaces denote non-existent forms.
ren es Se eT fone ead Be able to | Abily She is able tojcin us. | She was able fo join us. | She will be able fo join |She is not able to join us. us Be going 10 | Plan (for the future) Iwas going io siat [lam going tosiat —_|l am not going to university next fall university next fal start university next
Be supposed to | Expectation He was supposedio | He is supposed fo bring |He is not supposed fo bring dessert, but! __| dessert tonight. bing anything ‘guess he forgot. tonight! Beto | Expectation / She was fo see the [She isto see the She is not fo see the obligation project through tots | project though toits | project though toits end, but she left befare Jend,no matterhow [end after al its completion. long it takes Have to | Obigaton Ihave foleavenow. |ihadioleave then. | Ihave foleavein | donot have fo (= mus) ‘approximately 10 leave. Have gotta |Sirongabigaion || have gotfo prepare | Ineeded fo prepare my |Ihave got fo prepare || do not need fo mypresentationnow. |presentation at that | mypresentationas | prepare my time. soonas Ifinish dinner. | presentation Janymore. I'm ready! ‘Oughtto | 1Recommendation [One ought foexpress | We should have seni a |We ought fosenda | We ought not forget. one’s gratitude note to ourhostess. | hank you note to our |*tois dropped in the hostess. negative 2. Certainty When one studies | With all the studying she | With all the studying hard, one oughtfo —_|did, she ought fo have_| she’s done, she ought pass passed her exam, fo pass her exam. Used to | Habitual past action / ‘My grandfather used fo behaviour walk 3 miles to and from school every day! Hadbetter [Recommendation You had better go. i's |You had better not
getting late! go. The weather looks pretty nasty!
For more information on modals and other auxiliary verbs, please refer to the following websites: http://www englishpage.com/modals/modalintro.htm| You are also welcome to make an appointment with The Leaming Centre staff: http://www .vaniercollege.qc.ca/tic/booknow/ Copyright Marianopolis College. Used with permission.