The dwindling interest and the perceived difficulty experienced by science students in learning physics at the senior high school level of education in Ghana speak to the need for the creation of authentic instructional platforms that promote enhanced learning as well as motivate students’ interest in physics.
2. 2/9 Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 sought to address the question: How can enhanced students’ learning of conceptual understanding as well as the relationships that exist among physics concepts using simulations be understood and/or explained? the concepts under exploration. PhETs are also noted for their capacities to “support student engagement … and understanding of physics concepts”. The affordances of PhETs as mentioned in the LITERATURE REVIEW literature herein, seem to situate the PhETs as “highly effective learning tools” (Wieman et al., 2010, p. 225) and hence, the reason for its use in The potentials of simulations use in the physics classroom have the context of this study. been explored and studied in different contexts in relation to different physics concepts in literature (Dega et al., 2013; Jimoyiannis & Kosmis, 2001). For example, Jimoyiannis and Kosmis (2001) used computer RESEARCH METHODOLOGY simulations to foster students’ understanding of physics concepts such as velocity and acceleration in projectile motion. Findings of their work, Research Design as explained in Esquembre (2001) showed that by the use of simulations, This study employed an explanatory case study design of nine pre- students were provided with the conducive environment to: a) “develop service teachers to explain the extent to which the potentials of their understanding about the phenomena and physical laws through a simulations when explored through instructional processes, enhance process of hypothesis-making and idea-testing”; b) “… develop an students’ learning of concepts in physics. Both qualitative (e.g., focus understanding of the relationships between physical concepts, variables group interview and written responses on pre- and post-test and phenomena”; C) “employ a variety of representations (images, documents) and quantitative (e.g., pre-and post-test scores and survey) animations, graphs, numerical data) that are helpful in understanding evidence of data collection and analysis were employed for triangulation the underlying concepts, relations and processes”; and d) “investigate purposes. We emphasis here that the use of quantitative evidence in phenomena that would not be possible to experience in a classroom or this study was not intended for making statistical generalization, but laboratory” (Esquembre, 2001, p. 4). According to Jimoyiannis and rather to help strengthen the veracity of any explanation given in Kosmis (2001), the use of simulations helped the students to get better relation to the phenomenon being considered (Yin, 2003). Data were understanding of the physics concept which reflected in the high scores collected over a stretch period of seven weeks. This was however, they obtained in the tasks given them. These findings seem to subjected to the convenient times of the participants. emphasize the potential of computer simulations in provoking students’ Participants knowledge construction of concepts in physics based on their experiences with various simulation environments. Trundle and Bell Nine pre-service physics teachers participated in the study as the (2005) compared students’ conceptual understanding before and after unit of analysis. These were in their second year of the science teacher an instruction on lunar concepts mediated by planetarium simulations. education programme at the University of Cape Coast (UCC) Ghana. A Their findings showed that the affordances of simulations (i.e., in purposive sampling method was used in the selection of the making more observations, allowing predictions to be explored, taking participants. This was subjected to the “researchers’ experience and consistent and accurate measurements) were essential to the knowledge” of the pre-service teachers (Kothari, 2004) based on their enhancements in students’ understanding of the lunar concept, as it seriousness and commitment. The participants witnessed the allowed them to observe the moon phases which in reality, seemed enactment of two sets of simulation-supported physics lessons (SSPLs) impossible to observe. This brings out the potential of simulations as a on the topics: Deformation of Solids (DOS) and Frictional Force (FF). visualizing tool. This seems to align with Kohnle (2014)’s assertion that During the implementation of the SSPLs, the participants were engaged with simulations, students are able to visualize invisible abstract as learners to mimic the role of senior high school science students, concepts as well as observe microscopic processes. Dega et al. (2013) thus, the term ‘learners’ from this point forward, refers to the also used computer simulations to examine gains in students’ participants. It is important to mention that the participants had never conceptual understanding of electricity and magnetism. Findings experienced the teaching of physics with simulations before, thus, the revealed that additional instructional support was key to improvements study provided an authentic avenue for them to learn physics with ICT. observed in students’ understanding of the concepts investigated. Other The anonymity of the nine participants is protected by use of benefits of computer simulations in relation to physics learning include pseudonyms such as ‘Learner 1’, ‘Learner 2’ and so on. “improving the teaching/learning process based on conceptual Overview of Simulation-Supported Lessons Enacted understanding” (El Kharki et al., 2020, p. 131; Pucholt, 2021), promoting interactivity in the physics classroom (Agyei et al., 2019), Two lessons on the topics: Deformation of Solids (DOS) and Frictional enhancing students’ performance in learning physics (Ouahi et al., Force (FF) were designed and enacted in study. The lesson on FF was 2021) and affording students the space to explore a wide range of topics designed to be exploratory and self-directed in delivery with emphasis in physics through its multiple representation feature (Fan et al., 2018; on a Ghanaian classroom situation where both the teacher and students Nadiradze et al., 2020; Podolefsky et al., 2010). These seem to reflect the (learners) have access to the computer. The DOS lesson adopted a potentials of PhET simulations, in that, they are designed to provide demonstrative mode of delivery and was designed to fit into a classroom interactive platforms that engage students to learn through exploration context wherein only the teacher had access to a computer due to lack and discovery with the goal to help students to connect real-life of computer resources. All two modes of delivery were purposed to be phenomena to the underlying subject matter in a particular science interactive and learner-focused. In particular, these lessons were (Finkelstein et al., 2006; Wieman et al., 2010). The dynamic feedback developed and taught by a group of pre-service teachers who had been feature of PhETs is also designed to provide direct feedback to students trained by the researchers of this study through a professional as they interact with the simulation environment. According to Clark development programme on ICT integration; where they were and Mayer (2003), such a feature is essential for developing students’
3. Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 3/9 Table 1. Summary of lessons designed and enacted Lesson (topics) enacted Facilitator Name of selected PhETs used Mode of delivery Hooke’s Law Deformation of Solids Teacher A Demonstrative (https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/hookes-law) Force and Motion: Basics (Friction) Frictional Force Teacher B Exploratory (https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/forces-and-motion-basics) Table 2. Sample question for each subscale from questionnaire Subscales Sample questions on learners’ experiences with the lessons Interest Enjoyed the class and I wish such teaching with simulation will continue. Comprehension The lesson explained concepts that I found difficult to understand before. Presentation The content of the lesson was well delivered. equipped with ICT-oriented competencies needed for the effective Survey design, development and implementation of an ICT A questionnaire on learners’ experiences with the SSPLs was used (simulation)-supported physics lesson. These were in their third year of to gain insights into how the implemented lessons facilitated and the same science education teacher preparation programme at UCC. It enhanced learners’ understanding of the two physics concepts taught. is important to mention that, the role of this group of pre-service The questionnaire was designed to include items adapted from Agyei teachers (two in all, namely, Teacher A and Teacher B) in the context (2012). In all, 14 items were constructed and used for this purpose. of the study was to enact the SSPLs (Teacher A enacted the lesson on Possible answers on an item were on a five-point Likert scale DOS and then teacher enacted the lesson on FF) and also, design the pre- (1=strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The scores are interpreted as and post-tests for their respective lessons. Table 1 gives a summary of follows: 1 is the lowest possible score, which represents a very strong lessons that were witnessed by the learners. negative opinion, while the 5 is the highest possible score which Instrument and Procedures represents a very strong positive opinion. The items were pre- determined and grouped into three sub-scales about the learners’ Pre- and post-test experiences in relation to their understanding of the SSPLs (see Table Data were collected by use of pre- and post- tests. The tests 2 for sample question for each subscale). The sub-scales were: 1) consisted of the same items on the topics: Deformation of Solids and Interest (Cronbach alpha = 0.87) —this was aimed at finding out if the Frictional Force and was aimed at exploring the students’ conceptual lessons engaged the learners’ attention; 2) Comprehension (Cronbach understanding of the selected topics. Both the pre-and post-tests were alpha= 0.79) — this was used to determine how clear and understanding made up of five (5) items each for each of the topics. These tests were the lessons were; and 3) Presentation (Cronbach alpha=0.82)—this was reviewed (by the researchers) and then, conducted before and used to determine whether the content was well explained during the immediately after each of the two lessons was implemented. The delivery of the simulation-supported lessons. written responses as provided on the pre- and post-test document by The questionnaire was administered twice to the learners after the the learners who witnessed the lessons were also used as a qualitative implementation of the DOS lesson and also, after the implementation of evidence in the study. A coding scheme was developed according to the the FF lesson. extent to which respondents were able to vividly provide a solution, offer an acceptable explanation, solve, or explain the problem. The DATA ANALYSIS responses to the test items were scored dichotomously as either right (a score of 1) or wrong (a score of 0). Thus, the maximum score that could To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and non-parametric be obtained for each of the test was 5. The interrater reliability (Cohen’s statistics (Wilcoxon signed rank test) were used for the survey and the κ) assessed by two raters was κ =0.94. Table 3 gives an overview of the pre-and post-test scores. Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d results of the pre-and post-test scores of the learners. (Cohen, 1988). Cohen (1988) provided tentative benchmarks for the Focus group interview interpretation of effect sizes. He considers d=0.2 a small, d=0.5 a Focus group interview was also used to collect data. This was done medium and d=0.8 a large effect size. Focus group interview data were twice; first, after the DOS lesson and then, after the FF lesson was analyzed qualitatively using data reduction techniques in which major implemented. Discussions in this respect were purposed to ascertain the themes were identified and clustered (Miles & Huberman, 1994). usefulness of the simulation-supported lessons in enhancing learners’ Document analysis was employed to analyze and give meanings to understanding of concepts in physics as well as their learning outcomes. the learners’ written responses to items on the pre-and post-tests The focused group discussions were transcribed and coded using the document. following coding schemes: appropriateness of the simulations (AS) for learning the selected topic, use of simulation in clearing misconceptions RESULTS (CM), use of simulation in stimulating interest (SI) of learners and the use of simulations in improving learning (IL). Two raters coded the To address the research question: “How can enhanced students’ data; The interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ) was κ =0.92. learning of physics concepts using simulations be understood and/or explained”, both qualitative and quantitative evidence were used. These
4. 4/9 Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 Table 3. Related-Samples Wilcoxon test results for pre- and post-test mean scores (N=9) Topic Mean (SD) Z P Effect size Pre -test 2.67 (0.500) Deformation of Solids - 2.45 0.014** 0.83 Post-test 3.33 (1.000) Pre- test 3.33 (0.500) Frictional Force - 2.45 0.014** 1.90 Post-test 4.00 (0.001) Pre-test 3.00 (0.594) Combined (Topics) -3.46 0.001* 0.98 Post-test 3.67 (0.767) * = p< .01, **= p< .05 (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Excerpt of Learner 3’s responses to pre-test item number 1(b) before the enactment of the SSPL on Frictional Force; (b) Excerpt of Learner 3’s responses to the post-test item number 1(b) after the enactment of the SSPL on Frictional Force helped to explain the enhanced students' learning of the subject matter (M=3.67, SD =0.767) of the combined lessons also showed significant at two levels: improved students' learning outcomes and learners' difference (p < 0.01) with a large effect size (d=0.98); an indication that perceived positive experiences with the SSPLs. the PhET simulation-based lessons impacted positively on the students’ Improved Students' Learning Outcomes learning outcomes and consequently, enhanced their learning. The analyses of responses given by Learner 3 and Learner 6 in The results of the study showed that the participants’ (learners’) answering the pre- and post- test items for the lesson on Frictional Force learning of concepts in physics enhanced with the PhET simulations as confirmed the quantitative results (Figure 1a and Figure 1b; Figure 2a their learning outcomes were found to have improved. Data from pre- and Figure 2b for Learner 3 and Learner 6, respectively). and post-test scores, learners’ written responses to items on the pre-and post-tests document as well as the focus group interview supported The results from Figure 1a and Figure 2a show that before the these results. Table 3 gives an overview of the results of the pre-and simulation-supported lesson on FF was enacted by Teacher A, all the post-test scores of the learners. Table 3 seems to suggest that the test two learners (i.e., Learner 3 and 6) could not answer the question 1(b): scores for the lesson on Deformation of Solids (pre=2.67, post=3.33) were “The force that overcomes the opposing force of a body is called….” of lower compared to that on Frictional Force (pre=3.33, post=4.00). the pre-test. It would be envisaged that these learners, as pre-service teachers, would have mastered these concepts by now since, they were A possible reason which explains the relatively low scores for the expected to teach this same content at the SHS levels in future. lesson on DOS could have been the difficulty level of the subject matter. However, it appears that Learner 3 had misconstrued Applied Force to That notwithstanding, it was important to ascertain whether the mean net force as seen in Figure 1a. An indication that there were gaps differences existing between the pre-post tests were significant or not. in his prior knowledge about Frictional Force. Learner 6 seemed not to Results from the Wilcoxon paired sampled rank test showed that have any prior knowledge about it, as he left the space blank. However, there were significant differences in learning outcomes of students for after the PhET simulation-supported lesson, they all answered the same both lessons: Deformation of Solids (z = -2.45, p < .05); and Frictional question correctly as indicated in Figure 1b and Figure 2b. These Force (z = -2.45, p < .05) with large effect sizes of d=0.83 and d=1.90 suggest that the intervention helped Learner 3 to clear his respectively. The overall test scores: pre (M=3.00, SD = 0.594) and post misconception about the name of the force that overcomes the
5. Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 5/9 (a) (b) Figure 2. (a) Excerpt of Learner 6’s responses to the pre-test item number 1(b) before the enactment of the SSPL on Frictional Force; (b) Excerpt of Learner 6’s responses to the post-test item number 1(b) after the enactment of the SSPL on Frictional Force opposing (frictional) force. Also, Learner 6’s knowledge gaps about Similarly, with the DOS lesson which was taught by Teacher B, the Frictional Force were filled. This is an indication (as found with the learners believed that their learning had been enhanced because their quantitative results), that the PhET simulation-supported lesson learning outcomes had improved in relation to the implication of the impacted positively on the students’ learning outcomes, thus, their mathematical expression associated with the physics concept, Hooke’s learning had been enhanced with the selected simulation environment. Law which in terms of spring systems; states that “the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance”. Results from the focus group discussions with the learners after the Two of the learners explained their improved learning outcomes in this implementation of the DOS and FF lessons also confirmed this finding. regard as follows: In relation to the FF lesson, learners believed that with the PhET simulation entitled: Force and Motion: Basics (Friction), they learned and Learner 1: Considering the mathematical expression of the understood the concepts under the topic: Frictional Force better— force, I mean the applied force in relation to the spring constant suggesting that learning was enhanced because their learning outcomes and then displacement. Initially, I did not find the negative sign in relation to the topic had improved. The following were the responses so important …, but later on, I observed from the simulation gathered from two of the learners in this regard: that the restoring force was acting opposite to the applied force. So, the negative sign is very important. I think I have learnt Learner 2: … at first when they teach us, they tell us that for a something new [IL]. body to be able to move, the applied force must be greater than the frictional force; that one, it was just an abstract thing, but Learner 8: … like as somebody [referring to Learner 1] was today with the simulation, it was concrete, we saw clearly that saying he now knows the essence of the negative sign; at the the body was able to move by increasing the applied force [IL]. SHS, I learned Hooke’s Law by “chew and pour” [meaning, rote learning], but then, I did not know the essence of the negative Learner 7: The use of simulation with respect to the topic sign until when we started using the simulation here [IL]. selected was appropriate [AS] because today, I got to know that frictional force can also be called retarding force [IL and CM]. The comments by Learner 1 and Learner 8 were confirmed in their respective test papers before and after the enactment of the DOS lesson Comments as highlighted by the Learner 2 and Learner 7 suggest with the Hooke’s Law PhET simulation environment. See Figure 3a and that the PhETs used in the instructional process was appropriate for Figure 3b; and Figure 4a and Figure 4b. learning the FF concept in that, it helped them to clear their misconceptions, enhanced their conceptual understanding and Results from both the focus group discussion data and the answers expanded their knowledge of Frictional Force—an indication that their given by the same learners (i.e., Learner 1 and Learner 8) show that, the learning enhanced with Force and Motion: Basics (Friction) PhET SSPL on DOS, helped the learners to make meaning of the negative sign simulation environment. in the Hooke’s law mathematical expression. As can be inferred from Figure 3a and Figure 4a, both learners omitted the negative sign in
6. 6/9 Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 (a) (b) Figure 3. (a) Excerpt of Learner 1’s response to pre-test item number 3; (b) Excerpt of Learner 1’s response to post-test item number 3 (a) (b) Figure 4. (a) Excerpt of Learner 8’s response to pre-test item number 3; (b) Excerpt of Learner 8’s response to post-test item number 3 their mathematical expressions for Hooke’s law before the lesson. (Learner 4 and Learner 9) after witnessing the DOS lesson by Teacher However, after the lesson with the PhETs, they seemed to have gained A had the following to say: deeper conceptual understanding into the subject matter and hence, came to appreciate the essence of the negative sign associated with the Learner 4: If it is based on my experience with the two lessons, mathematical expression for Hooke’s law (see Figure 3b and Figure 4b). then I will say that the previous lesson [referring to the FF This suggests that their learning of the subject matter was enhanced lesson] where we interacted with simulation ourselves was with respect to the DOS lesson. much interesting … [SI] Learners’ Perceived Positive Experiences with Simulation- Learner 9: This one [referring to the DOS lesson], the teacher Supported Physics Lessons demonstrated and he was so fast and since we did not have The results of the study also showed that students’ enhanced access to the computer, we could not get the concept … but with learning of physics concepts can be explained from the perspective of the other lesson [FF lesson], we had access so, even if you their perceived positive experiences with the simulation-supported missed the concept for the first time, you can always go back to lessons. The survey data on learners’ experiences with the SSPLs redo. So, I think the first lesson [FF lesson] was more provided evidence in this regard. Table 4 gives an overview of the interactive than this [referring to the DOS lesson] because, we learners’ scores on the 3 sub-scales after the lessons. were doing and seeing for ourselves [SI, IL] The results indicate that the learners found the lessons very Comments from the learners seem to suggest that the interesting and well understood. In addition, they perceived the demonstrative approach in itself as led by the Teacher A was presentation of the lessons to be attention grabbing; which promoted interactive, and that it was the classroom situation adopted where only class participation. The overall means of the various aspects of the the teacher had access to the computer (and for that matter, the lessons reported by the learners were very high; Interest (Mean = 4.54, simulation environment) which posed as a barrier to the instructional SD = 0.288) followed by Comprehension (Mean = 4.12, SD = 0.490), process. Apparently, the limited access to computer resources made the and then Presentation (Mean = 4.08, SD = 0.493). The differences DOS lesson which adopted the demonstrative form of inquiry less reported between the two lessons for the sub-scales were quite close learner-focused as compared to the FF lesson which was exploratory in although sub-scales for lesson on Deformation of Solids were relatively nature; wherein learners had access to the computers and so, could lower in general. In particular, the difference in the Presentation sub- explore the simulation environment by themselves. scale seemed to be more pronounced. The demonstrative form of In all, both qualitative and quantitative results presented pertaining inquiry adopted by Teacher A for the delivery of the lesson on to the research question suggest that the PhETs facilitated enhanced Deformation of Solids might have contributed to this. Results from the learning of the two selected concepts (i.e., DOS and FF) in physics based focus group discussions with the learners after the implementation of the DOS lesson also confirmed this finding. Two of the learners
7. Agyei & Agyei / European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 2(2), e02111 7/9 Table 4. Learners’ scores on the three sub-scales of the lessons Deformation of Solids (N=9) Frictional Force (N=9) Overall (N=9) Subscale Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Interest 4.50 0.280 4.58 0.306 4.54 0.288 Comprehension 4.06 0.507 4.20 0.491 4.12 0.490 Presentation 3.81 0.512 4.36 0.283 4.08 0.493 on their improved learning outcomes and perceived positive connect real-life phenomena to the underlying subject matter in a experiences with the SSPLs. particular science (Finkelstein et al., 2006). Although, the overall results situate the interactive nature of the exploratory and demonstrative modes of delivery adopted for the implementation process as key to learners’ enhanced learning outcomes, the demonstration mode of delivery in the context of the The study explored the affordances of PhET simulations with the study seemed to have been less learner-focused because only the teacher goal to provide understanding into how enhanced learning using had access to the computer. This explains the pronounced difference in simulations can be realized through implementation processes. The means reported in the Presentation sub-scale for the two lessons (3.81 analysis (from both qualitative evidence; see Figures 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, for DOS and 4.36 for FF). Apparently, with the DOS lesson, the teacher 3b, 4a, and 4b and qualitative evidence; see Table 3 and Table 4) did most of the demonstration during the implementation process and showed that the learners’ learning of physics concepts was enhanced consequently, learners were limited in learning with the PhETs, as they because of their improved learning outcomes and perceived positive were not afforded the space to explore the DOS concept adequately with experiences with the PhET simulation-supported lessons. The PhETs’ the multiple representation feature of the Hooke’s Law simulation use in the teaching and learning process facilitated enhancements in the environment (Agyei, 2021; Podolefsky, 2010). learners’ understanding of concepts under the topics: Frictional Force and Deformation of Solids. Learners’ misconceptions about the subject matter were cleared (see Figures 1a and 1b) and also, the formation of RESEARCH LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE their own personal meanings of the concepts under study were WORK advanced. These findings seem to hint that the affordances of the PhETs promoted learners’ conceptual change as well as conceptual This study was not without limitations. The fact that data were development of the subject matter—an indication of the extent to which collected from only nine pre-service physics teachers within a science the PhETs facilitated understanding of the physics concepts taught. teacher education programme at the University of Cape Coast limits the This explanation is consistent with findings from previous studies findings of the study for broad generalization. (Barak & Dori, 2005; Bell & Smetana, 2008; Dega et al., 2013; Again, since the study explored the potentials of simulations for Jimoyiannis & Kosmis, 2001; Hannel & Cuevas, 2018; El Kharki et al., enhanced learning in physics classrooms, it would be expected that 2020; Ouahi et al., 2021; Pucholt, 2021; Trundle & Bell, 2005). actual SHS science students—who are the beneficiaries of such ICT- Specifically, findings in these studies situate computer simulations as based intervention, would be employed as learners in conducting the useful tools for the enhancement of students’ conceptual understanding study and not pre-service teachers. This perhaps would have brought of concepts in physics. about deeper insights into the realities of learning with technology in Also, from the learners’ perspective, learning was enhanced because science classrooms at the senior high school. Further research is the simulation-supported lessons were interesting, clear, well therefore recommended to examine the extent to which simulations understood and attention-grabbing (see Table 4). This suggests that the enhance students’ learning of physics concepts in the actual high school PhET simulation environments shaped learners’ learning of the selected physics classrooms. concepts for the better by motivating their interest in the subject matter, facilitating their understanding of the concepts studied and engaging their attention throughout the instructional discourse IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY (Chatzopoulos et al., 2021; Fan et al., 2018; Nadiradze et al., 2020; Vlachopoulos & Makri, 2017; Wieman et al., 2010). It is crucial to stress that even though the results that emanated from this study do not allow for broad generalizations due to the limited Enhanced learning as observed (based on the high means reported scope and specific context, we are of the view that they provide in Table 4 for various aspect of the lessons) could also be attributed to information about the extent to which potentials of simulations the interactive nature of the exploratory and demonstrative modes of promote enhanced learning of high school physics through delivery adopted for implementing the lessons. Apparently, these implementation processes that are sensitive to the Ghanaian context modes of delivery with the PhETs provided the learners with an and also, conform to exploratory self-directed and demonstrative forms authentic learning platform for knowledge construction (Agyei et al., of inquiry. In the light of this, the following propositions are 2019; Pucholt, 2021; Sarı et al., 2017) of the underlying physics concepts encouraged for effective use of simulations in physics classrooms for whereby their personal experiences were linked to real-world. This is enhanced learning outcomes: consistent with Wieman et al.’s (2010) observation that PhET simulations afford interactive platforms that engage students to learn • As the teaching and learning processes with ICT (simulations) through exploration and discovery with the goal to help students to strive on availability and access to technological resources, there is need to improve access to ICT resources in Ghanaian SHS classrooms in
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