An overview of the American Revolution

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This booklet provides an overview of the War of Independence, the separation of America from Great Britain, Lexington, and Concord Massachusetts. The French and Indian War, Sugar Act and Stamp Act.
1. Written by: Greg Clevenger
2. The Story Thus Far
• European nations were
competing with each
other for:
– World resources
– Military strength
– Political superiority
• Some nations were
upsetting the balance of
3. • Also called War for
• Started in 1775 in
Lexington and Concord
• Caused America to
separate from Great
• Ended in 1783
4. Major Causes
• The French and Indian War
• The Sugar Act
• The Stamp Act
5. The French and Indian War—1754
• Rivalry between the French and British
• Who will control North America?
• British, colonists, and
Native American allies
fought French and
Native American allies
6. The French and Indian War—1754
• Great Britain’s national
debt nearly doubled
during the war
• British expected
Americans to help pay for
• The war lasted nine years
7. The Sugar Act - 1764
• First attempt to raise
income from the Colonies
• Duty on sugar and
molasses not obtained
from Britain
• Smuggling cases tried in
Great Britain
8. The Stamp Act—1765
• Official government
stamp required
• First internal tax
paying for British
9. More Major Causes
• The Townshend Acts
• Boston Massacre
• Boston Tea Party
• The Intolerable Acts
10. The Townshend Acts—1767
• Import duties on tea, lead,
glass, and paint colors
• Money used to pay royal
• “No taxation without
11. Boston Diary
“Dined with three hundred
and fifty Sons of Liberty, at
Robinson’s, the Sign of Liberty
Tree in Dorchester…. To the
Honour of the Sons, I did not
see one Person intoxicated, or
near it.”
—John Adams (1769)
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to hear the clip >>>>
12. Boston Massacre—1770
• Crowd of colonists
threaten British
• British open fire
killing five Americans
• Parliament canceled
the Townshend
13. Boston Tea Party—1773
• British sold tea even more cheaply than smuggled tea
• Colonists dressed up as Mohawks
• Colonists boarded
tea ships
• Tea was dumped
14. Tea Party Diary
“Last Night 3 Cargoes of Bohea Tea
were emptied into the sea. This
Morning, a Man of War sails. This
is the most magnificent Movement
of all.”
—John Adams (1773)
15. The Intolerable Acts—1774
• Closed the Port of Boston
• American town meetings
• British officials in trouble
sent to Great Britain for
16. First Continental Congress
• 56 Delegates
• Included George
Washington, Patrick Henry
and Sam Adams
• Direct response to
Intolerable Acts
• Met in Philadelphia – 1774
17. Colonists Agreed To:
• Boycott British
• Arm themselves and
form militias
• Appeal to the king
18. King George III Refused To:
• Allow American
representation in
• No respond to
complaints and
official grievances
King George III
19. “The Shot Heard Round the World”
• American colonists
stockpiled weapons
in Concord,
• 800 British troops
marched through
Lexington on the
way to Concord
• Paul Revere: “The
British are coming!”
20. The Armed Militia
• Known as “Minutemen”
• 70 Minutemen on the
Village Green
• Known as the Battle of
Lexington and Concord
• Uncertain which side
fired first
• 50 Americans killed and
45 wounded or missing
• 65 British killed and 208
wounded or missing
21. Lexington and Concord
22. Lexington Diary
“At 10 of the clock
last night, the King’s
troops marched out
from the bottom of
the common,
crossed over to
Phips Farm,
marched on ’till they
came to Lexington.”
—Timothy Newell
23. Lexington Famous Quote
“Stand your ground,
don’t fire unless
fired upon. But if
they mean
to have a war, let it
begin here!”
—Captain Parker
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24. Second Continental Congress
• Decided to officially
separate from Britain
• Committee selected to
draft the reasons for
• Thomas Jefferson
selected to write
• Met in Philadelphia
25. The Declaration of Independence
• Written by
Thomas Jefferson
• It is the “Birth Certificate
of the United States”
• Document listed rights
and grievances against
King George III
• 4 parts
1. Preamble
2. Declaration of rights
3. List of Grievances
4. Resolution
26. Key Quotes in the Declaration
• “We hold these truths to
be self evident: that all
men are created equal”
• “That they are endowed
by their creator with
certain unalienable
• “That among these are
life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness”
27. The Declaration of Independence
• John Hancock first to
sign in large print
• Anyone who signed it and
was caught would be
• “We must all now
hang together, or most
assuredly we will all
hang separately." Hancock
—Benjamin Franklin
28. Independence Diary
“There were bonfires,
ringing bells, with other
great demonstrations of
joy upon
the unanimity and
of the Declaration.”
—Christopher Marshall
29. Choosing Sides
• Patriots – Supported the
• Loyalists – Americans
who supported the King
• Red Coats/
Lobsterbacks – British
30. What Happened to those who Signed?
• Five were captured by
the British, though
eventually released
• Approximately 12 had
their homes ransacked
and burned
• One lost his son in the
Continental Army
• Several suffered wounds
in various battles
31. Revolutionary Armies – The British
• British Army most powerful in world
• Also well-equipped with weapons
• Highly trained and
disciplined for war on
land or high seas
32. Revolutionary Armies
• Americans shot more
• British carried three days
• British gear weighed
about 100 pounds
33. Revolutionary Armies – The Americans
• Revolutionary Army knew
lay of the land
• Used weapons appropriate
for landscape
• Wore pieces of different
• Brown army clothing
34. British Advantages
• Well-equipped
• Disciplined
• Strongest navy
35. American Advantages
• Accuracy of the rifle
• Knowledge of the land
• Guerilla warfare tactics
• Superb command
36. Patriot Video
Single click screen
to view video:
37. British Soldier Quotes
• British soldiers faced new
• “Damn those Americans.
They will not stand and
• “Settle your affairs at
home before leaving for
The Colonies; you
probably won’t be coming
back again.”
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to hear the clip >>>>
38. Military Leaders—American
• George
Commander of
• Nathanael
Greene: Top
• Henry Knox:
Artillery Expert
• Benedict Arnold:
39. British Leaders
• General Charles
• General John Burgoyne
• Benedict Arnold
• William Howe
• All considered America
one of the worst places
to serve
40. Other Key Players
• France, Spain, Germany and Poland
• Hessian mercenaries from
• The Marquis de Lafayette:
Frenchman who
supported American
• Huge percentage of
American gunpowder
came from France
Marquis de Lafayette
41. • Bernardo De Other Key Players
Galvez: Spanish
lord in Mexico
• Baron Friedrich
von Steuben:
German military
commander who
helped train
American troops
• Nathan Hale:
American Spy “ I
regret that I have
but one life to lose
for my country.”
42. The War at Sea
• Approximately 3,000 men
enlisted—America made
13 Frigates
• Most, if not all, were
destroyed or captured
• Colonial Navy authorized
by Continental Congress
October 13, 1775
43. Major Battles
• Fort Ticonderoga
• Bunker Hill
• Trenton
44. Fort Ticonderoga—1775
• Key strategic
location in New
• Ethan Allen and
about 125 Green
Mountain boys
attacked fort
45. Ticonderoga
• The Fort was taken without firing a shot
• British officers and women and children were
• Cannons were taken from Ticonderoga to Boston
• Henry Knox:
American Army top
artillery commander
• Major hero of
American Revolution
46. Battle of Bunker Hill - 1775
• Bunker Hill located near Boston
• Red Coats
victorious in third
• Americans ran out
of ammunition
• Moral victory for
American Army
47. Bunker Hill
• Costliest battle for British during whole war
• British casualties 1,054
• American casualties 441
• British began to get nervous
• Washington
took command
of the army
two weeks
after this battle
48. Bunker Hill Famous Quote
“Don’t fire until you see
the whites of their eyes.”
—Israel Putnam
49. Battle of Trenton—1776
• Surprise attack the day after Christmas
• Washington crossed the Delaware
• Approximately 1000 German soldiers fighting
for the British captured
50. Trenton & Princeton
• American
casualties were
• German leader,
Colonel Rall
mortally wounded
• Washington
cleared British
from central New
51. More Significant Battles
• Saratoga
• Winter at Valley Forge
• Yorktown
• Were blend of
successes and failures
for American Army
52. Battle of Saratoga – 1777
• The turning
point of the war
• The biggest
victory at the
• Approximately
5,000 British
surrender to
53. • After the American Battle of Saratoga – 1777
victory France changed
its policies.
• Feb. 1778 France and
American formed an
• France declared war on
Britain the next month
• Spain declared war in
• Bernardo de Galvez
chased British troops out
of Louisiana and Florida.
54. Burgoyne Diary
“From the 20th of
September to the 7th of
October, the armies were
so near, that not a night
passed without firing…I
do not believe that either
officer or soldier ever
slept…without his
—Burgoyne Diary
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to hear the clip >>>>
55. Valley Forge – 1777-1778
• American Army out
of food and clothing
• Valley Forge briefly
a refuge
• Supplies ran out
and many died
• Washington appeals
to Congress for help
• Low point for
American Army
• Any deserters are
56. Valley Forge – 1777-1778
• Marquis de
Lafayette joined
Washington as an
• Friedrich von
Steuben drilled the
troops teaching
them military
57. Albigence Waldo
“The army which has been
surprisingly healthy hitherto,
now begins to grow sickly…I
am sick—discontented—and
out of humor.”
—Albigence Waldo (1777)
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to hear the clip >>>>
58. Battle of Yorktown—1781
• French blockade aided
this final battle
• Escape for the British was
• British General Cornwallis
faced American forces
approximately twice his size
John Paul Jones
60. Yorktown
• Approximately 8,700 British troops surrendered
• Pinned in by
American and
French Naval
• General Benjamin
Lincoln accepted
the surrender
• British bands played “The World has Turned Upside
61. The Treaty of Paris
• 1783: The Treaty of Paris
officially ends the
Revolutionary War
62. The Treaty of Paris—1783
• Officially ended the
American Revolution
• Set many geographic
borders, including U.S.
and Canada
• Florida was returned to
• British merchants must
be paid for lost items
• Loyalists must be paid
for lost property
63. The Aftermath:
• Penalties inflicted on
• Some Loyalists were
“tarred and
feathered” and put
on ships bound for
Canada or Great
64. The Articles of Confederation
• Written by John Dickson in 1777
• Ratified in 1781
• Governed Americans in 1781-1787
• Paved way for new Constitution
65. Articles of Confederation Video
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to view video:
66. Strengths
• Wage war
• Issue money
• Sign treaties (make peace)
• Set up post offices
• Appoint ambassadors
• Settle conflicts between states
67. Weaknesses
• NO President (Executive)
• NO Army
• NO Courts (Judicial)
• NO Taxing Power (monetary problems)
• No power to enforce laws (regulate trade)
• States were sovereign
• One vote per state regardless of population
• 9/13 states to pass a law
• 13/13 states to amend (make changes)
68. Effects/Results/Outcomes
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
– Set up rules for statehood once 60,000 people
– Outlawed slavery in new states (Northwest territories)
– Free education in new states
69. Effects/Results/Outcomes
Shays Rebellion
• Led by former Continental army captain
Daniel Shay
• Farmers wanted government to stop taking
their land
• Formed an army that attacked local militias
• Made Americans frightened of more
• Showed that the Articles could not protect
70. Concluding Thoughts
• Eight years
• Timeless impact
• Subject of countless
plays and films
• Maker of heroes
• Birth of a nation